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DIANA

Finite Element Analysis

User’s Manual

Release Notes
Release 9

TNO DIANA

BV

ii DIANA – Finite Element Analysis User’s Manual release 9 Release Notes Edited by: Frits C. de Witte and Gerd-Jan Schreppers Published by: TNO DIANA bv P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, The Netherlands. Phone: +31 15 27 63 250 Fax: +31 15 27 63 019 E-mail: info@tnodiana.com Web page: www.tnodiana.com

Trademarks. Diana is a registered trademark of TNO DIANA bv. FemGV, FemGen and FemView are trademarks of Femsys Ltd. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. PostScript, Acrobat and Acrobat Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. DXF is a trademark of Autodesk Inc. The X Window System is a trademark of M.I.T. unix is a registered trademark of UNIX Systems Laboratories, Inc.

First edition, March 8, 2005. Copyright © 2005 by TNO DIANA bv, all rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means, without the prior written permission of the publisher. The information in this document is subjected to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by TNO DIANA bv. TNO DIANA bv assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The Diana system is the sole property of TNO DIANA bv. Software materials made available are solely for use at a single site; they are not to be distributed to others without prior written permission of TNO DIANA bv.

A This document was prepared with the L TEX Document Preparation System.

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Contents
Preface 1 Incompatibilities 1.1 Batch Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Model Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Input Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Element Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Integration Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Infinite and Axisymmetric Shells . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 Soil–Pipe Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Material Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Compression Modulus for Undrained Behavior 1.4.2 Hyperelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.3 Viscoplasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.4 Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Coupled Flow–Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 Solution Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.4 Eigenvalue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.5 User-supplied Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Pre- and Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Tool Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.3 Model Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.4 Tabulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Application Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis . . . . . . 1.7.2 Pipeline Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8 User Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5

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iv 2 New Analysis Capabilities and Features 2.1 Element Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Base Spring Elements . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Complete Plane Strain Elements . . . 2.2 Material Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Nonlinear Springs . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Generalized Stress–Strain Diagrams . 2.2.3 User-supplied Rubber Material . . . . 2.2.4 Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Modified Maekawa Concrete Model . 2.3 Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Solution Procedures . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Eigenvalue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis . 3 Pre- and Postprocessing 3.1 The iDIANA Environment . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 New Graphical User Interface . . . . . 3.1.2 Help Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Combined Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Surface Load Mask via Set of Surfaces 3.1.5 Meshing ijk -complex Geometry . . . 3.1.6 Arched Reinforcement Bar Section . . 3.1.7 Forms Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.8 Limitations on Model Size . . . . . . 3.1.9 Expression Calculation . . . . . . . . 3.2 The Mesh Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 User’s Manual 4.1 Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Distribution Formats . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 HTML for On-line Access . 4.2.2 Portable Document Format 4.2.3 Books . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 PostScript . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16

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Index

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Preface
These release notes are intended for users who change from Diana-8.1(2) to Diana-9. Chapter 1 describes the incompatibilities between Diana-8.1(2) and 9 with respect to the batch interface and iDiana. Chapter 2 summarizes the major new features with respect to analysis capabilities. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the new facilities in iDiana. Finally, Chapter 4 describes the arrangement and distribution of the User’s Manual for Diana-9.

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Preface

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Chapter 1

Incompatibilities
1.1
1.1.1

Batch Commands
Model Evaluation

The MODEL command block now also applies for *LINSTA, *EULER, *FREQUE, and *MODAL [Vol. Analysis Procedures ].

1.2

Input Data File

For the fluid–structure interface elements the input of the normal direction has been changed from NORMAL to YAXIS or ZAXIS for compatibility with other elements [Vol. Element Library ].

1.3
1.3.1
CT9CM,

Element Library
Integration Schemes

The default integration schemes for elements CTE48, CTP45, CTP72, CT6CM, have been changed. It turned out that, in most cases, the new default schemes give more accurate results.

1.3.2

Infinite and Axisymmetric Shells

The formulation of the two shell elements CL9PE and CL9AX has been changed. Their basic degrees of freedom are now oriented in a local xyz axes system. Moreover, the bending behavior has improved. Due to this improvement the analysis results may slightly differ from those obtained with Diana-8.1(2).

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Incompatibilities

1.3.3

Soil–Pipe Interaction

The spring elements for soil–pipe interaction, SLLAT and SLLON, are no longer available. Their functionality is completely covered by the available discrete spring elements.

1.4
1.4.1

Material Library
Compression Modulus for Undrained Behavior

The input of the compression modulus for undrained behavior has been changed from BULKF to NUMBKF [Vol. Material Library ].

1.4.2

Hyperelasticity

The Ogden model for hyperelasticity is no longer available.

1.4.3

Viscoplasticity

The Delft Soft Soil model for consolidated sandstone is no longer supported in Diana-9.

1.4.4

Cracking

The input data for the concrete cracking models, Rankine Principal Stress and Total Strain, have been made consistent. This mainly involves the adaption of a default value for the fracture energy Gf and the crack bandwidth h. Both defaults may be overruled by input data in table ’MATERI’. See the GF and CRACKB input data items in Volume Material Library. The implementation of the Maekawa Total Strain crack model has been considerably improved and the input syntax accordingly simplified.

1.5
1.5.1

Analysis Procedures
Nonlinear Analysis

For an analysis with Module nonlin, the output of the equivalent plastic strain via the command STATUS PLASTI EQUIVA is no longer available. However, for elements you can get this output via STRAIN PLASTI GREEN VONMIS INTPNT and for reinforcements via STRAIN PLASTI GREEN LOCAL INTPNT.

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1.6 Pre- and Postprocessing

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1.5.2

Coupled Flow–Stress Analysis

In a staggered flow–stress analysis Diana-9 will automatically convert a model from flow to structural when you invoke a module for structural analysis, like linsta or nonlin. Therefore, Module potstr has become obsolete and the *POTSTR command is no longer available.

1.5.3

Solution Procedures

Some obsolete options for module solve are no longer available in Diana-9.
ˆ The factorization in a direct solution procedure can no longer be simulated, therefore the EXECUT and SIMULA options have been removed. Diana now always executes the factorization unless you switch it off via the OFF option. ˆ For (re)ordering the Gibbs–Poole–Stockmeyer and the Reverse Cuthill– McKee methods are no longer available: the GIPOST and RCUTMK options have been removed. ˆ For the iterative solution procedures the Element-by-element preconditioning is no longer available: the EBE option has been removed.

1.5.4

Eigenvalue Analysis

In a free vibration eigenvalue analysis, the generalized mass is now calculated via the eigenvectors that are normalized with a length equal to one, instead of via eigenvectors that are normalized with a largest absolute term of one. This change yields different values of the generalized mass, as written to the standard output file.

1.5.5

User-supplied Subroutines

Application of user-supplied subroutines on PC’s running MS Windows now requires the Intel Visual Fortran compiler Edition 8.0 or later. This compiler offers an improved performance over previous compilers.

1.6
1.6.1

Pre- and Postprocessing
Command Options

Due to the new Graphical User Interface [§ 3.1.1], a number of command options has been replaced by menu options or another interaction with a GUI widget. For instance, the /PICK option to invoke the graphics cursor has been replaced by a double-click on the appropriate parameter in the Command Browser, like node-old. Also, to invoke the Property Manager dialog you must now choose View  Property Manager in the Menu Bar instead of issuing the PROPERTY
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/FORM

Incompatibilities command. See the chapter Graphical User Interface in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.

1.6.2

Tool Buttons

The tool buttons to manipulate the model view (shift, rotate, zoom) have been removed. Their functionality is now provided via standard OpenGL functionalities. See the chapter Graphical User Interface in Volume Getting Started. See the

1.6.3

Model Management

The INDEX command no longer closes the current model, it now only minimizes the Graphics Window(s). This has some implications for various command options. For instance you must now issue the FILE CLOSE command prior to the copying of a model via the UTILITY COPY command.

1.6.4

Tabulation

The UTILITY TABULATE command now tabulates the appropriate information in the Tabulation tab of the Tabbed Output widget instead of in the Graphics Window.

1.7
1.7.1

Application Modules
Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis

In a fluid–structure interaction analysis the modules for dynamic analysis in Diana-9 (nonlin for transient analysis, modal and freque for frequency response analysis) automatically recognize the fluid and the structural domain, whenever necessary. Therefore, Module flustr has become obsolete and the *FLUSTR command is no longer available. The Part Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis has been removed from Volume Application Modules. Appropriate documentation now appears in Volume Analysis Procedures and Volume Material Library.

1.7.2

Pipeline Analysis

The module for pipeline analysis has been totally restructured. This module can now be used in batch mode as well via a specially designed Microsoft Excel macro which is available as an optional module. The batch interface and the MS Excel macro are completely described in a dedicated DIANApipe User’s Manual [§ 4.1].

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1.8 User Support

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1.8

User Support

The diamsg program, to report a problem with the application of Diana, is no longer distributed with Diana-9. You are requested to send any Diana support questions directly via e-mail to your support organization. The new disysinfo program should be used to include machine information and the appropriate Diana version in the e-mail text. See Volume Getting Started for more information.

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Incompatibilities

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Chapter 2

New Analysis Capabilities and Features
In this chapter we will summarize the major new analysis capabilities in Diana9 compared to Diana-8.1(2). The description reflects some of the volume titles of the User’s Manual as described in Chapter 4: Element Library with the new elements and with new features for existing elements [§ 2.1], Material Library with the new material models [§ 2.2], Analysis Procedures with the new features to perform an analysis job [§ 2.3].

2.1
2.1.1

Element Library
Base Spring Elements

Some new spring elements are available to model spring behavior of the base of a structure. Most notably is the nonlinear spring characteristic where the rotational stiffness depends on the axial force. The new elements are: SP6BA for two-dimensional models and SP12BA for three-dimensional models [Vol. Element Library ].

2.1.2

Complete Plane Strain Elements

A number of so-called ‘complete plane strain’ elements has been added to the family of plane strain elements. The new elements are CT18GE, CQ24GE, CT27GE, and CQ36GE [Vol. Element Library ]. Although being two-dimensional, the complete plane strain elements have displacement degrees of freedom in three dimensions and can describe a full three-dimensional stress and strain tensor. Therefore these elements are particularly suited for geomechanical problems, in which the principal in-situ stresses are known but not aligned to the normal direction of the symmetry plane.

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New Analysis Capabilities and Features

2.2
2.2.1

Material Library
Nonlinear Springs

For the new base spring elements [§ 2.1.1] the nonlinear spring characteristics can be input as material property [Vol. Material Library ].

2.2.2

Generalized Stress–Strain Diagrams

For the flat shell element family you can now specify so-called generalized stress– strain diagrams which define a multi-linear relation between moments and curvatures, or between forces and deformations.

2.2.3

User-supplied Rubber Material

In Diana-9 a new user-supplied subroutine USRRUB has become available to augment the possibilities for modeling of hyperelasticity, typically applied for rubbers [Vol. Material Library ].

2.2.4

Cracking

Defaults for the crack bandwidth are now also available for the smeared cracking models. Similar to the Total Strain based crack models and the Rankine Principal Stress models these defaults depend on the area or volume of the element.

2.2.5

Modified Maekawa Concrete Model

The Maekawa concrete model has been improved and is now called the ‘Modified Maekawa’ concrete model. The new model can be used either via batch input data MAEKAW or via a user-supplied subroutine USRMNL [Vol. Material Library ]. The Modified Maekawa concrete model combines a multi-axial damage plasticity model for the compressive regime with a crack model based on total strain for the tensile regime. Moreover, the model describes hysteresis effects.

2.3
2.3.1

Analysis Procedures
Solution Procedures

ˆ By default Diana now chooses an optimal solution procedure, depending on the size of the system of equations, the available hardware, etc. You may explicitly ask for this via the AUTOMA option of the METHOD command under SOLVE. See Chapter Solve System of Equations in Volume Analysis Procedures.

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2.3 Analysis Procedures
ˆ The standard iterative solver is now based on a new preconditioner, called ‘ILUT’. Through automatic fill-in of the matrix, this preconditioner behaves more robustly than the previous ILU preconditioner. Especially for large three-dimensional geomechanical systems this solver achieves an optimal combination of speed, memory requirement and robustness.

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2.3.2

Eigenvalue Analysis

ˆ In Diana-9 several new output items are available for an eigenvalue analysis. For all types of eigenvalue analysis the eigenvectors, normalized with respect to the used matrix, are available as tabulated output or for postprocessing with iDiana. ˆ For a free vibration analysis Diana now writes the effective masses, the participation factors, and the modal damping factors (if available) to the standard output file. The participation vectors are available as tabulated output or for postprocessing with iDiana. See the PARTIC option and Chapter Eigenvalue Analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.

2.3.3

Nonlinear Analysis

ˆ A new convergence criterion based on the out-of-balance force vector is now available. See the description of the CONVER RESIDU command in Volume Analysis Procedures. ˆ For a nonlinear analysis it is now possible to output model parameters. See the PARAME command in Volume Analysis Procedures. Currently there are two parameters available: the crack bandwidth BANDWI and the preconsolidation stress PRECON. ˆ A new option CONVER has been added to the OUTPUT SAVE command which saves the last converged step. ˆ A new option EQUILI for the STRESS INPUT command to balance the prestress at the start of a nonlinear analysis [Vol. Analysis Procedures ]. ˆ For Module nonlin a new automatic adaptive loading procedure is now available. Given a final loading, this procedure tries to take as few load steps as possible. At the same time it tries to limit the number of steps in the iterative procedure. Unlike the iterations-based load controller, the automatic load controller recovers from non-convergence in the iterative procedure. For more information see the LOAD STEPS AUTOMA command under *NONLIN and the appropriate background theory in Volume Analysis Procedures. See also example tunnel in Volume Analysis Examples. ˆ If the behavior of a model explicitly depends on the rate-of-change of the displacements or an internal variable, then the computed solution at

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New Analysis Capabilities and Features a certain time depends on the time step size used. If very small time increments are taken, this influence is negligible. However, a priori it is not clear how small the times step size should be. Moreover, it is often attractive to use a fixed time step size. Clearly, one would like to use small time steps if the system changes rapidly, and to increase the time step size if the system slowly relaxes to an equilibrium state. For the outlined situation a new automatic time stepping procedure has been made available. This procedure applies a second order Runge–Kutta method, the so-called SDIRK2 method. For more information see the TIME STEPS AUTOMA SDIRK2 command under *NONLIN and the appropriate background theory in Volume Analysis Procedures. See also example tunnel in Volume Analysis Examples.
ˆ The contents of the array USRSTA that contains internal status parameters for user-supplied subroutines can now be presented as tabular output in the batch environment or written to a database for visualization in the Results environment of iDiana. See the USER option of the OUTPUT STATUS command under *NONLIN in Volume Analysis Procedures. See also example wedge in Volume Analysis Examples. ˆ Calculation and output of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics parameters is now also available for nonlinear analysis. See the FRACTU command in Chapter Nonlinear Analysis of Volume Analysis Procedures.

2.3.4

Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis

Modules modal (modal frequency response), freque (direct frequency response), and nonlin (linear transient) can now be used to perform fluid– structure interaction analysis. These modules automatically recognize the fluid and the structural domain, whenever necessary. Appropriate documentation appears in Volume Analysis Procedures and Volume Material Library.

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Chapter 3

Pre- and Postprocessing
3.1
3.1.1

The iDIANA Environment
New Graphical User Interface

The Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the iDiana interactive pre- and postprocessing module has been completely redesigned. Most notably is the change from a single menu structure to an interactive command browser. However, the commands to iDiana may still be given in the same batch format as previously. You may customize the new GUI by resizing, moving or undocking its various widgets. In the new GUI you will also notice a menu bar with entries for files, editing, and other options. For instance, via the Tools Options entry you can now interactively set your preferences, as an alternative to the fgvini file in iDiana8.1(2). Another useful menu option is File Import which gives access to CAD functions that can read various CAD formats, repair the model and transform it into geometry for the iDiana Design environment. For more information see the chapter Graphical User Interface in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing and also Volume Getting Started.

3.1.2

Help Functions

The Help menu now brings you in the appropriate chapter of the on-line iDiana User’s Manual.

3.1.3

Combined Lines

In the Design environment of iDiana you can now define combined lines of up to twenty lines.

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Pre- and Postprocessing

3.1.4

Surface Load Mask via Set of Surfaces

For the definition of a surface load mask a new option has become available. With this option you can define a load mask via a set of surfaces. See the CONSTRUCT LMASK SURFACE USING command in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.

3.1.5

Meshing ijk -complex Geometry

A new meshing algorithm for ijk -complex geometry parts has become available. It can constrain the mesh on an ijk -regular surface to conform to the mesh on one or more other smaller ijk -regular surfaces. The algorithm is designed for three-dimensional models with simple geometries and small distortions in the mesh. See the MESHING OPTIONS ALGORITHM IJK-COMPLEX command in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing To smooth the interior nodes on mapped mesh surfaces that border an ijk complex surface a new option MESHING SMOOTH IJK is available.

3.1.6

Arched Reinforcement Bar Section

When modeling reinforcement bars, you can now apply arched sections. A special arched section is the fillet which connects two straight sections. See the REINFORCE BAR SECTION command with the ARC and FILLET options in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing

3.1.7

Forms Input

In addition to the well-know forms for material properties you can now also specify loadings, supports and initial conditions via interactive forms.

3.1.8

Limitations on Model Size

In the Results working environment of iDiana the limits for the model size have been increased considerably. See the Chapter Introduction in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.

3.1.9

Expression Calculation

A new options TRESCA has been added to the RESULTS CALCULATE EXPRESSN command which calculates the Tresca equivalent stress.

3.2

The Mesh Editor

A new application module, the ‘Mesh Editor’, is now available. In its interactive graphical user interface you can verify the input of a finite element model and maintain named groups of elements, nodes, and reinforcements. The Mesh Editor can read models in Diana input data format. Moreover, models can be
March 8, 2005 – First ed. Diana-9 User’s Manual – Release Notes

3.2 The Mesh Editor imported from Nastran files, typically created with the Femap preprocessor. During import, the Mesh Editor will automatically translate a Nastran model to a model for a Diana analysis. For more information see Volume Application Modules.

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Pre- and Postprocessing

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Chapter 4

User’s Manual
4.1 Volumes

The information in the Diana-9 User’s Manual is collected in the same volumes as for Diana-8.1(2): Getting Started, Element Library, Material Library, Analysis Procedures, Pre- and Postprocessing, Analysis Examples, Application Modules, and a Cumulative Index. However, for Diana-9 there are two new volumes:
ˆ Volume Geotechnical Analysis contains many new and redesigned examples of models for geotechnical analysis. This volume also comprises a brief introduction to geotechnical analysis with Diana and some background theory. ˆ The DIANApipe User’s Manual contains a description of the batch interface to pipeline design and analysis with Diana. It also contains a user guide to the MS Excel macro which greatly simplifies the use of DIANApipe. This manual is delivered in combination with a DIANApipe user license.

4.2

Distribution Formats

The standard Diana-9 distribution comes with the User’s Manual in HTML and Portable Document Format (PDF). Available on request are manuals in printed book form and in PostScript format.

4.2.1

HTML for On-line Access

The HTML format is still the most popular format for hypertext documents. To access the HTML pages you need a browser program, for instance Microsoft Internet Explorer in a Windows environment. With a browser you have easy,

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User’s Manual on-line and interactive access to the complete User’s Manual. This format is also accessed automatically via some Help functions of the iDiana Graphical User Interface. As the HTML format is less suited for printing on paper we recommend the PDF and PostScript formats for that, or you could purchase the manuals in book form.

4.2.2

Portable Document Format

This format is particularly useful to printout or display parts of the manual in the nicely typeset book style. The Acrobat® Reader program by Adobe Systems Inc. provides for a convenient access to the PDF format. You may download this program free of charge from the Adobe web-site at http://www.adobe.com. To properly view the Diana User’s Manual we advise Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. Compared to the PDF format as distributed with Diana-8.1(2) there is a significant improvement: The PDF format user manuals for Diana-9 are full hypertext documents. This includes a tree widget of the contents in the Bookmarks tab and clickable hot spots for cross-references.

4.2.3

Books

The book form is still the most convenient one for reading of extensive portions of text, particularly if these contain many mathematical formulae.

4.2.4

PostScript

Particularly in unix environments the PostScript format for documents is an alternative to the PDF format. Most high-end office printers directly accept this format for printing on paper. The GhostView utility, distributed by the Free Software Foundation, is a much-used reader for documents in PostScript format.

4.3

Compatibility

The first edition of the Diana-9 manual is compatible with release 9.1 of the Diana code.

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Index
Page numbers. Bold face numbers
indicate pages with formal information about the entry, e.g., a syntax description (36). Italic numbers point to an instructive example of how the concept in question might be used (132 ). Underlined numbers refer to theoretical backgrounds on the subject (95).
CL9PE element, 1

Keywords. Sans serif type style refers to the interactive interface (EYE). Typewriter style refers to the batch interface (YOUNG).

A Adaptive loading automatic, 9 Analysis commands, see Commands ARC option reinforcement bar, 12 AUTOMA command load steps, 9 nonlinear time step, 10 AUTOMA option, 8 Axisymmetric elements shell, 1 B BANDWI option, 9 Base spring elements, 7 BULKF input, 2 C CAD input, 11 CL9AX element, 1
Diana-9 User’s Manual – Release Notes

Combined line, 11 Complete plane strain elements, 7 Compression modulus, 2 Concrete cracking, 2 Maekawa model, 8 CONSTRUCT command, 12 CONVER command nonlinear iteration, 9 CONVER option, 9 Coupled flow–stress analysis, 3 CQ24GE element, 7 CQ36GE element, 7 Crack bandwidth, 2, 8, 9 CRACKB input, 2 Cracking, 2, 8 CT18GE element, 7 CT27GE element, 7 CT6CM element, 1 CT9CM element, 1 CTE48 element, 1 CTP45 element, 1 CTP72 element, 1 Cursor picking, 3 D Delft Soft Soil viscoplasticity, 2 diamsg utility program, 5 Direct solution, 3 disysinfo utility program, 5 E EBE option, 3 Effective mass, 9 Eigenvalue analysis, 3, 9 Element-by-element preconditioning, 3

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EQUILI option initial stresses, 9 EQUIVA option, 2 EXECUT option, 3 F Factorization, 3 Fillet reinforcement bar, 12 FILLET option reinforcement bar, 12 Flat shell elements stress–strain diagram, 8 Fluid–structure interaction analysis, 4, 10 Fluid–structure interface, 1 *FLUSTR command, 4 FRACTU command, 10 Fracture mechanics, 10 Free vibration, 3, 9 G Geotechnics, 7, 9 GF input, 2 Gibbs–Poole–Stockmeyer reordering, 3 GIPOST option, 3 Graphical User Interface, 11 H Hyperelasticity, 2 user-supplied subroutine, 8 I
IJK option

INDEX
Iterative solution procedure, 3, 9 L
LMASK option, 12

Load mask, 12 M MAEKAW input, 8 Maekawa model, 2, 8 Manual, 15 Mesh Editor, 12 MESHING command, 12 Modal damping factor, 9 MODEL command, 1 N Nastran input, 13 Nonlinear analysis, 2, 9 NORMAL input interface element, 1 NUMBKF input, 2 O Ogden hyperelasticity, 2 OpenGL, 4 Ordering, 3 P PARTIC option, 9 Participation factor, 9 Participation vector, 9 Pipeline analysis, 4 Plane strain elements, 7 *POTSTR command, 3 PRECON option, 9 Preconsolidation stress, 9 R Rankine Principal Stress plasticity, 2 RCUTMK option, 3 REINFORCE command, 12 Reinforcement

smoothing, 12 ijk -complex meshing, 12 IJK-COMPLEX option, 12 INDEX command, 4 Infinite shell elements, 1 Interactive Diana, see iDiana

March 8, 2005 – First ed.

Diana-9 User’s Manual – Release Notes

INDEX
modeling, 12 RESIDU command, 9 Reverse Cuthill–McKee reordering, 3 Rubber, see Hyperelasticity S Sandstone, 2 SDIRK2 command, 10 SDIRK2 method, 10 SIMULA option, 3 SLLAT element, 2 SLLON element, 2 Smeared cracking, 8 SMOOTH option ijk -complex model, 12 Soil–pipe interaction, 2 SOLVE command, 8 SP12BA element, 7 SP6BA element, 7 Staggered analysis, 3 STATUS command, 10 Stress–strain diagram, 8 Support questions, 5 T Tabbed Output, 4 TABULATE option, 4 Tabulation tab, 4 Tool buttons, 4 Total Strain cracking, 2 Tresca equivalent stress, 12 TRESCA option, 12 U USER option, 10 User’s manual, 15 User-supplied hyperelasticity, 8 User-supplied subroutines, 3 USING option surface load mask, 12 USRMNL user-supplied subroutine, 8 Y YAXIS input interface element, 1 Z ZAXIS input interface element, 1 USRRUB user-supplied subroutine, 8 V Viscoplasticity, 2

19

Diana-9 User’s Manual – Release Notes

March 8, 2005 – First ed.

20

INDEX

March 8, 2005 – First ed.

Diana-9 User’s Manual – Release Notes