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January 2011

Volume 20 Number 4

I N

T H I S

I S S U E

solar battery charger tracks panel maximum power 10

I2C system monitor combines temperature, voltage and current measurements 22

TimerBlox: Function-Specific ICs Quickly and Reliably Solve Timing Problems
Andy Crofts

isolated data transmission and power conversion combo in surface mount package 30

isolated power supplies made easy 38

nanopower buck converter for energy harvesting apps 41

Your design is nearly complete, but a nagging timing requirement has suddenly cropped up. It might call for a variable frequency oscillator, a low frequency timer, a pulse-width modulator, a controlled one-shot pulse generator, or an accurate delay. Regardless of the requirement, you need a quick, reliable, stable solution—there is no time to develop code for a microcontroller. You could build something out of discrete components and a comparator or two, or maybe the good old 555 timer could do the job, but will the accuracy be there? Will it take up too much room on the board? What about time to test and specify the bench-built timer?
There is a better way. Linear Technology’s TimerBlox® family of silicon timing devices solves specific timing problems with minimal effort. TimerBlox devices easily drop into designs with a fraction of the design effort or space requirements that a microcontroller or discrete-component solution would demand. It only takes a few resistors to nail down the frequency or time duration you require. That’s it, no coding or testing required. Complete solutions are tiny, composed of a 2mm × 3mm DFN, or a popular 6-lead SOT-23, plus a couple of resistors and decoupling cap.
A TOOLBOX OF TIMERBLOX DEVICES

POWER SUPPLY

CONNECTOR DROPS

WIRING DROPS

CONNECTOR DROPS

LOAD

CONNECTOR DROPS

WIRING DROPS

CONNECTOR DROPS

Figure 1. The simplest model for load regulation over resistive interconnections.

All TimerBlox devices use Linear’s silicon oscillator technology, featuring low component count, vibration-immunity, fast startup, and ease-of-use. Each TimerBlox device is purpose-built to solve a specific timing problem (see Table 1), so the performance
TimerBlox devices solve timing problems

(continued on page 2)

w w w. li n ea r.com

42V or 3. Because each TimerBlox device is designed to perform a specific timing function. 42V Power Switches. Built-in Fault Protection and Operation up to 2. or a popular 6-lead SOT-23. Voltage and Current Measurements for Single-IC System Monitoring David Schneider 22 Isolated Data Transmission and Power Conversion Integrated Into a Surface Mount Package Keith Bennett 30 Isolated Power Supplies Made Easy John D. which Sets the Output Frequency Range and Mode Bit SET RESISTOR Only a Single Resistor is Required to Set the Master Frequency 2 | January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation . which is set by the voltage on the DIV pin. The operational state is represented by a 4-bit DIVCODE value.25V TO 5. The set resistor establishes the frequency of an internal silicon oscillator master clock. For the ultimate in simplicity.com/ltjournal. Complete solutions are tiny. All TimerBlox devices share common pin functions DEVICE-SPECIFIC FUNCTION PIN LTC6990: Output Enable LTC6991: Reset LTC6992: Modulation Control LTC6993: Trigger LTC6994: Logic Input OUTPUT Sources and Sinks 20mA OUT SUPPLY VOLTAGE 2. The resulting circuit has guaranteed accuracy over the full 2. Each Timerblox device offers eight different timing ranges and two modes of operation (which vary for each device). no coding or testing required. plus a couple of resistors and decoupling cap.25V–5. The remaining bits choose the frequency range. in this case selecting the output polarity. The MSB of DIVCODE is a “mode” bit. To further simplify design. the most significant design decision is choosing the proper part number. (continued on page 4) Two High Power Monolithic Switching Regulators Include Integrated 6A. continued from page 1) DESIGN FEATURES Battery Charger’s Unique Input Regulation Loop Simplifies Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracking Jay Celani 10 of each device is specified for its intended application.…continued from the cover In this issue. Morris 38 DESIGN IDEAS Nanopower Buck Converter Runs on 720nA.1µF Scan This SCAN THIS CODE WITH YOUR SMART PHONE Most smart phones support QR Code scanning using their built-in cameras. the frequency or timing duration is fine-tuned by a simple calculation for RSET.5MHz Matthew Topp and Joshua Moore 16 I2C System Monitor Combines Temperature.5V supply range and –40°C to 125°C temperature range. Easily Fits into Energy Harvesting and Other Low Power Applications Michael Whitaker 41 42 44 product briefs back page circuits Figure 1.linear. CONTROL RESISTOR Allows for VCO Operation RVCO (OPTIONAL) CONTROL VOLTAGE Modulates Output Frequency RSET GND LTC699x R1 SET DIV R2 RESISTOR DIVIDER SETS VDIV Voltage at DIV (Divider) Pin Selects One of 16 States.5V V+ V+ C1 0. That’s it. This code links to www. For example. composed of a 2mm × 3mm DFN. Figure 2 shows how changing the voltage at the DIV pin sets the functionality of the LTC6992 by selecting a DIVCODE from 0–15.3A.. a resistor divider can be used to set the DIVCODE. Once the proper DIVCODE has been determined.. five of the six package pins in all TimerBlox devices share the same name and function—with the remaining pin unique to the device function. COVER STORY TimerBlox: Function-Specific ICs Quickly and Reliably Solve Timing Problems Andy Crofts 1 It only takes a few resistors to nail down the frequency or time duration you require. Figure 1 details the function of each pin (SOT-23 shown). eliminating the guesswork involved with configuring and applying do-it-all timers. Some phones may require that you download a QR Code scanner/reader application. (LTC699x.

The LTC6990 does not have these limitations. the LTC6990 can easily be applied as a frequency modulator. download “The TimerBlox Designer” from www. LTC6990 voltage-controlled oscillator OUTPUT ENABLE 40kHz TO 400kHz OE OUT LTC6990 GND V+ C1 0. 2. …. (LTC699x. The output frequency is determined by the NDIV frequency divider and RSET (which replaces VSET/ISET): fOUT = 1MHz • 50k ISET • NDIV VSET output frequency. they typically are limited in accuracy and suffer from poor supply rejection. but only the LTC6990 uses a small 2× step through divider settings.001 0V 0 DIVCODE MSB (“POL” BIT) = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DIVCODE MSB (“POL” BIT) = 1 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 ¼V+ ½V+ INCREASING VDIV ¾V+ V+ The LTC6990 is a resistor-programmable oscillator featuring 1.The LTC6990 can easily be used as a voltage-controlled frequency modulator.01 0.1µF f OUT = 400kHz − VCTRL • 109 V+ R1 976k R2 102k kHz V OE 2V/DIV VCTRL 0V to 3. Although this technique can be used with other silicon oscillators. Although this technique can be used with other silicon oscillators. VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR CAN BE USED FOR FIXED FREQUENCY OR FREQUENCY MODULATION Figure 2. where NDIV = 1. and timing diagrams automatically. the LTC6990 still maintains a large 4096:1 total frequency range.5% accuracy and an output enable function to force the output low or into a high-impedance state. allowing for a GND-referenced control voltage that is easy to work with.6k SET DIV DIVCODE = 1 (NDIV = 2.1 0. allows a control voltage to vary ISET and change the • All TimerBlox devices allow for a wide 16:1 timing range within each NDIV setting.3V RVCO 232k RSET 86. Figure 3 shows the LTC6990 configured as a VCO that translates a 0V to 3. The LTC6990 does not have these limitations because of three important enhancements: • VSET (the SET pin voltage) is regulated to 1V and is accurate to ±30mV over all conditions. continued from page 2) For an even easier design process. RVCO.com/timerblox— a free Excel-based tool that generates component values. This allows RVCO to establish an accurate VCO gain. Performance of the voltage-controlled oscillator shown in Figure 3 Figure 3. • VSET is GND-referenced. A second SET-pin resistor. schematics. LTC6992 Frequency Range and “POL” Bit vs DIVCODE 1000 100 fOUT (kHz) 10 1 0. Hi-Z = 0) VCTRL 2V/DIV OUT 2V/DIV 20µs/DIV 4 | January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation . That allows for maximum overlap between ranges to accommodate any 8:1 range of VCO frequencies (or 16:1 with a reduced-accuracy extended range). they typically are limited in accuracy and suffer from poor supply rejection. 4. 128 While it can be used as a fixed-frequency oscillator. And since each TimerBlox device has eight different timing ranges.3V control Figure 4.linear.

but it has no effect on the timing of the next rising edge. Due to the LTC6990’s high modulation bandwidth. Otherwise. The RST pin can truncate the output pulse or prevent the output from oscillating at all.5 hours 29µHz to 977Hz LTC6992-1 LTC6992 PWM CONTROL 0%–100% Duty Cycle 5%–95% Duty Cycle 3. with an enormous 29µ Hz to 977Hz range (a period range of 1ms to 9. The output interval relationship is: t OUT = NDIV • RSET • 1. the LTC6991 uses large 8× steps between NDIV settings. as can be seen in Figure 4. In place of an January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation | 5 . it includes a similar reset function. perhaps controlled by another circuit. Figure 5 shows how a simple camera intervalometer can be constructed from the LTC6991 and a handful of discrete where NDIV = 1. The trade-off is a smaller 2× overlap between ranges.5 hours). Therefore.cover story DEVICE OUTPUT ENABLE VCTRL FUNCTION OPTIONS RANGE LTC6990 Voltage-Controlled Silicon Oscillator Configurable frequency gain and voltage range 488Hz to 2MHz LTC6991 OUTPUT RESET Low Frequency Oscillator Period range from 1ms to 9. the emphasis for this part is on covering as wide a range as possible. …. if RST is inactive. LOW FREQUENCY SOLUTIONS The LTC6991 picks up in frequency where the LTC6990 leaves off. the LTC6991 produces a square wave. 64. 8.024ms 50k output enable. 221 The LTC6991 is designed to handle long duration timing events. TimerBlox family members voltage into a 40kHz to 400kHz frequency. It incorporates a fixed 10-stage frequency divider and a programmable 21-stage divider. This function allows the LTC6991 to initiate an event with a variable duration. the output responds quickly to control voltage changes.8Hz to 1MHz 0%–95% Duty Cycle 5%–100% Duty Cycle Rising-Edge Triggered Rising-Edge Re-Triggerable 1µs to 34 sec Falling-Edge Triggered Falling-Edge Re-Triggerable 1-Edge Delay 1µs to 34 sec LTC6992-2 Voltage-Controlled PWM LTC6992-3 LTC6992-4 LTC6993-1 LTC6993 TRIGGER LTC6993-2 One-Shot LTC6993-3 LTC6993-4 LTC6994-1 Delay LTC6994-2 LTC6994 INPUT 2-Edge Delay Table 1. Since the applications for frequency modulation are rare at such low frequencies.

8Hz to 1MHz. with DIVCODE set to 4 by R1A and R2.4 0. The shutter rate might range from a few seconds to a few hours.25V TO 5V LTC6991 GND 1M 95. …. 16. Potentiometer RS1 varies the total resistance at the SET pin from 95.5 minutes.1V to 0. An RC delay from OUT to RST allows for a 3-second shutter pulse before resetting the output. The MOD pin accepts a control voltage with a range of 0. In this example. the output stops oscillating. PULSE-WIDTH MODULATOR able to reach the bottom of the control range. An upgraded camera intervalometer— the LTC6994-1 is added to allow shutter speed adjustment IN OUT LTC6994-1 + RST OUT V+ SHUTTER 2. The total frequency range of the LTC6992 covers 3.5 MIN Figure 6. using 4× divider steps in the eight NDIV settings. For such applications. Some applications (such as coupling a control signal across an isolation transformer) require continuous oscillation. The duty cycle is given by: DutyCycle = VMOD 1 V − 100mV − ≈ MOD 0. Measured transfer function of the LTC6992 family 100 DIVCODE = 0 90 3 PARTS 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.3k to 762k to adjust the period from 8 seconds to 64 seconds.9V). The LTC6992 makes quick work of a technique that is useful for many applications: light dimming.1V) to 100% (for VMOD ≥ 0.8 • VSET 8 800mV The output frequency is governed by the simple relationship shown below.5 minutes. Here the LTC6994-1 is added to the intervalometer in Figure 5 to create an intervalometer with shutter-speed adjustment.9V that linearly regulates the output duty cycle.6 VMOD/VSET (V/V) 0. which limits the output duty cycle to 5% min and 95% max. At the extremes.Figure 5. resting at GND (0% duty) or V+ (100% duty). isolated proportional control. An intervalometer is used in time-lapse photography to capture images at specific intervals. to name a few. fOUT = 1MHz • 50k NDIV • RSET Figure 7.1 MIN TO 8. choose the LTC6992-2. 16384 LTC6992-1/LTC6992-3 0. The LTC6992-3 and LTC6992-4 complete 6 | January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation . 4.1V “pedestal” ensures that an op-amp or other input driver is where NDIV = 1.5k RSHUTTER 1M 3M V 332k SET DIV 1M 1µF SET DIV 681k RINTERVAL 1M “SLOW INTERVAL RANGE” 1 MIN TO 8 MIN RSHUTTER: SHUTTER SPEED ADJUSTMENT 0Ω FOR 0. The 0. the photographer can choose any interval between 8 seconds and 8.3k 2M 130k GND 47. and efficient load control.3k OUT + 3 SEC PULSE WIDTH SHUTTER V+ V R1A 332k SET DIV R1B 1M 1µF OUT RST VARIABLE INTERVAL (8 SEC TO 8. Figure 6 shows how easy it is to add timing functions on top of each other using TimerBlox devices.2 LTC6992-2/ LTC6992-4 LTC6992-1/ LTC6992-4 LTC6992-2/ LTC6992-3 DUTY CYCLE (%) The LTC6992 TimerBlox oscillator features pulse-width modulation—the ability to control output duty cycle with a simple input voltage.8 1 The LTC6992-1 allows for the full duty cycle range. covering 0% (for VMOD ≤ 0.5 MIN) LTC6991 GND 8 SEC TO 64 SEC RS1 1M RS2 2M R2 130k “SLOW RANGE” 1. An LTC6991-based camera intervalometer RPW 100k RST CPW 33µF RS3 95.25 SEC 1M FOR 4 SEC RINTERVAL: INTERVAL ADJUSTMENT 0Ω FOR 8 SEC 1M FOR 64 SEC components. Closing the SLOW RANGE switch changes the DIVCODE to 5. increasing NDIV by 8× to extend the interval up to 8.

Table 2 summarizes the different options.cover story The LTC6992 makes quick work of producing a voltage-controlled PWM signal—useful for many applications: light dimming. Figure 9 demonstrates the circuit in action for both the LTC6992-1 and the LTC6992-2.5V V+ 0.1µF SET RSET 619k DIV R1 976k DIVCODE = 1 R2 102k LTC6994-2 OUT 2V/DIV 100µs/DIV 100µs 2. this PWM circuit is configured for a 250kHz output frequency. LTC6994 delay interval generator Figure 13. not all timing applications require a stable frequency oscillator output. Figure 8 shows a typical circuit. 221 t OUT = TRIG 2V/DIV 1ms TRIG OUT 2. which initiates an output pulse with pulse width tOUT. 64. The high modulation bandwidth allows the output duty cycle to quickly track changes in the modulation voltage. LTC6994 single and double-edge delay functionality January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation | 7 .6k DIV R1 1M DIVCODE = 3 R2 280k LTC6993-2 OUT 2V/DIV 200µs/DIV LTC6993-1 OUT 2V/DIV 1ms LTC6993 GND 1ms Figure 10. POL = 0) by a resistor divider and a 97. the family by limiting the duty cycle at only one extreme.1V TO 0. The LTC6993 non-retriggerable and retriggerable functionality The LTC6993 is triggered by a rising or falling transition on its TRIG pin. And each version can be configured to produce logic high or low output pulses using the MSB of the DIVCODE. Some variations include the ability to “retrigger” the pulse. The oneshot duration tOUT is established by RSET: NDIV • RSET • 1µs 50k where NDIV = 1.25V TO 5.5V LTC6994-1 OUT 2V/DIV tDELAY = 100µs Figure 12.25V TO 5. with the DIVCODE set to 3 (NDIV = 512.6k RSET defining a IN 2V/DIV IN OUT LTC6994 GND V+ 0. which offers eight different logic functions and a huge 1µs to 34-second timing range. like that produced by the LTC6993 monostable (one-shot) pulse generator. Figure 7mV shows the measured response for the LTC6992 family.1µF TIE DIV TO GND FOR DIVCODE = 0 LTC6992 GND VMOD 0. Performance of the PWM shown in Figure 7 Of course.25V TO 5. ….9V 250kHz MOD OUT 2. 8.5V/DIV LTC6992-1 OUT 1V/DIV SET RSET 200k DIV LTC6992-2 OUT 1V/DIV 10µs/DIV Figure 8.1µF SET RSET 97. Figure 10 shows a basic circuit. An LTC6992 pulse-width modulator Figure 9. ONE-SHOT EVENTS VMOD 0. isolated proportional control and efficient load control. Some circuits require an eventtriggered fixed-duration pulse. With the frequency divider (NDIV) set to 1 and RSET = 200k. An LTC6993 monostable pulse generator (one-shot) Figure 11. extending the output pulse duration with additional trigger signals.5V V+ C1 0. to name a few.

There you can find data sheets. 8. Some variations include the ability to “retrigger” the pulse. …. which 74AC86 FREQ2X 500kHz IN OUT LTC6994 GND V+ 2. or doubling the clock frequency of the input signal. The circuit sounds a high frequency tone if a motor is spinning too fast and a low frequency tone if too slow. switch debouncing. The delayed where NDIV = 1. extending the output pulse duration with additional trigger signals.com/timerblox. which initiates an output pulse with pulse width tOUT. generating multiple clock phases. tDELAY = NDIV • RSET • 1µs 50kΩ delays either the rising or falling transition. The input is taken from a motor shaft encoder or other rotational sensor and used to trigger a one shot to produce a 1ms pulse per revolution. U3.1µF TIE DIV TO GND FOR DIVCODE = 0 OUT 250kHz fIN 250kHz SET RSET 49. The LTC6994-1 delays the rising or falling edge of the input signal. If it is continually re-triggered and not allowed to time out. 1µs OUT FREQ2X Figure 14. then the motor is turning too fast. 1ms output pulse width. accurate to ±3% in most conditions. Figure 11 shows the results of using either the LTC6993-1 or LTC6993-2 in this circuit. TimerBlox Designer software. To demonstrate the difference between retriggerable and non-retriggerable functionality. The LTC6994’s programmable delay (denoted as tDELAY below) can vary from 1µs to 34 seconds. which distinguishes its function from a delay line. LTC6993 options Table 3. a delay timer.000 rpm and 1500 rpm which. as shown in Figure 14. 90° phase-shifted (quadrature) signal generator and frequency doubler 8 | January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation . Figure 13 demonstrates the difference between the LTC6994-1. MOTOR SPEED ALARM There is no limit to how TimerBlox devices can be combined to easily produce esoteric timing functions.linear. as detailed in Table 3. In addition to this type of noise filtering. The basic circuit in Figure 12 is configured for a 100µs delay. For instance.5V C1 0. Re-triggerable one shot. It can perform noise filtering. the design in Figure 15 combines one shots and delay blocks with a VCO to produce a high/low motor speed alarm. the LTC6994 is useful for delay matching. The LTC6994 is available in two versions. is adjusted for a time interval equal to the warning threshold value. and the LTC6994-2. U4. is programmed by the same threshold adjust voltage to delay an output signal until the motor has exceeded the threshold speed for 100 revolutions (600ms to 4000ms). The fast alarm threshold can be set between 10. LTC6994 options DEVICE INPUT POLARITY RE-TRIGGER DEVICE DELAY FUNCTION LTC6993-1 LTC6993-2 LTC6993-3 LTC6993-4 Rising-Edge Rising-Edge Falling-Edge Falling-Edge No Yes No Yes LTC6994-1 or LTC6994-2 or The LTC6994 is a programmable delay or pulse qualifier. This operation is well suited for pulse qualification. which delays transitions in both directions.25V TO 5. in time. but the LTC6994-2 preserves the original signal’s pulse width.The LTC6993 is triggered by a rising or falling transition on its TRIG pin. 221 The output will only respond to input changes that persist longer than the delay period. The LTC6994-2 delays any input transition. For time-filtering. 64. even an introductory video about the products. and can invert the output signal.9k IN DIV 4µs More Online Learn more about TimerBlox devices at www. THE LTC6994 FOR PROGRAMMABLE DELAY AND PULSE QUALIFICATION Table 2. Both versions will reject narrow pulses. or guaranteeing minimum pulse widths. rising or falling. is one pulse every 6ms to 40ms.

output alarm is sounded.5k DIV 1M 383k SET 86. If rpm too fast for 100 cycles. U2: ALARM OUTPUT. A2: Logic to sound alarm if motor too slow or stopped.5k DIV 681k TRIG 5V OUT U6 LTC6993-4 V+ IN 5V OUT U7 LTC6994-1 V+ 1M 1N4148 383k A2 SET 97. one-shot pulse per revolution. FAST SPEED SENSOR U3: RETRIGGERABLE ONE SHOT. U5.7k DIV 392k 681k SET 137k DIV 681k OE 10k U2 LTC6990 OUT 5V V+ 1M IN 5V OUT U4 LTC6994-1 V+ 1M 1N4148 ALARM OUTPUT TOO SLOW = 250Hz TOO FAST= 5kHz 5V GND GND GND TRIG U1 LTC6993-1 OUT GND 5V GND GND GND January 2011 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation | 9 . or guaranteeing minimum pulse widths. switch debouncing. SLOW SPEED SENSOR U5: DELAY TIMER. U6: RETRIGGERABLE ONE SHOT. If triggered output goes high and stays high if rpm below threshold. Output of this VCO is alarm oscillator tone. Several of the five core products are available in multiple versions to cover more applications and reduce the need for external components. This operation is well suited for pulse qualification. Each part is designed to be as flexible as possible with a 2. n The Linear Technology TimerBlox family of silicon oscillators fills a designer’s toolbox with simple and dependable timing solutions that require minimal Figure 15. In addition. CONCLUSION design effort to produce accurate and reliable circuits. Two OR gates are used to detect when the motor has stopped completely. the parts are offered in a small 2mm × 3mm DFN or a low-profile SOT-23 (ThinSOT™) package when a leaded package is required. This output re-triggers one shot U6 and keeps its output high as long as the speed remains too slow. output signal enables an LTC6990 oscillator to produce a 5kHz warning tone. U4: DELAY TIME FILTER.cover story The output of the LTC6994 will only respond to input changes that persist longer than the delay period.6k DIV 887k 432k 88.6k DIV 383k SET 84. The delay timer. Output stops pulsing if rpm > fast threshold. Output is 1ms. up to –40°C to 125°C temp range and wide timing ranges. 383k 84.2k RPM U1: MOTOR SPEED INPUT. A1.5V supply range.5k RPM 10k RPM A1 5V V+ 976k SET 787k DIV 182k IN OUT U5 LTC6994-1 V+ 523k SET 5V TOO SLOW WARNING 10k THRESHOLD ADJUST 120 RPM 1. Motor speed alarm TRIG OUT U3 LTC6993-2 V+ 1M SET 5V TOO FAST WARNING 10k THRESHOLD ADJUST MOTOR SPEED INPUT 1 PULSE/REV 1. ouput alarm is sounded. If rpm too slow for 10 cycles. Output never pulses if rpm > slow threshold. The slow alarm threshold can be set between 1200 rpm and 120 rpm or one pulse every 50ms to 500ms. Another time filter is created with delay block U7 which sounds a lower frequency alarm if the motor remains too slow for 10 revolutions (500ms to 5000ms). pulses its output if allowed to time out because the motor speed is too slow. U7: DELAY TIME FILTER.25V to 5.