Op-Ed Article “Is Rihanna a Complicated Woman or is it Complicated to be a Black Woman in the Rap Industry: Element 3 - Strip clubs, poverty

, drug addiction, violence, abuse and human trafficking.” By: Mike Norman (Hope for Brighter Days Social Media Contributor) As I concluded at the end of the previous article in the series - This will be the most difficult article in the series to write, not only for emotional reasons, but also due to the sheer depth and intricacy of the subject. This could easily be the content for a large research paper or book, which could be studied for a person’s lifetime, as the sociological impacts of each variable as well as the human aspect only expands the subject further and into more diverging paths. To break this article down into bite-size parts that are easier to digest, we are going to tackle this web of information in a very linear way. I will do my best to tie each piece together chronologically in order to take you through the life of one of these women as they begin in poverty, are pulled into the adult entertainment industry, are held prisoner first chemically through strategic introduction to addictive drugs, and then through fear due to violence and abuse. This is the main synopsis of the life of one of these women. We will touch very briefly on the issue of human trafficking as well because it is such a major element of the strip club, but we will primarily focus on these adult women entertainers and their struggles, as that is not only the focus of this series regarding the rap industry and how women are victimized by it, as well as participants in it, but also because the focus of Hope For Brighter Days is to help women who have escaped abuse understand themselves and find new meaning and purpose in their lives. Before we jump further into the nightmare, I ask our readers this same simple yet hopefully provocative question. Are strip clubs places to promote innocent adult entertainment? Think for a while how you feel about it, and then lets take a journey together into this article. Roots: Poverty The first basic fact, where are strip clubs usually located as far as neighborhoods go; in posh affluent neighborhoods, or in impoverished low-income areas? Well, to be honest, there is no conclusive evidence. In fact there is a lot of contradiction on this issue. My personal feeling after doing research is that strip clubs are located in many various demographic areas. Many types of people attend clubs from the poor to the wealthy. However, the highest percentages of attendees have either income below the poverty line (between $2,000 and $4,000 a year) or income between $50,000 and $75,000 a year. The numbers for attendance in the lower-middle class or upper-middle class are the lowest numbers by comparison (Brooks, 2007). So despite whether the evidence is conclusive or not regarding the geographical/neighborhood placement of strip clubs, what can be said is that more attendees are below poverty line between $2 and $4k a year (81% of Brooks’ data sample) as apposed to an average of all other income levels combined from Brooks’ data sample (between $5k and 75K+) averaging out at 48.4% (Brooks, 2007).

Low-Income attendee’s hold the highest portion of overall patron percentage, according to the limited studies we have available on this specialized subject interest. Another interesting article that provides evidence to low-income club attendees comes from a scandal that exploded a few years back that many people are not aware of. Between 3 clubs in Los Angeles (Sam’s Hofbrau, Seventh Veil and Star Strip), the majority of $12,000 was withdrawn from ATM’s in these clubs with EBT cards, which hold funds for TANF (Temporary Assistance to Need Families) recipients (Dolan, 2010). The L.A. Times also reported that more than half the casinos and state-licensed poker rooms in California appeared on an official website showing welfare recipients where they can access cash benefits (Dolan, 2010). If you have any personal opinions about that last statement there, you better save them for our Twitter and Facebook conversations. What about the economic situation of those who are attracted to work in the industry? That is touched on more in “the dream”. The Dream: Strip Clubs Strip clubs advertise themselves to low-income, low-education, low-job skill individuals. They target young, impoverished women who need (cliché) to “make good money – fast!” Isn’t stripping a high-pay low-stress job? Well, that’s what Heavenly Bodies (Chicago Suburban Strip Club) said in their ads back in 2007 (Shenoy, 2007). In fact they said stated all kinds of promises for an easy and ideal better life for these impoverished women they targeted. Using a strong female voice and beat-driven music, a local radio ad informs mothers of a way out of poverty–"by working in gentlemen's clubs. "You don't have to be poor anymore," the ad says. "Call us and change your life today. –¦ It's a once in a lifetime opportunity to be financially independent." (Shenoy, 2007) The ads also promoted it as a healthy and safe environment. An environment where there would be no degradation of you or your body. You won’t have to perform sexual acts, be rung into prostitution or be touched or abused by the club patrons. However, the story unfolds further: The radio ad for all three promises, "No nudity is allowed." But a Heavenly Bodies ad on a Web listing of Chicago area strip clubs and escort services says, "The girls give great dances." It continues further: "$10 for a private dance, $15 for topless. Both are full friction, and touching is allowed above the waist." (Shenoy, 2007) This is just an isolated incident. It probably isn’t usually this bad right? No - it’s not ‘this’ bad. It’s usually ‘that’ bad. I am trying to say, it’s often worse. This is just a more innocent form of selling “the dream” and recruiting performers for the clubs. Let’s dive deeper into the nitty-gritty of how real “recruiting” works. Lets just say, recruiters are often a little more persuasive. The Hook: Drug Addiction

Often times, drug addiction is one of the strongest contributing factors, which pull these women into the club and keep them there. In many cases, women at the clubs are often runaway girls or child traffic victims who are addicted to substances and look to stripping as a way to afford their addiction (Mallicoat, 2012). In conjunction with this, most of the men who frequent the clubs (whom are not their for pleasure, but for business) are drug dealers, pimps, and human traffickers (Mouting And Counting, 2010 & Maddox, 2012). In one case study by Kelly Holsopple (co-founder Metropolitan Coalition Against Prostitution in Minneapolis, Minnesota), she found that 61% of women whom were addicted to substances were forced to perform sexual acts against their will in order to continue to receive drugs from either club managers, owners, staff or customers (Holsopple, 1998). The dressing rooms will be touched on more in the the next section, but they are actually set up as a place for strippers to drink and do drugs in between sets – among other things (Holsopple, 1998). The Motivator: Abuse, Violence and Illegal “Employment” Practices Here is a collection of quotes from ex-strippers that I want to sink in with our readers before we go any further into the most important section of this article – working conditions: "I would never do it again. It was degrading." "No doubt that it led me to prostitution and my pimp." "Taught me how to control men and gave me a false illusion of control. Takes a long time to regain self-control." "Don't do it. Once you do it, it is hard to get out." "If there is any way you can avoid it...it is hard to get out once you start." "I wouldn't recommend it. It is too stressful and I am always comparing myself to other women on the outside." "I wish I had put more money away and had more education by the time I quit. I just didn't know it wasn't about success for us, it was about using us." "I spent my entire young adulthood being abused. It is hard to undo all this." "Drugs destroyed beautiful, healthy women." "I blame the men...it is all bad. I didn't think highly of myself while I was in stripping, but I am glad I got out of it by standing up for myself." "It is hard to view myself for who I am and my accomplishments rather than how I look and attention from men. I got this from stripping." (Holsopple, 1998) First we will revisit recruitment, then break the strip-club down to the various physical partitions of the club and then finally go through the experiences of abuse, violence and trafficking. In a typical hiring scenario women respond in person to a newspaper ad promising big money, flexible hours, no experience necessary. As an audition the club manager asks the applicants to perform on amateur night or bikini night, both of which are particularly popular with customers who hope to see girl-next-door types rather than seasoned strippers. The manager will make a job offer based on physical attributes and number of women already on the schedule. Clubs portray the job requirements as

very flexible. Women are told that they will not be forced to do anything they do not want to do, but clubs overbook women so they are forced to compete with each other, often gradually engaging in more explicit activities in order to earn tips (Cooke 1987). They are again, recruited by the dream of easy and flexible work, which is not degrading and lets you, the employee, be your own boss and only do what you feel comfortable doing. Work your own hours; earn as much or as little as you want and “work your way through school.” However, like mentioned above, you are immediately in competition with others, if you don’t perform; you don’t get put on the schedule. If you are not put on the schedule you don’t make money. If you are lucky enough to make the schedule, you better be willing to do whatever it takes to become a favorite of the patrons there, even if it becomes uncomfortable for you. Oh did I mention that shifts are often 10 – 12 hour shifts minimum? (Mounting And Counting, 2010). Did I also neglect to mention that strippers do not receive wages, only tips? It get’s worse: Women in stripping are denied legal protection relating to the terms and conditions under which they earn their livings (Fischer 523). Most strippers are hired to work as independent contractors rather than employees. Most strippers are not paid a wage (Mattson 1995), therefore their income is totally dependent on their compliance with customer demands in order to earn tips. More often than not, the strippers have to pay for the privilege of working at a club (Cooke 1987; Forsyth and Deshotels 1997; Prewitt 1989). The majority of clubs demand that women turn over 40 to 50 percent of their income for stage or couch rental and enforce a mandatory tip out to bouncers and disc jockeys (Enck and Preston 1988; Forsyth and Deshotels 1997). Usually a minimum shift quota is set and the women must turn over at least that quota amount. If a woman does not earn the quota and wants to continue working at the establishment, she owes the club and must pay off that shift's quota by adding it to the quota for the next shift she will work. The strip clubs may also derive income from promotional novelty items, kickbacks, door cover charges, beverage sales, prostitution, and capricious fines imposed on the women. As independent contractors, strippers are not entitled to file discrimination claims, receive workers' compensation, or unemployment benefits (Fischer 1996; Mattson 1995). Club owners are free from tax obligations and tort liability. Owners pay no Social Security, no health insurance, and no sick pay. Some club owners require strippers to sign agreements indicating that they are working as independent contractors and many clubs require women to sign a waiver of their right to sue the club for any reason. (Holsopple, 1998). Club owners try to argue against it with many arguments, such as, “Naked women are merely akin to wall paper or TV’s with sports games playing in the background; essentially they are a side attraction in order to encourage customers to buy our true product, alcohol.” If this argument were true, they could argue that strippers are “independent contractors” as the stipulation is that independent contractors do most of

their work to provide a commodity to the establishments main operations “alcohol”. They would also have to truly stick to the “flexible hours” that are falsely promised to show they are contractors and not truly employees of the club itself. However, according to what has been discussed so far, strippers have to compete for work, in addition, their hours are set by the club and they have quotas and performance benchmarks enforced by the club. Now let’s break the club down into it’s physical common building structure. And look at their interactions with customers. (WARNING: Must be 18+ to read this).
[Disclaimer: I will tone the rating down as much as possible with word choice and simple censorship practices, feel free to read all unedited source/research material through the references posted at the end of the article].

The Floor: Strippers activities on the floor can differ based on whether the club is rural or metrolocated, as well as attracts high-paying/high-profile customers or those in poverty. The higher profile-clientele the club brings, the higher the performance expectations on the girls are. The floor is usually a place where the girls do their best to direct the flow of money to the club directly, before switching the focus to them. This is the time where the performers start by walking around the room nude or half/nude encouraging men to buy drinks, solicit the girls for private dances and performances. Very often, private dances are used to sell videos, photos, and other promotional items. The goal of a stripper is to make the club as much money as possible, and if you treat the club and clients good, the clients and the club will treat you good in return. Women describe their role in the strip club as hostess, object, prostitute, therapist, and temporary girlfriend and say they are there to entertain and attract men and business for the owners. (Holsopple, 1998). Strip clubs can be constructed as poorly as plywood stretched across tables to as finely as well-constructed catwalks or even marble in more high-end clubs. Each stripper usually has a 12 minute performance spread over 3 songs, in which more clothing gets removed throughout the progression of their set until they are completely nude (if it’s a nude club). If they are nude they are often required to “flash” customers who give big tips. “Flashing” is a term used for flashing genitals at the patrons by pulling the g-string or tbar aside and is usually meant only for high-paying/tipping customers. Some fully-nude clubs choose to accentuate this by having the girls do entire performances, almost like a crab-walk or other sexual positions, down the cat walk at eye-level for maximum eye exposure. (Holsopple, 1998). Private Dance Activities: Private dances should not be called “dances”. Private dances are acts of forced prostitution. Women are often forced to perform these dances, while men masturbate openly, receive hand-jobs or even stick their fingers inside the strippers (Holsopple, 1998). At least some clubs have to the foresight to provide alcohol wipes to sterilize the men’s fingers first [sarcastic writers voice applied]. (Holsopple, 1998). You can read more on the specifics in the full Holsopple article, but to summarize, other private dances are offered such as Table Dancing, Couch Dancing, Lap Dancing, Bed dancing is offered

in a private room and is a simulation of intercourse with the man fully clothed and performed until he ejaculates, and some upscale clubs offer shower dancing, which allows fully-clothed men to get in showers with one or more nude women and massage soap all over their bodies. The worst is peep shows in which openly masturbating men call out to strippers in a room shielded by glass to simulate various sex acts. During private dances women are conscientious about their boundaries and safety. "I don’t want him to touch me, but I am afraid he will say something violent if I tell him ‘no’." "I was thinking about doing prostitution because that’s when customers would proposition me." "I could only think about how bad these guys smell and try to hold my breath." "I spent the dance hyper vigilant to avoiding their hands, mouths, and crotches." "We were allowed to place towels on the guys’ laps, so it wasn’t so bad." "I don’t remember because it was so embarrassing." (Holsopple, 1998) Dressing Rooms: Women describe a variety of dressing room experiences. In the upscale clubs, the dancers have dressing rooms with lights, vanities, chairs, lockers and tanning beds. Others have just mirrors, but nothing provided for rest or comfort. This is theoretically done to not allow the strippers to be late to their shift and not sit around and be lazy. Some [dressing rooms] are so damp or filthy that the women cannot take their shoes off. Other dressing rooms are so frigid that dancers carry small space heaters to and from work. (Holsopple, 1998). In strip joints and rural bars, women lay on blankets or inside sleeping bags between sets and nap and read. (Holsopple, 1998). One of the main complaints that Holsopple had related to her for her case study is that most of the dressing rooms are far in the back. They are secluded and away from the crowds. The reason this is so frightening is because customers will at-times locate the changing room, and assault the dancers. The room is often so far away from the main areas that when they scream for help, they are not always heard. Lets discuss the different types of abuse, strippers face. Physical: A study reports that 100% of performers experienced physical abuse in the strip club. Customer stalked almost all the women, at least one to seven times. Customers by far commit most of the physical abuse in the strip clubs and they never face any repercussions for their actions (Holsopple, 1998). In addition to the risks involved in strip club employment, the daily atmosphere and environment also proves equally horrendous. The physical contact received by strippers has actually increased since the 1980s as well as sexual harassment and physical abuse (Farley M., 2004). The customers often grab, “finger”, pinch the dancers in their private parts, and also spit, slap and even bite the dancers (Farley M., 2004).

Some recent examples of recorded abuse incidents are as follows: A San Francisco strip club fired a dancer in 2000, because she complained a man raped her in a private booth (Farley M., 2004). Recently, a customer at an Albuquerque strip club allegedly raped a stripper while he received a lap dance (Trevizo, 2012). Not even the customers escape the sexual exploitation found in strip clubs. A 19 year-old female customer, of an Albuquerque fully nude strip club10, said another customer gave her alcohol and a powdery substance. Later, intoxicated she alleges a dancer coerced her to dance nude and eventually a bouncer raped her (KOAT Action 7 News, 2012). Many of these women drink often to escape the pain and torment that comes with being a stripper. Subjecting your body to degradation, abuse and sexual assault by strangers night after night. Specific reports of alcohol use were quoted in the much-referenced Holsopple article, but it applies to substance use as well: The greatest response to questions regarding preparation for work was "drink". Women drink while getting ready to go to work and they drink while doing their hair and make-up once in the dressing room. Women who work at nude juice bars that do not serve alcohol or at bars that do not allow women to buy their own drinks report that they stop at another bar on their way in and "get loaded". Between stage sets and private dances, women drink some more, clean themselves with washcloths or baby-wipes after performing on a dirty stage or being touched by a lot of men, apply deodorant, and perfume their breasts and genitals. (Holsopple, 1998) Finally, I will touch briefly on child/sex trafficking in the club, but I will provide more references at the end, for readers who are interested in learning more about this relationship of strip clubs and sexual enslavement. Pimps and human traffickers [may] easily prey on these women and coerce/force them into stripping or prostitution. Operators and employees of strip clubs may also serve as pimps, in soliciting these performers to pursue illegal sexual activities for drugs or money. Customers also exploit these women’s vulnerable predicament by closing their eyes to underage dancers, substance abuse, and rape in the strip clubs. (Maddox, 2012) Under the control of a pimp, minors in the forced sex trade are often forced to carry a fake I.D.  (Shively, 2010). Here is a quote from an article that gives you a snapshot of the relationship of human trafficking and strip clubs in a nutshell: “Treasures allows pimps to traffic their women inside Treasures,” the suit alleges. “And through force, fraud or coercion, pimps cause these women to engage in prostitution. Treasures knowingly receives benefits from participating in the prostitution trafficking venture.” (Reed, 2012) I will attach a link to the full court deposition in the reference notes as well as a link to the full article. However, that is a topic to be fully explored another day.

Before concluding this article, we will include six tables regarding abuse types and frequency from Holsopple’s initial 1998 case study. Table 1 - Frequency of Physical Abuse

Abusive Action Ever (by men At Least Once At Least Once in stripclub) Every Day Every Week (%) (%) (%) Grabbed by arm 78 44 6 11 S 28 C 50 6 11 S 6C 28 C C 33 M 11 11 S 11 C 17 C C 17 M 6 6 11 S

At Least Once At Every Month Once (%) Year (%) C 6M O

Least Every

C 11 O 6 M 6M 6 6M C 6M M

Grabbed ankle Grabbed waist Bitten Licked

by 56 by 94

C 11 C 11 C

56 78

11 C 11 6 6 11 S C 22 C O M 17 C 11 C

Slapped Hair pulled Punched Pinched

39 39 72 72

6C 6C 6C 17 C

11 C 6C

17 C

6 6 6S

C 22 M 6S

C

Kicked Spit on Pulled

11 61 costume 83

6C 6C 22 C 6 28 C C 22 C

off Ripped costume Flicked cigarette Sprayed beer Threw ice Threw coins Threw cans/glasses Threw garbage Threw other 44 33 39 61 83 22 39 28 6C 6C 6C 6C 17 C 6C 17 C 11 C 11 C 6C 6C 11 C 11 C

6 6M 6C

O 6S 17 C 11 C

6C 6C 11 6S

6C 6C C 28 C

N = 18 Key: C = customers, O = owners, M = managers, S = staff Table 2 - Frequency of Sexual Abuse

Abusive Action

Ever (by men in stripclub) (%) 94

At Least Once Every Day (%)

At Least Once Every Week (%)

At Least Once Every Month (%)

At Least Once Every Year (%)

Grabbed breasts

28 6M 39 C

C

17 C

17 6M 39 6 6S 11 6M

C

17 6O 6 6S

C

Grabbed buttocks

89

11 C

C M

O

Grabbed genitals

67

17 C

C

17 C

Exposed to her

penis

67

11 C

6C

6 6 6M C O M 6C

C O

33 C

Rubbed penis on her

78

39 6M

C

22 6 6 6S 11 C

22 6O

C

Masturbated front of her

in

78

33 6M

C

28 C

6C

N = 18 Key: C = customers, O = owners, M = managers, S = staff Table 3 - Attempted and Completed Sexual Abuse Abusive Action Experienced Attempted Abuse (%) vaginally with 61 6M 33 C 33 6O 28 6 6M 17 6 6M C C Experienced Successfully Completed Abuse (%) 39

Penetrate fingers

her

Penetrate her anally with fingers Penetrate her with object

17 11

Force her to masturbate him

C O

17

Force intercourse on her

C O

11

N = 18 Key: C = customers, O = owners, M = managers, S = staff

Table 4 Frequency of Name-Calling - Verbal Abuse Abusive Action Ever (by men in stripclub) (%) At Least Once Every Day (%) At Least Once Every Week (%) At Least Once Every Month (%) At Least Once Every Year (%) 11 6M C O M 11 C C

Called "cunt"

61

28 6M 28 6S

C

6C

17 C

Called "slut"

61

C

6C

17 6 6 6S 17 6 6 6S 11 C

Called "whore"

78

28 6S

C

6C

C O M

22 C

Called "pussy"

72

39 6S 39 6S

C

11 C

11 C

Called "bitch"

89

C

11 6 6 6S 6C

C O M

6C

22 6M

C

Called other

56

17 C

17 6M

C

6C

Table 5 - Stalking Occurrences
Abusive Action Ever (by men in stripclub) (%) Range of occurrences

Sent her letters against her wishes Sent her gifts against her wishes Called her home against her wishes Followed her home against her wishes Followed her to her car against her wishes Followed her around on her private time Followed her from club to club, city, and state Other

28 22 39 56 67 28 28

3-100 times 2-100 times 2-360 times 2-500 times 12-500 times 1-150 times 6-360 times

28

1-360 times

N = 18

Table 6 - Percentage of Women Pressured for Sexual Exploitation Recipient Pressured by customer (%) Pressured by owner (%) Pressured by manager (%) Pressured by staff (%) Pressured by vice officer (%) Pressured by police officer (%)

Owner's friend Owner's relative Owner's business associate Manager's friend Manager's

39 11

33

17

6

relative Manager's business associate Customer Vice officer Police officer 72 22 17 17 11

17 11 11 N = 18

6 6 6 11 22

In conclusion: there are two things to discuss in order to bring this back to where this article series started; Rihanna’s episodes of abuse with Chris Brown and her victimization and participation in the rap industry. The music itself is beside the point. It’s the content of the music. What inspired this series of articles in the first place was Rihanna’s song “Pour it Up”, which has officially been coined 2013’s “Strip Club Anthem” and has been remixed by the most notorious group of celebrity attendees to the club Young Jeezy, Rick Ross, Juicy J, and T.I. Again, this series of articles looks at the paradox and complication of Rihanna, being abused by a man, who lives and worships a male-dominated medium, which presents messages that push for objectification, control and abuse of women. Rihanna then creates one of the biggest “strip club anthem’s” of all time and despite being a victim of Chris Brown, she is also a major influencer and force behind the similar culture values and messages, which shaped and influenced the man she was abused by. In her video for “Pour it Up” she dresses as a man on one side and as a seductive stripper on the other side. Through music video magic, both personas are on the cat-walk at the same time and the male version of her sexually gropes and provides pleasure to herself on a public catwalk. I wonder what message that is promoting? Is Rihanna a Complicated Woman or is it Complicated to be a Black Woman in the Rap Industry? Are strip clubs a place for innocent entertainment? Are women compensated well for what they go through and do they deserve to be treated that way because of their choice of participating in that industry? I won’t present any answers; only these questions. To learn more about this subject and to see a more in-depth compilation of this information, please consider reading the following books, articles and legal papers: Strip Club: Gender, Power, and Sex Work (By Kim Price-Glynn) http://www.amazon.com/Strip-Club-Gender-Power-Intersections/dp/0814767613 Connecticut Law Tribune (Suit again Clubs for Unlawful Labor Practices)

http://www.llrlaw.com/pdfs/exotic_dancers_claim_clubs.pdf Texas & The City of Houston vs. Treasures Court Deposition http://bloximages.chicago2.vip.townnews.com/yourhoustonnews.com/content/tncms/asse ts/v3/editorial/c/8d/c8d50bce-9fa0-11e1-8405-0019bb2963f4/4fb420eaf16f9.pdf.pdf Read the Full Groundbreaking Research Article by Kelly Holsopple here: http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/2011/02/stripclubs_acco.html Also learn about Kelly Holsopple’s Story and how she became the authority on stripresearch http://pibillwarner.wordpress.com/tag/the-bio-of-kelly-holsopple-who-is-now-anassociate-attorney-and-working-for-a-law-firm-in-florida-would-make-for-a-great-johngrisham-novel-like-the-the-associate-which-time-called-hardcore-law-p/ Watch Rihanna’s Official Video for “Pour it Up” here: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xyfi33_rihanna-pour-it-up-officialvideo_music#.Ucifn_Z369Z Mounting and Counting: Blog by a stripper who is for the industry, but also admits to the drug & alcohol problems as well as the violence & criminal activity of her customers: http://mountingandcounting.wordpress.com/2010/05/15/drugs-are-bad-mmmkay/ References Brooks, T. (2007). In da club: An econometric analysis of strip club patrons. WORKING PAPER, Department of Economics: University of Wisconsin, Retrieved from http://www.uwlax.edu/faculty/brooks/prof/working/Brooks AEA December 2007.pdf Calhoun, T., Julie A. H. Cannon, and Rhonda Fisher. 1996. "Amateur Stripping: Sexualized Entertainment and Gendered Fun." Sociological Focus 29: 155-166. Cooke, Amber. 1987. "Stripping: Who Calls the Tune?" Pp. 92-99 in Good Girls, Bad Girls: Feminists and Sex Trade Workers Face to Face, ed. Laurie Bell. Toronto: Seal Press. Dolan, J. (2010). Thousands in welfare cash tapped at california strip clubs. Los Angeles Times, Retrieved from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2010/06/welfarecash-dispensed-at-strip-clubs/comments/page/4/ Enck, Graves and james D. Preston. 1988. Counterfeit Intimacy: A Dramaturgical Analysis of an Erotic Performance. Deviant Behavior 9:369 81. Farley, M. (2004). Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart: Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Discriminalized . Retrieved from Chicago Alliance Against Sexual

Exploitation : http://g.virbcdn.com/_f/files/89/FileItem-149912Badforthebody.pdf Forsyth, C. and Tina Deshotels. 1997. "The Occupational Milieu of the Nude Dancer." Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal 18: 125-142. Holsopple, K. (1998). Stripclubs according to strippers: Exposing workplace violence. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved June 24, 2013 http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/2011/02/stripclubs_acco.html KOAT Action 7 News. (2012, March 2). Police: Alcohol found at Palms Strip Club: Controversial Club Faces more Trouble. Retrieved from KOAT 7 Albuquerque: http://www.koat.com/news/30598084/detail.html Maddox, D. (2012). Strip clubs and their sexual exploitation. Informally published manuscript, New Mexico State University, Retrieved from http://www.releaseglobal.org/images/Strip_Clubs_and_their_Sexual_Exploitation .pdf Mallicoat, S. (2012). Lives in Transition: A Needs Assesment of Women Exciting From Prostitution . In R. Muraskin, Women and Justice: It's a Crime (pp. 156-169). Upper Saddle River: Pearson. Mattson, H. (1995). Ivy league stripper. New York Boston: Arcade Pub. Distributed by Little, Brown. Mounting and Counting (2010, May 15). [Weblog message]. Retrieved from http://mountingandcounting.wordpress.com/2010/05/15/drugs-are-bad-mmmkay/ Prewitt, Terry J. 1989. Like a Virgin: The Semiotics of Illusion in Erotic Performance.The American Journal of Semiotics 6(4): 137-52. Reed, M. (2012). human trafficking, drug activity at treasures strip club, alleged by prosecutors. Houston Community Newspapers, Retrieved from http://www.yourhoustonnews.com/news/human-trafficking-drug-activity-attreasures-strip-club-alleged-by/article_b5e54988-9f9c-11e1-91e60019bb2963f4.html?mode=story Shenoy, R. (2007). Clubs promise path from poverty. The Chicago Reporter, Retrieved from http://www.chicagoreporter.com/news/2007/08/clubs-promise-path-poverty Shively, M. (2010). Developing a National Action Plan for Eliminating Sex Trafficking. Retrieved from Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation: http://g.virbcdn.com/_f/files/11/FileItem-149938FirstOffenderProbation_ABT.pdf Trevizo, A. (2012, February 11). Police Investigate Rape at TD’s Gold. Retrieved from Albuquerque Journal: http://www.abqjournal.com/main/2012/02/11/abqnewsseeker/policeinvestigaterape-at-tds-gold.html