Introduction and Structural Dynamics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

25 views

Introduction and Structural Dynamics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- MDOF
- Machine Foundation Irrigat
- Aero
- HERM Series
- 2-fischer
- Porsche Engineering Magazine 2015/2
- Sandstrom
- questions-91-1.pdf
- pumping
- Jaser 120001
- 04ª Apostila 13 Sources of vib
- Bentley Sacs Brochure
- 28 Ensaios Não-Destrutivos Em Concreto
- Study on Non-Linear Responses of Eccentric Structure
- Compressor Control Pulsation
- winkler+combin
- Vibration Analysis Gt6 Generator Libya
- Mech Vibrations
- Aerocraft RWDC Mtg12 20
- Mitigating footfall-induced vibration in long-span fl oors

You are on page 1of 20

Introduction

Aeroelasticity deals with the interaction between aerodynamic, elastic and inertial forces acting on atmospheric flight vehicles. The aerodynamic and inertial loads deform the structure. The deformations affect the airloads, which closes the aeroelastic loop. Static aeroelasticity deals with the effects of structural deformations on steady aerodynamic load distributions and total force and moment coefficients, and with static instability (divergence). It is assumed that: The 6 d.o.f. airplane maneuvers are slow compared to the structural dynamics. The structure deforms but structural vibrations have negligible effects. The aerodynamic loads due to change in local angles of attack develop with no delays.

Dynamic aeroelasticity deals with the interaction between structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics. Delays in the development of aerodynamic loads are important. The main topics are dynamic instability (flutter) and response to atmospheric gusts (deterministic and stochastic) Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) deals with the interaction between aeroelastic and control systems. The control system reads structural vibrations and activates aerodynamic control surfaces, which closes the aeroservoelastic loop. The models in this lecture series assume linearity of the aerodynamic, structural and control systems.

Consider an airfoil with semichord b in 2-D incompressible flow of velocity V The angle of attack changes at time t=0 from =0 to =0 . The lift per unit span is:

L(S ) = 2V 2b 0 (S )

where (S) is Wagner's function for indicial lift where S=Vt/b. The leading edge encounters at time t=0 a sharp-edged vertical gust of constant velocity wg= w0 . The lift per unit span is:

L(S ) = 2Vbw0 (S ) where (S) is Kussner's function.

Wagner's and Kussner's functions with V = 200 m/sec and b = 1 m: S=20 corresponds to t=0.1 sec.

Unsteady Aerodynamics Dynamic Loads

Wing/Body with External Stores Lifting Surface

ZONA7U

ZONA6

3D Spline

Geometric Fidelity

ZAERO/UAIC

ZAERO/UAIC

ZSAP at M = 1.0

ZONA51

DLM

NASTRAN NASTRAN

1.6

ZONA7

Pilot Input

5

ZTAIC

Time (sec)

1.2 0.8 0.4 0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

MSC/NASTRAN ZAERO P-Transform

Subsonic

Transonic

Supersonic

Hypersonic

0 .30

Aeroservoelasticity

ZDM

Time (sec)

Trim/Flight Loads

Y

10.00

9 .00 8 .00 7 .00 6 .00 5 .00 0.00 5 .00 10.00 1 5.0 0 20.00 25 .00

Wind Tunnel Model ASTROS - LIFT TRIM AOA = 1 Deg., M=0.9 V=12053 in/sec

6

-5605

.2

0 .20 0 .10 0 .00 -0.10 -0.20 -0.30 0.00 5 .00 10.00 1 5.0 0 20.00 25 .00

Stress Distribution

ASTROS RESULT M = 1.2, q = 350 psf AOA = 5 Deg. VSS/ON

.1 30 -2 06

-20630.1

-25638.4

.1 -20630

4411.4

-5605.2

.1 30 06 -2

-2

063

0.

-25638.4

-25638.4

Course Outline

1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Structural vibrations and modal coordinates Static aeroelasticity Unsteady aerodynamics Flutter analysis

Dynamic response to gust excitation

Equation of motion:

} + [ B ]{u } + [ K ]{u} [ M ]{u = { P (t )} (1.1)

{P(t)} - external forces [K] - stiffness matrix, based on a detailed finite-element model with thousands grid point each having up to 6 discrete degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). [M] - mass matrix, can be based on finite-element properties, but often based on a separate weight analysis with the masses lumped at a selected set of grid points. [B] - damping matrix, usually not included in the discrete model. They will appear in the generalized-coordinate model.

8

Use of Symmetry

Flight vehicles normally have a plane of symmetry. The structural model is constructed for one half only. Boundary conditions at the plane of symmetry determine whether the model is symmetric or antisymmetric. Symmetric and antisymmetric analyses are performed separately. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) model Advanced Fighter Aircraft (AFA)

Z 101

In static equilibrium, the displacement vector is related to the external force vector by

[ K ]{u}

= { P}

(1.2)

A column {Kj} in [K] is the force vector required to obtain a unit displacement at the j-th d.o.f. and zero displacements elsewhere. The stiffness matrix is symmetric. A single finite element affects only the terms associated with the grid points to which the element connected. A free-free structure can move as a rigid body with no external forces. A rigid-body mode {} satisfies

[ K ]{R }

= {0}

(1.3)

which implies that a free-free stiffness matrix is singular. A stress model can be normally used for dynamic analysis. Parts which are not required to be very detailed in the aeroelastic analysis (i.e. fuselage) can be reduced to a beam-like model.

10

x1 , y1, z1 , x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , ..., z2

12

z

2

x

x1 z1 x1 L

z1

y1 y1

x1 , x2 [K ] = EA 1 1 L 1 1

x1 , x2 [K ] = GJ 1 1 1 L 1 xy

y1 , z1 , y2 , z2 12 EIz 6L [K ] = 3 L 12 6L

6L 4L2 6L 2L2

12 6L 6L 2L2 12 6L 6L 4L2

x1 , y1 , z1 , x1 , y1 , z1 , x2 , ..., z2

12

EA L

[K ] =

0 0 0 0 0 EA L 0 0 0 0

12EIz L3

12EIy L3

0 0 0

6EIz L2

sym

GJ L

0

y 6EI L2

0

EIz 12L 3

0 0 0

EIy 12L 3 0 z 6EI L2 0

0 0 0

6EIz L2

0 0 0 0 0 GJ L 0 0

4EIy L

0 0 0

6EIy L2

4EIz L

0

z 6EI L2

EA L

0

2EIy L

0 0 0

2EIz L

0 0 0 0 0

12EIz L3

0 0 0

z 6EI L2

12EIy L3

0

6EIy L3

GJ L

0 0

4EIy L

4EIz L

With all stiffness and damping elements ignored,

} [ M ]{u = { P} (1.4)

A column {Mj} in [M] is the force vector required to obtain a unit acceleration at the j-th d.o.f. and zero accelerations elsewhere. unit acceleration at the j-th d.o.f. and zero accelerations elsewhere. The mass matrix is symmetric. A single mass element affects only the terms associated with the grid points to which the element is connected. Example: a mass point rigidly connected to a 2 d.o.f. grid point Mass matrix of a structural element:

Lumped mass matrix: the mass is distributed to the translational d.o.f. Consistent mass matrix: based on a consistent energy formulation

[ M e ] = Vol [ Ne ] [ Ne ] dVol

T

(1.5)

where [Ne] defines the assumed element inner displacements as function of the grid displacements (1.6) {uin } [ N e ]{ue } 13

The free undamped equation of motion

} + [ K ]{u} = {0} [ M ]{u (1.7)

{u} = {i } ei t

i

(1.8)

i

( [ M ] + [ K ]){ } = {0}

2 i

(1.9)

Eigensolution yields natural frequencies [n] and vibration mode shapes [] that satisfy 2 K = M (1.10) [ ][ ] [ ][ ][ n ] Generalized mass and stiffness matrices:

[ M hh ] = [ ]T [ M ][ ] , [ K hh ] = [ ]T [ K ][ ] = [ M hh ][ n ]2

(1.11)

The maximum number of eigenvectors (mode shapes) that can be calculated is equal to the rank of [M]. Orthogonality: any two different eigenvectors (columns of [] ) satisfy

T T

(1.12)

14

Modal Reduction

Assumption: the displacement vector is a linear combination of a subset of nh low-frequency vibration modes, namely

{u (t )}

= [ ]{ (t )}

(1.13)

The assumption reduces the number of d.o.f. to nh Substitution in Eq. (1.1) and premultiplication by [ ]T yields

} + [ B ]{ } + [ K ]{ } [ M hh ]{ hh hh = { Ph (t )} (1.14)

where the generalized damping matrix and the generalized force vector are

T T [ Bhh ] = [ ] [ B ][ ] , {Ph (t )} = [ ] {P(t )}

(1.15)

If [B] is proportional to [M] and/or [K], [Bhh] is diagonal. In many cases [Bhh] is replaced by a diagonal matrix where

Bhhi = 2 i M hhi i (1.16)

where the i values are determined from previous experience or from resonance tests. Typical values for flight vehicles are 0.01 - 0.04. The equation of motion can be solved for {(t)}. {u(t)} can then be recovered by Eq. (1.13).

15

Generalized Coordinates

Any linearly independent set of displacement vectors that satisfy the boundary conditions can be used as generalized coordinates. The natural vibration modes [ ] are a natural choice because:

they yield a set of uncoupled equations (when the excitation is not a function of the response); they can be (carefully) selected according to the frequency range of interest; their dynamic properties can be verified in vibration tests.

16

Natural modes of a nominal structure can be used as generalized coordinates in the analysis of a modified structure. The equation of motion in discrete coordinates

} + [ B + B ]{u } + [ K + K ]{u} = { P(t )} (1.17) [ M + M ]{u Assume {u (t )} = [ ]{ (t )} where [ ] contains natural modes of the nominal structure.

{ } = { P (t )} h M hh + Bhh + K hh

{}

{}

(1.18)

where

= [ M ] + [ ]T [ M ][ ] , B = [ B ] + [ ]T [ B ][ ] , K = [ K ] + [ ]T [ K ][ ] M hh hh hh hh hh hh

The generalized forces do not change. The discrete-coordinate recovery process do not change. A larger number of modes might be required.

17

The approximate undamped free equation of motion in generalized coordinates:

{ } = {0} M hh + K hh

{}

(1.19)

Assume n ] and a square eigenvector matrix []. Eigensolution yields nh natural frequencies [ New generalized masses:

T [ ] = M [ ] hh M hh

{ } = { i } ei t

i

(1.20)

(1.21)

hh = [ ][ ] (1.22)

Comparison of the new frequencies and modes with those obtained directly from the finite-element model is used for checking the adequacy of the structural variations in generalized coordinates.

18

Mode 4: 3.88 Hz, 1st wing bending Mode 5: 10.47 Hz, wing for & aft Mode 6: 15.71 Hz, 2nd wing bending

Z Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

Z

Z

Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

3 X Z 101 X Y Y

Z

Z

Z

Y

Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

3 X Z 101 X Y

Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

19

Z

Mode 2: missile pitch, 7.37Hz Mode 3: wing bending, 8.96Hz

20

- MDOFUploaded byKumar Ashish
- Machine Foundation IrrigatUploaded byvk
- AeroUploaded byredoctober24
- HERM SeriesUploaded byKarimZiani
- 2-fischerUploaded byDavid McDermott
- Porsche Engineering Magazine 2015/2Uploaded bywattafilling
- SandstromUploaded bylis_sugiantoro
- questions-91-1.pdfUploaded byMoj Jamaran
- pumpingUploaded bybbmoksh
- Jaser 120001Uploaded byGoutham Burra
- 04ª Apostila 13 Sources of vibUploaded byFelipe Vergara
- Bentley Sacs BrochureUploaded bydavide_pe75
- 28 Ensaios Não-Destrutivos Em ConcretoUploaded byWallison Medeiros
- Study on Non-Linear Responses of Eccentric StructureUploaded byjeyaselvanm
- Compressor Control PulsationUploaded bymustafa
- winkler+combinUploaded byyaragarciadominguez
- Vibration Analysis Gt6 Generator LibyaUploaded byRohit Gunerkar
- Mech VibrationsUploaded byCholan Pillai
- Aerocraft RWDC Mtg12 20Uploaded byNur Islah Izzati
- Mitigating footfall-induced vibration in long-span fl oorsUploaded bygmlopes
- Zhang Et Al-2002-Earthquake Engineering & Structural DynamicsUploaded byshiva
- 5826Uploaded byzubbbu
- B Tech Mechanical Sem. VII and VIII Full Syllabus-3Uploaded byShwetal Shah
- IJRET20140308017.pdfUploaded byriddhee
- High Vibration at Main Gear Box of Gas TurbineUploaded byJJ
- Final draft Dynamic Machine foundation _2_.pdfUploaded byKoke Colil Benavente
- Dynamic Response of Coupled ShUploaded byJulaymis Mendoza
- Aeroelasticity 1Uploaded byOSCARDELTA
- 1119Uploaded byNian S Ko
- rf-dynam-pro-manual-en.pdfUploaded byYasonsky Captain

- FractureUploaded bymgskumar
- RÃ¼zgar_TÃ¼nelleri_BilgiUploaded byMahir Hamdiyev
- airfoil designUploaded byPatricia McIntire
- Propeller TypesUploaded bymgskumar
- CreepUploaded bymgskumar
- Mind RagUploaded bymgskumar
- What is the Definition of a Fixed Pitch PropellerUploaded bymgskumar
- REF & WebsitesUploaded bymgskumar
- Final PosterUploaded bymgskumar
- Jet EngineUploaded byV Dhinakaran
- ConflictUploaded bymgskumar
- Aerodynamicforces & DRAG POLARUploaded bymgskumar
- CreepUploaded bymgskumar
- 3_1Uploaded byWayaya2009
- Air SpeedsUploaded bymgskumar
- Load FactorUploaded bymgskumar
- Aero InstabilitiesUploaded bymgskumar
- Weight and Balance gUploaded bymgskumar
- ISA.pdfUploaded byairsor
- Flight ForcesUploaded bymgskumar
- Creep and Stress RuptureUploaded bymgskumar
- PropellerUploaded bymgskumar
- Stall SpeedUploaded bymgskumar
- 36812357 13 Creep and Stress RuptureUploaded byZdravko Ivancic
- Monkman GrantUploaded bymgskumar
- DareToDream[1]Uploaded bymgskumar
- ME 2009 Gate PaperUploaded byamitk1986
- Two Types of PlasticsUploaded bymgskumar

- Nioec-sp-00-50 Criteria for Process and MechanicsUploaded byCal
- PR-1Uploaded byKarthikeya Kambampati
- TUGAS TERMODINAMIKA TEKNIK II.docxUploaded byRio Andisa Putra
- Advanced ThermodynamicsUploaded byIbmWasuser
- lab manual thermodynamics nozzle efficiencyUploaded byMuhammad Firdaws
- Estimation of Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using Variations in Transmissivity and RQD With DepthUploaded byMarco Lazcano
- Refrigerant Piping Rev2Uploaded by123john123
- lab reportUploaded byDaniel Razak
- 12655747_thermodynamic and Economic Analysis of a Binary Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study4 (1)Uploaded byAngela Paul Peter
- Question BankUploaded bySagar Khan
- HES2125_10S2_Revision01Uploaded byRoberto Rizzo
- A modified transfer matrix method for prediction of transmission loss of multilayer acoustic materialsUploaded byFranco Guzmán
- ThermalPhysicsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- New Text DocumentUploaded bymanish mehta
- 05. EDUploaded bypandiraja
- Determination of Top Heat Loss Factor of a Single Glazed Flat Plate Solar Collector by Indoor ExperimentsUploaded byAshok Siddarth
- BoltsUploaded byrodirayan
- Foundation DesignsUploaded byV.m. Rajan
- Thesis Stress RibbonUploaded byvictor
- Tutorial 1Uploaded byBigSike
- KMSCFDWeb Assignment Module4Uploaded bysadiksnm
- Tracer experiment in plug flow reactorUploaded byAfrillia Fahrina
- Value Diagrams and Exergy EfficienciesUploaded byElzimar Freitas
- Moment RedistributionUploaded bysravan
- 2 Ionic EquilibriumUploaded byVijay Kumar
- Developing flow pressure drop and friction factorUploaded bymirmanto708167
- Mtech fjhhUploaded byMuthyala Akhil
- Theoretical Model to Predict the Performance of Cnetrifugal PumpUploaded byAli Al-hamaly
- SKAA4412-SMKAUploaded byAmirBenYusoff
- Fracture Mechanics SummaryUploaded bySAID

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.