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During the last decade, inexpensive yet powerful digital computers have become widely available and have been applied to a multitude of tasks. By hitching computers with imaging detectors and displays, very capable systems for creating and analyzing imagery have been constructed and are being applied in many arenas. For example, they now are used to reconstruct x-ray and magnetic resonance images in medicine, to analyze multispectral aerial and satellite images for environmental and military uses, to read Universal Product Codes that specify products and prices in retail stores, just to name a few. This part if the course will investigate the basic principles and introductory applications of digital imaging systems, and includes many simple examples to illustrate the concepts. Most of the images used to illustrate the concepts are rather “crude”, consisting of only 4096 individual picture elements (pixels) in a 64 × 64 array. Each pixel has one of up to 64 diﬀerent brightnesses (gray values or digital counts)). The crudeness of the examples is intentional because it allows the eﬀects due to processing on individual pixels to be apparent. In no way do these examples represent the capabilities of most modern digital imaging systems; indeed, it is usually essential that individual pixels not be visible so that the image appears to be a continuously varying function. IMAGE: A reproduction or imitation of form of a person or thing. The optical counterpart of an object produced by a lens, mirror, etc. ..................................Noah Webster We normally think of an image in the sense of a picture, i.e., a planar representation of the brightness, , i.e., the amount of light reﬂected or transmitted by an object. An image is usually a function of two spatial variables, e.g., f [x, y ], which represents the brightness f at the Cartesian location [x, y ]. It may therefore be graphed in three dimensions, with brightness on the z-axis. 265

t] f [x.” e. coding. y. tn . λn ] f [x. f [x.266CHAPTER 12 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING Image Representation of f [n. the image can be manipulated. y ] is pictorial. λ] f [x.g. color movie reality Note that 2-D slices can be “cut” from multidimensional images.. it is perfectly feasible for computers to process and display f [x. y. y. λm ] monochrome “movie” color image discrete set of wavelengths.g. Computer processing is used for image enhancement. y. y. processed. z ] f [x. y ] An image may have more than two coordinate dimensions. tn ] as well as f [x. λm ] f [x. transformation . e. z.g.. description. hologram) image discretely sampled in time and wavelength.. f [x. and displayed by computer. After converting image information into an array of integers. tn ] is not. and the resulting image needn’t be “pictorial. segmentation. e. consider the 2-D slices “cut” from the 3-D function f [x. y ]. reconstruction. y. tn ]. recognition. tn . y. multispectral image time-varying monochrome image 3-D image (e. y. m] Function of Two Spatial Coordinates f [x. tn ] f [x.g. f [x. restoration.. But the dimensionality of the axes has no eﬀect on the computations.

i. 1. ] back into a continuoustone and spatially continuous image g [x. where n.717. The output image may be represented in a diﬀerent coordinate system. and gq are integers.pcx We shall ﬁrst consider the mathematical description of image digitizing and display devices.. y ] to an discrete array (the digital image) fq [n. a single bit of information. the output may be a piece of information.1 Digital Processing The general digital image processing system may be divided into three components: the input device (or digitizer). processing.e. and the output device (image display).1 DIGITAL PROCESSING 267 12. The digital processor operates on the digital image fq [n. SIMG-716. 2.. The digitizer converts a continuous-tone and spatially continuous brightness distribution f [x.12. and follow that by a long discussion of useful processing operations. ]. .g. where k. m] to generate a new digital image gq [k. For example. and fq are integers. Some aspects of this material are covered in more depth in the linear mathematics sequence. a digital imaging system that was designed to answer the question. Is there evidence of a cancerous tumor in this x -ray image?. in machine vision and artiﬁcial intelligence applications). 3. y ] for viewing. hence the use of diﬀerent indices k and . m. m]. ideally would have two possible outputs (YES or NO). . The image display converts the digital output image gq [k. It should be noted that some systems may not require a display (e. . the digital processor.

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