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Chapter 2 BJT and its Applications

This chapter deals with

Basics of a bipolar junction transistor Types of bipolar junction transistor Unbiased bipolar junction transistor Biased bipolar junction transistor Working of bipolar junction transistor in active, saturation and cutoff regions Common base conguration of a bipolar junction transistor Common emitter conguration of a bipolar junction transistor Common collector conguration of a bipolar junction transistor Ebers-Moll model of a bipolar junction transistor Bipolar junction transistor as switch Breakdown characteristics of a bipolar junction transistor

2.1 Introduction
Transistors can be broadly classied as unipolar transistors and bipolar transistors based on the charge carriers taking part in the conduction. In a unipolar transistor, the conduction is due to majority charge carriers alone. In a bipolar transistor, the conduction is due to both majority and minority charge carriers. A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is a three terminal, two-junction semiconductor device and the conduction here is due to both majority and minority charge carriers. Hence it is a bipolar device. BJT amplies the electrical signals as they are transferred from the input to the output. A few advantages of the BJT are given below: 1. Low current requirement 2. Small size 3. Less weight 4. Long operating and shelf life 5. Rugged in nature

2.2

Electron Devices and Circuits

2.1.1 Transistor Terminals


BJT has three terminals namely emitter terminal, base terminal and collector terminal. The emitter layer is the source of charge carriers and it is heavily doped with a moderate cross- sectional area. The collector collects the charge carriers emitted by the emitter region and hence has a moderate doping and a large cross-sectional area. The base region is in between these and it acts as a path for the movement of charge carriers. In order to reduce the recombination of electrons and holes in the base region, this region is lightly doped and is of narrow cross-sectional area. The width of the base region must be less than the diffusion length of the carriers present in the base region. The above discussion is tabulated in table 2.1. Table 2.1 Structure of BJT Region Emitter Base Collector Doping Heavy Light Moderate Area Moderate Narrow High

2.2 Types of Transistor


The lead connected to emitter region is the emitter terminal (E ), the lead connected to the base region is base terminal (B ) and the lead connected to the collector region is collector terminal (C ). The junction between emitter and base is emitter-base junction or simply emitter junction (JE ). The junction between collector and base is collector-base junction or simply collector junction (JC ). BJT is classied into two types based on the type of semiconductor connected. They are 1. npn Transistor 2. pnp Transistor

2.2.1 npn Transistor


In an npn transistor, p-type semiconductor is sandwiched between two n-type semiconductors. Therefore, the emitter region is made of n-type semiconductor wherein majority carrier is electrons, which results in an electron current and minority carrier is holes, which results in hole current. The base region is made of p-type semiconductor wherein majority carrier is holes, which results in hole current and minority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current. The collector region is made of n-type semiconductor wherein majority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current and minority carrier is holes, which results in hole current.

BJT and its Applications


Emitter Base Collector region region region Collector Emitter terminal (C) terminal (E) n n p JE JC E Base terminal (B) (a) (b) C B

2.3

Fig. 2.1

Symbol of npn -transistor

2.2.2 pnp Transistor


In a pnp transistor, n-type semiconductor is sandwiched between two p-type semiconductors. Therefore, the emitter region is made of p-type semiconductor wherein majority carrier is holes, which results in hole current and minority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current. The base region is made of n-type semiconductor wherein majority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current and minority carrier is holes, which results in hole current. The collector region is made of p-type semiconductor wherein majority carrier is holes, which results in hole current and minority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current.
Emitter Base Collector region region region Collector Emitter terminal (C) terminal (E) ppn JE JC C B E (b)

Base terminal (B) (a)

Fig. 2.2 Symbol of pnp -transistor

Note: The arrow direction always represents the conventional current (hole current direction) direction when base to emitter junction is forward biased.

2.2.3 Comparison of npn and pnp Transistor


For performance and fabrication reasons, the npn conguration has become more popular than pnp type. As electrons move faster than holes, the carrier diffusion coefcient of electrons (Dn ) and the mobility of electrons (n ) are high. Hence the npn transistor frequency response is superior to pnp type. From the fabrication point of view, the choice of p-type dopant for silicon is more restricted than that of n-type dopant. The solid solubility of n-type dopant is more efcient than that of p-type dopant.

2.4

Electron Devices and Circuits

Transistor is a current controlled device, that is, the output current is controlled mainly by the input current.
Example 1: Common Emitter Conguration

In the case of common-emitter transistor conguration (dealt later), the output collector current IC is directly proportional to input base current IB , where the proportionality constant is hF E (or ). IC = I B Where, IC = Collector current (mA) IB = Base current (A) = Constant of proportionality, current gain
Example 2: Common Base Conguration

In the case of common-base transistor conguration (dealt later), the output collector current IC is directly proportional to input emitter current IE , where the proportionality constant is hF B (or ). IC = I E Where, IC = Collector current (mA) IE = Emitter current (mA) = Constant of proportionality, current gain
Example 3: Common Collector Conguration

In the case of common-collector transistor conguration (dealt later), the output emitter current IE is directly proportional to input base current IB , where the proportionality constant is hF C or ( ). IE = I B Where, IE = Emitter current (mA) IB = Base current (A) = Constant of proportionality, current gain

2.3 Unbiased npn Transistor


When no external biasing voltages are applied, both emitter junction and collector junction are open-circuited. The emitter region has more number of electrons and less number of holes, while the base region has more number of holes and less number of electrons. Due to this concentration gradient across the emitter-base junction electrons move from the emitter towards the base and holes move from the base towards the emitter. After sometime the charge carriers lose their energy and undergo

BJT and its Applications

2.5

recombination with the opposite charge carriers resulting in bound charge carriers. These bound charge carriers are responsible for the setup of electric eld at the junction, which is the reason for the drift current to ow opposite to diffusion current. Hence no more current ows across the junction, which results in the depleted area. The region occupied by the bound or immobile charge carriers is called depletion region. The same concept is applicable for the collector-base junction also and so there also a depletion region is formed. It is known that the depletion region penetrates more into the lightly doped region compared to the heavily doped region. Since the doping of emitter region is high (n + ) and that of base region is low (p), the depletion region formed at emitter junction towards the emitter region is negligible compared to the depletion region occupied towards the base region of a given transistor. In the case of collector junction, the collector region is moderately doped; the depletion width towards base region is more than towards the collector region.

Fig. 2.3 Minority carrier distribution

Where, V0 = Barrier potential under unbiased condition. pn0 = Hole concentration (minority carrier) in n-region. np0 = Electron concentration (minority carrier) in p-region. Sufx 0 stands for thermal generation.

2.4 Biased npn Transistor


Transistor nds many applications like amplier, switch etc. Depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied voltages across the base-emitter (J E ) and basecollector junctions (JC ), there are three distinct regions in which BJT can be operated. When the transistor is congured for a particular application, it must be operated in a denite region. There are three regions in which we can operate a transistor. They are tabulated in table 2.2.

2.6

Electron Devices and Circuits


Table 2.2 Regions of operation of BJT
Emitter junction Forward bias Forward bias Reverse bias Collector junction Reverse bias Forward bias Reverse bias Region of operation Active region Saturation region Cut-off region Applications Amplier, oscillator etc., Wave shaping, clipping, digital application etc.,

The regions of operation of BJT are depicted in the output characteristic of commonemitter (CE ) amplier as shown in Fig.2.4.
Active region

Saturation region

Cut-off region

Fig. 2.4 Output characteristics of CE amplier showing the region of operation

2.4.1 Transistor in active region


Let us consider an npn transistor in active region. In the active region, the baseemitter junction or simply emitter junction must be forward biased and the collectorbase junction or simply collector junction must be reverse biased. As the emitter junction is forward biased, the barrier potential across the junction is low and hence electrons ow from n-type emitter region to p-type base region. Similarly, holes also ow from the p-type base region to the n-type emitter region, but since the base region is lightly doped than emitter region, almost all the current ow consists of electrons. Hence electrons are the majority carriers in npn devices. As the electrons move across the base region, some of the electrons recombine with the holes of base region and become electrically neutral. As the base region is very lightly doped, here few holes are available in the base region to recombine with the electrons from the emitter. Since the width and the doping of the base region are very small, the loss due to recombination in the base region is also very small. This condition can be achieved by making the width of the base region less than the diffusion length. Hence most of the emitter current diffuses to collector region. The reverse biasing of collector junction (JC ) makes the collector-base junction to be widened. Since the doping of base region is lesser than the collector, the depletion region penetrates widely into the base region than the collector region as shown in the Fig.2.5. Due to reverse bias of collector-base junction, the free electrons from emitter region are attracted across the collector junction (J C ) into the collector region by the inuence of the electric eld, thus forming a collector current. Apart

BJT and its Applications

2.7

from these emitter electrons current, there exists a minority current across the collector junction due to the reverse biasing of this junction called reverse saturation current or collector saturation current, IC 0 . Hence the total collector current is the sum of emitter electron current IE and the collector saturation current IC 0 .
VCE

Fig. 2.5 Variation of depletion region of BJT in active region

The pnp transistor behaves exactly the same as a npn device, with the exception that the majority carriers are holes.

2.4.2 Why named transistor?


As we analyzed, under active condition, the emitter-base junction (J E ) is forward biased and collector-base junction (JC ) is reverse biased. If the junction is forward biased, the effective emitter junction resistance is very small (order of a few ohms) when compared to the reverse biased collector junction resistance (order of a few Mega ohms). But under active condition, though the J C is reverse biased, the collector current is almost equal to the emitter current i.e., there is a virtual transfer of resistance from the forward biased emitter junction (JE ) to the reverse biased collector junction JC so as to obtain a constant current through the device. Since there is a transfer of resistance from one junction to another the device is called as a Transfer Resistor or Transistor.

2.4.3 Transistor currents


n InE E IE
VBB

+ VCE p (InEInC) n
Inc Inco Ipco

IpE IB + B

C + IC

VEB

VBC

+
VCC

Fig. 2.6

Current components in BJT in active region

2.8

Electron Devices and Circuits


IB IE IC VEB VCB IpE InE InC IC 0 IpB 0 InC 0 : : : : : : : : : : : Base current Emitter current Collector current Emitter to base voltage Collector to base voltage Hole current in emitter region Electron current in emitter region Electron current in Collector region Reverse saturation current due to temperature Hole current in collector region due to temperature Electron current in collector region due to temperature

From the Fig.2.6, it is shown that collector and base currents are entering the transistor while emitter current is leaving the transistor. This can be mathematically represented as IE = I B + I C (2.1) Because the collector junction is reverse biased, a very small reverse saturation current IC 0 ows through the junction, which is given by, IC 0 = |IpC 0 | + |InC 0 | (2.2) Due to low doping at the base region, a few electrons are recombined with holes in base region and the remaining emitter electrons reach the collector region. Therefore, the collector current is given by, IC = dc IE + IC 0 (2.3) Where, dc is dened as the function of the total emitter current (electron current), which has travelled from the emitter region across the base to the collector. IC I C 0 (2.4) IE Since reverse saturation current IC 0 is very small (order of A) compared to collector current IC (order of mA), the equation (2.4) is approximated to, dc = IC (2.5) IE Where, dc is approximately the ratio of collector current to emitter current it is also referred to as common base current gain (hF B ). Substitute equation (2.1) in equation (2.3) and we get dc IC = (IC + IB )dc + IC 0 IC (1 dc ) = dc IB + IC 0 IC 0 dc IB + IC = 1 dc 1 dc (2.6)

BJT and its Applications


Let us assume, dc = dc , then 1 dc IC = dc IB + (1 + dc )IC 0

2.9

(2.7)

As reverse saturation current IC 0 is very small compared to base current IB , the equation (2.7) can be approximated to, dc IC IB (2.8)

Thus, dc is approximately the ratio of collector current to base current and is also referred to as common emitter current gain (hF E ). Solved Problem 2.1 Calculate the dc and dc for the given transistor for which IC = 5mA, IB = 50A and IC 0 = 1A.
Solution:

We know that, IC = dc IB + (1 + dc )IC 0 Therefore, dc = IC I C 0 = 98.02 IB + I C 0

IE = IB + IC = 5.05 103 A IC I C 0 dc = = 0.9902 IE

2.4.4 Transistor under saturation region


As the base-emitter voltage (VBE ) is increased, the injection of electrons into the base region from the emitter region is increased causing an exponential rise in the collector current. Hence the output voltage (VC or V0 ) is increased. The voltage drop across the emitter-collector region is algebraically equal to the sum of voltage drop across the base-emitter and the collector-base region, that is, VEC = VBE + VCB VCE = VBE + VCB (2.9) (2.10)

Similarly, the applied biased voltage is algebraically equal to the sum of voltage drop across the collector-base region and the collector terminal, that is, VCB = VCC VC VCC = V0 + VCB (2.11) (2.12)

2.10

Electron Devices and Circuits


E IE VCE + IC n p n + V0 + I0 C

VEB

+ B

IB

VBC

VBB

VCC

Fig. 2.7 Current components in BJT in saturation region

Where, VCC = Applied bias voltage VBE = Base-emitter voltage VCB = Collector-base voltage V0 or VC = Collector (output) voltage VEC = Emitter-collector voltage As the collector voltage VC increases, the collector-base reverse voltage VCB must decrease, as applied bias VCC is a xed applied bias voltage in order to maintain CC equation equilibrium. The collector current IC cannot be increased as IC = V RL (where, VCC and RL are constant) and V0 = VCC , which is also constant. Hence the collector-base reverse bias VCB is reduced to zero. If the maximum value of the collector current IC is reached and the base-emitter voltage VBE is further increased, the higher injected carriers get stored at the base region. This is called saturation region. Further increase of the base-emitter voltage VBE termed, over driving, causes the BJT to go further into deep saturation and the minority carrier density at the edge of the collector-base depletion region is no longer zero as it is in active operation. Since the electrons cannot be attracted into the collector at a rate corresponding to their injection into the base from the emitter, the minority carrier density therefore rises causing the collector-base junction to effectively become forward biased. Thus in saturation region, both the base-emitter junctions are forward biased so that both the junctions have a low resistance. Hence power dissipation in the device is low in this mode. To switch a transistor into saturation, the current supplied to charge the base (base drive) is sufciently large to cause the collector current to increase to IC (sat) .

2.4.5 Transistor in cut-off region


As the voltage across the base-emitter region VBE is reduced, the carriers from the emitter region to the base region drop with corresponding reduction in the collector current IC and the output collector voltage V0 . When the base-emitter voltage VBE is zero or made negative so as to reverse bias the base-emitter junction, injection ceases

BJT and its Applications

2.11

and the collector current IC falls to reverse saturation current IC 0 . The transistor therefore ceases to conduct and the collector-base reversed bias voltage V CB raises to the supply voltage VCC . As both the junctions are reverse biased, power dissipation in the transistor is low as the collector current is small (only reverse saturation current). The saturation and cut-off mode thus provide the ON/OFF switching state. In transistor, VCE (sat) ( 0.2V ) and VCC (+15V ) are to be used as the two binary states for logic applications.

2.4.6 Base-width modulation


W

W3 E n-type

W2

W1 n-type (+)C

p-type

JE ()B

JC

Fig. 2.8 Base-width modulation in BJT

As discussed, with respect to the diodes in the previous chapter, the transistor also has depletion region, which is created across the emitter and collector junctions due to the difference in the concentration. Since the doping level in each region is different, the width of the depletion region is not same in all the regions. The depletion width is more into the lightly doped region compared to the heavily doped region, that is, depletion width spreads more towards the base region compared to the emitter and collector regions. Thus in the transistor also a depletion potential is developed across the junctions under unbiased condition. Now let us see how this depletion region varies with respect to the applied reverse voltage at the collector-base junction. Base-width modulation effect was rst discovered by a scientist named EARLY and it tells us about the variation in the width of the base region with respect to the applied potential at the collector-base junction. We are already aware of the fact that the width of the depletion region increases with forward bias and it decreases with reverse bias. The doping in the base is substantially smaller than that of the collector and emitter junctions. Hence the depletion penetration is larger into the base region than the collector or emitter regions. Since the emitter junction is forward biased, the total depletion region width is small compared to the depletion region of collector junction. So the variation of the depletion layer width in emitter junction is negligible compared to the collector junction. In the collector-base junction, the reverse bias has an appreciable effect. The width of the depletion region increases from W W1 W2 W3 as reverse bias across the collector-base junction

2.12

Electron Devices and Circuits

increases and the penetration of the depletion layer is deeper in the lightly doped region compared to the heavily doped region and so the effective width of the base region reduces as shown in Fig.2.8. This variation in the base-width due to the applied reverse bias at the collector-base junction is known as Base width modulation.
2.4.6.1 Effect of base-width modulation

1. Chances for recombination at the base region are less; so the base current reduces. 2. The charge concentration near the emitter-base junction is high; so the diffusion of charges into the emitter region increases resulting in an increased emitter current, collector current and hence current gain . 3. When the reverse bias is increased to a larger value the effective base width reduces to zero thereby causing a voltage breakdown in the device. This is known as punch through effect.

2.5 Transistor Conguration


It is known that the main application of a BJT is as an amplier. An amplier requires two input terminals and two output terminals. The BJT being a 3 terminal device makes it applicable as an amplier by making one of the terminals common to both the input and output. Depending on which terminal is made common, the BJT is classied into three congurations. They are, 1. Common-base (CB ) conguration. 2. Common-emitter (CE ) conguration. 3. Common-collector (CC ) conguration.

2.5.1 Common-base conguration


VEC IE VEE + VEB IB + + + VCC IC

VCB

Fig. 2.9 CB conguration of BJT

To analyze the characteristic behavior of BJT in CB conguration, it must be operated in the active region, that is, emitter-base(or simply emitter) junction J E should be forward biased and collector-base (or simply collector) junction J C should be reverse biased. The CB conguration of BJT is as shown in Fig.2.9.

BJT and its Applications

2.13

In this conguration, the emitter terminal is used as an input terminal and collector terminal is used as an output terminal while the base terminal is made common to both the emitter terminal and collector terminal as shown in Fig.2.9.
2.5.1.1 Input characteristic of CB conguration

The input characteristic is a plot of input emitter-base voltage V EB to input emitter current IE for a constant output collector-base voltage VCB as shown in Fig.2.10.
IE (mA) VCB=10V VCB=5V

0.7V

1V

VEB(volts)

Fig. 2.10 Input characteristics of BJT in CB conguration

When collector-base voltage VCB is zero and as the emitter junction is forward biased, the common-base input characteristics are essentially those of a forward biased pn-junction diode, that is, till the cut-in potential V the current is zero and later on the current rises exponentially as a function of the applied emitter-base voltage. When collector-base voltage VCB is increased, due to early effect there is an increase in emitter current IE and so the emitter current may reach the maximum value a little earlier than the previous case discussed. Thus as collector-base voltage V CB is increased emitter current IE reaches the maximum for a lesser value of emitter-base voltage VEB and so the characteristics shift towards the left for increasing the values of collector-base voltage VCB .
2.5.1.2 Output characteristics of CB conguration
IC(mA) Active region

Saturation region

IE=4mA IE=3mA IE=2mA IE=1mA IE=0ICo VCB (Volt) Cut-off region

Fig. 2.11 Output characteristics of BJT in CB conguration

2.14

Electron Devices and Circuits

The output characteristic is a plot of output collector-base voltage V CB to output collector current IC for a constant input emitter current IE as shown in Fig.2.11. Now let us see how the transistor responds to different values of input current. The output characteristics of a BJT is discussed in all three regions of operation.

Cut-off region of CB conguration


The Cut-off region of CB conguration region below emitter current I E = 0 in output characteristic, for which both emitter junction and collector junction are reverse biased which is referred to as the cut-off region. When emitter current is zero, the collector current is equal to reverse saturation current ICO . Initially the emitter current rises and after reaching the maximum values, the current levels off to a constant value as shown in Fig.2.11.

Active region of CB conguration


The region beyond the saturation region and above the cut-off region where the collector current is a constant is called the active region. For BJT in CB conguration, IC = IE (reverse saturation current IC 0 is neglected). Since, 1, the magnitude of collector current IC is almost equal to emitter current IE . With the increase in collector-base voltage VCB , the collector current IC rises initially and then it levels off since emitter current IE is a constant though the collector-base voltage is increased. Though common-base current gain increases with increase in the collector-base reverse bias voltage due to base-width modulation I C = IE does not show any signicant increase since is a fraction. Hence the CB characteristic in the active region is a straight line.

Saturation region of CB conguration


When collector-base voltage VCB is reduced to zero, collector current IC still ows across the collector-base junction as shown in Fig.2.11. To stop the ow of charge carriers, the CB junction JC has to be forward biased. The region of the graph in which the junction is forward biased is named as saturation region. The forward biasing of the collector junction accounts for the large change in the collector current with a small change in the collector voltage.

2.5.2 Common-emitter conguration


Just like BJT in CB conguration, the characteristic behavior of BJT in CE conguration must be analyzed in active region. In this conguration, the base terminal is used as input terminal and collector terminal is used as output terminal while the emitter terminal is made common to both the emitter terminal and collector terminal as shown in Fig.2.12.

BJT and its Applications


IC + IB + VBB + VCE VBE IE + VCC

2.15

Fig. 2.12 CE conguration of BJT

2.5.2.1 Input characteristic of CE conguration

The input characteristic is a plot of input base-emitter voltage V BE to the input base current IB for a constant output collector-emitter voltage VCE .
IB (m A ) VCE=5V VCE=10V

0.7V

1V

VBE (volts)

Fig. 2.13 Input characteristics of BJT in CE conguration

When collector-emitter voltage VCE is zero and as the emitter junction is forward biased, the common emitter input characteristics are essentially those of a forward biased pn-junction diode, that is, till the cut-in potential V the current is zero and later on the current rises exponentially as the applied emitter-base voltage increases. When collector-emitter voltage VCE is increased, due to early effect there is a decrease in base current IB and so the base current may reach the maximum value a little later than the previous case discussed. Thus as collector-emitter voltage V CE is increased, the base current IB reaches the maximum for a larger value of base-emitter voltage VBE and so the characteristics shifts towards the right for increasing values of collector-emitter voltage VCE .
2.5.2.2 Output characteristic of CE conguration

The output characteristic is a plot of output collector-emitter voltage V CE to output collector current IC for a constant input base current IB .

2.16

Electron Devices and Circuits


IC (mA)

Active region IB5 IB4 IB3 IB2 IB1 ICO 0.2V Cut-off region VCE (volt)

Fig. 2.14 Output characteristics of BJT in CE conguration

Cut-off region of CE conguration In the characteristics the region where base current IB is zero is the cut-off region. In the cut-off region, both collector junction and emitter junction are reverse biased i.e.,
IE = I B + I C IC 0 dc IB + IC = 1 dc 1 dc At cut-off, IB = 0. Then and IC = VBE IC 0 IC 0 1 dc 0V (2.15) (2.13) (2.14)

Active region of CE conguration In the characteristics the region above the cut-off region and beyond the saturation region is the active region. In the active region, the collector junction is reverse biased and emitter junction is forward biased. In the case of BJT in CE conguration, the collector current is given by,
IC = dc IB + (1 + dc )IC 0 Where, IC = Collector current. IB = Base current. IC 0 = Reverse saturation current. = DC current gain. Since, IC 0 << IB , IC dc IB ( >> 1) (2.17) (2.16)

Saturation region

BJT and its Applications

2.17

In this region, the transistor output collector current IC is most sensitive to the input base current IB i.e., for a small change in base current there exists a large change in the collector current by a factor . Unlike in the case of CB conguration, in the CE conguration there is a dominant effect in the output characteristics due to base width modulation. As already discussed due to Early effect increases. Though the increase in is fractional the change in is prominent since = 1 and so the collector current IC = IB increases with increase in the reverse collector-emitter voltage VCE . Thus for a constant value of base current IB , collector current IC increases with increasing collector-emitter voltage VCE and slope of output characteristic of CE conguration is much more pronounced than that of the output characteristic of CB conguration.

Saturation region of CE conguration


The saturation region corresponds to collector-emitter voltage V CE < 0.2 V such that both the collector junction and emitter junction are forward biased. This causing injection of majority carriers on either side results in device saturation.

2.5.3 Common-collector conguration


To analyze the characteristic behavior of BJT in the CC conguration, transistor must be operated in active region.
IE IB VBC + VBC + IC + VEC + VEC

Fig. 2.15 CC conguration of BJT

In this conguration, the base terminal is used as input terminal and emitter terminal is used as output terminal while the collector terminal is made common to both the emitter terminal and collector terminal as shown in Fig.2.15.
2.5.3.1 Input characteristic of CC conguration

The input characteristic is a plot of input base-collector voltage V BC to the input base current IB for a constant output emitter-collector voltage VEC . The input characteristics of CC conguration are quite different from the input characteristics of CE conguration and CB conguration.

2.18

Electron Devices and Circuits


IB
(mA)

VEC=2V VEC=6V

VBC (Volt)

5.5V 1.5V

Fig. 2.16 Input characteristics of BJT in CC conguration

The voltage across collector-emitter terminal VCE is given by, VCE = VCB + VBE Therefore, VBE = VCE VCB (2.18) (2.19)

Case 1: For, VCE = 5V and VBC = 1V , the emitter junction is, VBE = VCE + VBC VBE = 5 + (1) = 4V > 0.7V (cut-in voltage of base-emitter junction) The given transistor is forward biased. Hence the transistor is conducting. Case 2: For, VCE = 5V and VBC = 4.5V , the emitter junction is, VBE = VCE + VBC VBE = 5 + (4.5) = 0.5V < 0.7V cut-in voltage of base-emitter junction) The given transistor is reverse biased. Hence the transistor is non-conducting.
2.5.3.2 Output characteristics of CC conguration

The output characteristics are the plot of output emitter-collector voltage V EC to the output emitter current IE for a constant input base current IB . As collector current is approximately equal to emitter current, the output characteristics of BJT in CC conguration are practically identical to those of the output characteristics of BJT in CE conguration (Refer the explanation given for BJT in CE conguration).

BJT and its Applications


IE (mA) Active region

2.19

Saturation region

IB=80m A IB=60m A IB=40mA IB= 20mA ICO IB=0mA VCB (volt) Cut-off region

0.2V

Fig. 2.17 Output characteristics of BJT in CC conguration

2.6 The Hybrid Parameter Model


We know that the BJT is a two-port device in which one terminal is common to both the input and output ports. The behavior of the two-port network is analysed using the current and voltage parameters at input and output ports (input current, input voltage, output current and output voltage). Out of these four parameters, two are considered independent and the remaining two are dependent. The dependent parameters are expressed in terms of the independent parameters. Consider a generalized two-port network shown in Fig.2.18. Let us assume that the input current Ii and output voltage V0 are independent parameters and output current I0 and input voltage Vi are dependent parameters.
Ii + Vi Two-port network Io + Vo

Fig. 2.18 Generalized two-port network

The two-port network equation can be written as; Vi = h11 Ii + h12 V0 I0 = h21 Ii + h22 V0 (2.20) (2.21)

In the equations (2.20) and (2.21), the quantities h11 , h12 , h21 , h22 are called hybrid or h-parameters. To determine the h-parameters, consider equations (2.20) and (2.21). To nd the h-parameters, consider two conditions: short circuit output port V 0 = 0 and open circuit input port Ii = 0.

2.20

Electron Devices and Circuits

When output port is short circuited, V0 = 0

h11 is the ratio of input voltage to input current; hence the name input impedance. Therefore h11 is rewritten as hi , that is, h11 = Vi Ii = hi
V0 =0

(2.22)

h21 is the ratio of output current to input current, hence the name forward current gain. Therefore h21 is rewritten as hf , that is, h21 = I0 Ii = hf
V0 =0

(2.23)

When input port is open circuited, Ii = 0

h12 is the ratio of input voltage to output voltage, hence the name reverse voltage gain. Therefore, h12 is rewritten as hr , that is, h12 = Vi V0 = hr
Ii =0

(2.24)

h22 is the ratio of output current to output voltage, hence the name output admittance. Therefore, h22 is rewritten as h0 , that is, h22 = I0 V0 = h0
Ii =0

(2.25)

Summary
Advantages of BJT are - Low current requirement - Small size - Less weight - Long operating and shelf life - Rugged in nature BJT has three terminals namely emitter terminal, base terminal and collector terminal. The emitter layer is the source of charge carriers and it is heavily doped with a moderate area of cross- sectional area. The collector collects the charge carriers emitted by the emitter region and hence has a moderate doping and a large cross-sectional area. The base region is in between these and it acts as a path for the movement of charge carriers. In order to reduce the recombination of electrons and holes in the base region, this region is lightly doped and is of narrow cross-sectional area.

BJT and its Applications

2.21

The width of the base region must be less than the diffusion length of the carriers present in the base region. In an npn transistor, p-type semiconductor is sandwiched between two n-type semiconductors. Therefore, the emitter region is made of n-type semiconductor where majority carrier is electrons, which results in electron current and minority carrier is holes, which results in hole current. The base region is made of p-type semiconductor where majority carrier is holes, which results in hole current and minority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current. The collector region is made of n-type semiconductor where majority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current and minority carrier is holes, which results in hole current. In a pnp transistor, n-type semiconductor is sandwiched between two p-type semiconductors. Therefore, the emitter region is made of p-type semiconductor where majority carrier is holes, which results in hole current and minority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current. The base region is made of n-type semiconductor where majority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current and minority carrier is holes, which results in hole current. The collector region is made of p-type semiconductor where majority carrier is holes, which results in hole current and minority carrier is an electron, which results in electron current. The arrow direction always represents the conventional current (hole current direction) direction when base to emitter junction is forward biased. As electrons move faster than holes, the carrier diffusion co-efcient of electrons (Dn ) and the mobility of electrons ( n) are high. Hence the npn transistor frequency response is superior to pnp type. From the fabrication point of view, the choice of p-type dopant for silicon is more restricted than that of n-type dopant. The solid solubility of an n-type dopant is more efcient than that of a p-type dopant. Transistor is a current controlled device, that is, the output current is controlled mainly by the input current. When no external biasing voltages are applied, both emitter junction and collector junction are open-circuited. The emitter region has more number of electrons and less number of holes, while the base region has more number of holes and less number of electrons. Due to this concentration gradient at the emitter-base junction electron moves from the emitter towards the base and holes move from the base towards the emitter. After sometime the charge carriers lose their energy and undergo recombination with the opposite charge

2.22

Electron Devices and Circuits


carriers resulting in bound charge carriers. These bound charge carriers are responsible for the setup of electric eld at the junction, which is the reason for the drift current to ow opposite to diffusion current. Hence no more current ows across the junction, which results in depleted area. The region occupied by the bound or immobile charge carriers is called depletion region. The same concept is applicable for the collector-base junction also and so there also a depletion region is formed.

The depletion region penetrates more into the lightly doped region compared to the heavily doped region. When the npn transistor is in active region, the base-emitter junction must be forward biased and collector-base junction must be reverse biased. The barrier potential across emitter junction is low and hence electrons ow from n-type emitter region to p-type base region. Similarly, holes also ow from the p-type base region to the n-type emitter region, but since the base region is lightly doped than the emitter region, almost all the current ow consists of electrons. Hence electrons are the majority carriers in npn devices. As the electrons move across the base region, some of the electrons recombine with the hole of base region and become electrically neutral. As the base region is very lightly doped, there are few holes available in the base region to recombine with the electrons from the emitter. Since the width and the doping of the base region are very small, the loss due to recombination in the base region is also very small. This condition can be achieved by making the width of the base region less than the diffusion length. Hence most of the emitter current diffuses to collector region. The reverse biasing of collector junction makes the collector-base junction to be widened. The depletion region penetrates more widely in to the base region than the collector region. Due to reverse bias of collector-base junction, the free electrons from emitter region are attracted across the collector junction into collector region by the inuence of the electric eld, thus forming a collector current. Apart from these emitter electrons current, there exists a minority current across the collector junction due to the reverse biasing of this junction called reverse saturation current. Hence the total collector current is the sum of emitter electron current IE and the collector saturation current. The width of the depletion region increases due to reverse bias and the penetration of the depletion layer is deeper in the lightly doped region compared to the heavily doped region and so the effective width of the base region reduces. This variation in the base-width due to the applied reverse bias at the collector-base junction is known as Base width modulation Effect of base-width modulation

BJT and its Applications

2.23

- Chances for recombination at the base region are less and so the base current reduces. The charge concentration near the emitter-base junction is high and so the diffusion of charges into the emitter region increases resulting in an increased emitter, collector and current gain . - When the reverse bias is increased to a larger value the effective base width reduces to zero thereby causing a voltage breakdown in the device. This is known as punch through effect. The BJT is classied into three congurations - Common-base (CB ) conguration. - Common-emitter (CE ) conguration. - Common-collector (CC ) conguration In CB conguration, the emitter terminal is used as input terminal and collector terminal is used as output terminal while the base terminal is made common to both the emitter and collector terminals. The input characteristic of CB conguration is a plot of input emitter-base voltage VEB to input emitter current IE for a constant output collector-base voltage VCB The output characteristic of CB conguration is a plot of output collector-base voltage VCB to output collector current IC for a constant input emitter current IE In CE conguration, the base terminal is used as input terminal and collector terminal is used as output terminal while the emitter terminal is made common to both the emitter and collector terminals. The input characteristic of CE conguration is a plot of input base-emitter voltage VBE to the input base current IB for a constant output collector-emitter voltage VCE . The output characteristic of CE conguration is a plot of output collectoremitter voltage VCE to output collector current IC for a constant input base current IB . In CC conguration, the base terminal is used as input terminal and emitter terminal is used as output terminal while the collector terminal is made common to both the emitter terminal and collector terminal. The input characteristic of CC conguration is a plot of input base-collector voltage (VBC ) to the input base current (IB ) for a constant output emittercollector voltage (VEC ).

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Electron Devices and Circuits

The output characteristics of CC conguration are the plot of output emittercollector voltage VEC to the output emitter current IE for a constant input base current IB . The Ebers-Moll model is basically a physical model describing the currentvoltage properties in terms of the physical mechanism of charge movement within the device. The BJT can be operated as a switch when it is operated in cut-off and saturation region of operations. Under cut-off condition, the BJT behaves like an open circuit and under saturation condition, the transistor behaves like a closed switch. Delay time can be dened as the time required for the current to rise to 10% of its maximum value. Rise time can be dened as the time required for the current to rise through the active region from 10% to 90% of its maximum value. ON time can be dened as the total time required for the device to turn-on. On time is the sum of delay time and rise time. Storage time can be dened as the time elapsed between the transition of input (from logical high to logical zero) and the time when output current has dropped to 90% of its maximum value. Fall time can be dened as the time required for the current to fall through the active region from 90% to 10% of its maximum value. OFF time can be dened as the total time required for the device to turn-off. OFF time is the sum of storage time and fall time. The delay in the switching characteristic of BJT is due to inherent capacitances. They are - Emitter-base junction transition capacitance - Collector-base junction diffusion capacitance - Time required for the collector current to rise to 10% of its maximum value. Reason for Storage time - When the transistor is in saturation condition, it posseses excess minority charge carriers in the base. In such a situation, transistor cannot respond until the excess minority carriers have been removed from the base region.

BJT and its Applications

2.25

Transistor breakdown occurs when the power dissipation across it exceeds the rated value due to increase in bias voltage, high collector current or short circuit in the circuitry. Punch-through or reach-through: Due to increase in reverse biased collector voltage, the depletion region across the collector-base junction increases. The depletion region is the region of uncovered charges. As the collector-base bias is increased further, the penetration of depletion region towards base region and collector region also increases. Due to light doping prole of base region compared to collector region, the penetration of depletion region is more towards base region rather than in collector region. Since the base width is small, with a moderate collector-base bias, the depletion region may enter either of the emitter-base junction. Due to this, the emitter-base junction and collector-base junction are short circuited and normal operation of the transistor ceases. The uncontrolled avalanche of carrier multiplication through the junction may lead to breakdown of the junction. DC analysis is mainly used to set the Q-point by designing the resistors and biasing voltages. The equations related to DC analysis can be obtained by applying Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoffs current law (KCL). AC analysis is mainly used to determine the circuit parameters like gain (voltage or current), impedance (input or output) and frequency response. In case of common-base (CB) conguration, the base of the transistor is common to both input and output terminals. Emitter of the transistor is the input terminal and collector of the transistor is the output terminal. In case of common-emitter (CE) conguration, the emitter of the transistor is common to both input and output terminals. Base of the transistor is the input terminal and collector of the transistor is the output terminal. In case of common-collector (CC) conguration, the collector of the transistor is common to both input and output terminals. Base of the transistor is the input terminal and emitter of the transistor is the output terminal. An amplier is a circuit, which takes in an input signal and produces an amplied output. In an amplier circuit, the quantities of interest are its voltage gain, current gain, input impedance and output impedance. The current gain is dened as the ratio of output current to input current. Input impedance is the resistance looking back from the input terminal. The voltage gain is dened as ratio of the output voltage to input voltage.

2.26

Electron Devices and Circuits

Output impedance is the resistance looking from the output terminal. When two resistors are connected in parallel, the effective load is lesser than least valued resistor.

Equations
Common base current gain, dc
IC IE IC IB

Common emitter current gain dc = IC = dc IB + (1 + dc ) IC 0

In avalanche multiplication process, the multiplication factor is given by 1 M= n VCB 1+ BVCB 0 h11 = h21 = h12 = h22 =
Vi Ii V =0 0 I0 Ii V =0 0 Vi V0 I =0 i I0 V0 I =0 i

= hi = hf = hr = h0

Vi = hi Ii + hr V0 and I0 = hf Ii + ho V0 h-parameter model for CB conguration Veb = hib Ie + hrb Vcb and Ic = hf b Ie + hob Vcb

h-parameter model for CE conguration: Vbe = hie Ib + hre Vce and Ic = hf e Ib + hoe Vce

h-parameter model for CC conguration: Vbc = hic Ib + hrc Vec and Ie = hf c Ib + hoc Vec

BJT and its Applications


Study of CE amplier Conguration Fixed bias Voltage-divider bias Self bias withoutCE Input impedance RB ||hie RB ||hie RB = R1 ||R2 Z1 ||RB Z1 = hie + (1 + hf e )RE Output impedance RC RC Current gain
hf e RB RB +hie hf e RB RB +hie

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Voltage gain
hf e RC Zi hf e RC Zi

RC

hf e RB RB +Z1

hf e RC Zi

Study of CE amplier with source resistance and load resistance Conguration Fixed bias Voltage-divider bias Self bias Input impedance RS + (RB ||hie ) RS + (RB ||hie ) RB = R1 ||R2 RS + (Z1 ||RB ) Z1 = hie + (1 + hf e )RE Study of CC amplier Conguration CC amplier Input impedance RB ||Z1 Z1 = hic + (1 + hf c )RE Output impedance
hic hf c ||RE

Output impedance RC ||RL RC ||RL

Current gain
hf e (RB ||RS ) (RB ||RS )+hie hf e (RB ||RS ) (RB ||RS )+hie

Voltage gain
hf e (RC ||RL ) ZiS hf e (RC ||RL ) ZiS

RC ||RL

hf e (RB ||RS ) (RB ||RS )+Z1

hf e (RC ||RL ) ZiS

Current gain
(1+hf c )RB RB +Z1

Voltage gain 1

Study of CB amplier Conguration CC amplier Input impedance RE ||hib Output impedance RC Current gain 1 Voltage gain
RC hib

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Electron Devices and Circuits

Review Questions
1. What are the advantages of BJT? 2. Explain the various types of BJT. 3. Explain the doping distribution of BJT. 4. Compare npn and pnp transistors. 5. Explain the basic principle of depletion region formation in BJT. 6. Explain the operation of BJT in active, saturation and cutoff region for CE conguration. 7. Explain the operation of BJT in active, saturation and cutoff region for CB conguration. 8. Explain the operation of BJT in active, saturation and cutoff region for CC conguration. 9. Why named Transistor? 10. Explain the various current components of BJT in active region. 11. Explain base-width modulation. 12. What are the effects of base-width modulation? 13. Explain the input and output characteristics of BJT in CE conguration. 14. Explain the input and output characteristics of BJT in CB conguration. 15. Explain the input and output characteristics of BJT in CC conguration. 16. Explain the Ebers-Moll model of BJT with a suitable diagram. 17. Explain the operation of BJT as a switch. 18. Explain the various switching parameters using suitable graph. 19. What are the factors that contributes for the delay time in the BJT ? 20. What is the reason for storage time n BJT ? 21. Write a note on transistor breakdown. 22. Explain reach-through in BJT. 23. Explain avalanche in BJT.

BJT and its Applications


24. What is the need for AC modeling of devices? 25. What are the parameters that can be found from an AC model? 26. What is the need for DC analysis? 27. What is the need for AC analysis? 28. What is hybrid parameter model? 29. Explain the two-port network and its equation. 30. How do you calculate h-parameters from hybrid model? 31. Determine the generalized h-parameters for CE conguration. 32. Determine the generalized h-parameters for CC conguration. 33. Determine the generalized h-parameters for CB conguration. 34. Determine the simplied h-parameters for CE conguration.

2.29

35. Derive an expression for current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for xed bias CE conguration. 36. Derive an expression for current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for voltage-divider bias CE conguration. 37. Derive an expression for current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for self bias (without bypass capacitor) CE conguration. 38. Derive an expression for current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for common base amplier. 39. Derive an expression for current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for common collector amplier. 40. Determine the AC parameters like current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for a xed bias circuit. The given specications: hf e = 150, hie = 1K , hre = 3 105 , hoe = 10 106 A/V, RC = 2.2K and RB = 86K . 41. Determine the AC parameters like current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for a self bias circuit. The given specications: hf e = 150, hie = 1K , hre = 3 105 , hoe = 10 106 A/V, RC = 2.2K , RE = 1K and RB = 86K .

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Electron Devices and Circuits

42. Determine the AC parameters like current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for a voltage-divider bias circuit. The given specications: hf e = 150, hie = 1K , hre = 3 105 , hoe = 10 106 A/V, RC = 2.2K , RE = 1K , R1 = 86K and R2 = 10K . 43. Determine the AC parameters like current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for a common collector amplier. The given specications: hf c = 150, hic = 1.3K , RE = 2.2K , R1 = 68K and R2 = 56K . 44. Determine the AC parameters like current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain for a common base amplier. The given specications: hf b = 1, hib=1.5K .