SQL

SQL is divided into the following

• • • • •

Data Definition Language (DDL) Data Manipulation Language (DML) Data Retrieval Language (DRL) Transaction Control Language (TCL) Data Control Language (DCL)

DDL

Data Definition Language (DDL) statements are used to define the database structure or

schema. Some examples:

   

CREATE - to create objects in the database ALTER - alters the structure of the database DROP - delete objects from the database TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed

 

COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary RENAME - rename an object

DRL

Data Retrieval Language:

SELECT - retrieve data from the a database
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DML Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements are used for managing data within schema objects. Some examples:

   

INSERT - insert data into a table UPDATE - updates existing data within a table DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records remain MERGE - UPSERT operation (insert or update)

DCL

Data Control Language (DCL) statements. Some examples:

 

GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT command

TCL Transaction Control (TCL) statements are used to manage the changes made by DML statements. It allows statements to be grouped together into logical transactions.
  

COMMIT - save work done SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT

DRL: To Retreive the data from Databse Tables or views..
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SELECT: SELECT * FROM emp;

SELECT emno,ename,sal,deptno FROM emp;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10;

SELECT empno,ename,sal,deptno FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE job = ‘manager’;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE job = ‘MANAGER’;
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SELECT * FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10 AND job = ‘MANAGER’;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10 OR job = ‘MANAGER’;

OPERATORS:

The following are the different types of operators used in where clause.  Arithmetic operators  Comparison operators  Logical operators Arithmetic operators: Comparison operators  =, !=, >, <, >=, <=  between, not between  in, not in  null, not null  like Logical operators  And
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+, -, *, /

 Or  Not IN:

-- lowest precedence

This will gives the output based on the column and its list of values specified. SELECT * FROM emp WHERE deptno IN(10,30)

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE deptno NOT IN(10,30);

BETWEEN AND: This will gives the output based on the column and its lower bound, upperbound. SELECT * FROM emp WHERE depno BETWEEN 10 AND 30;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE depno NOT BETWEEN 10 AND 30;

IS NULL: This will gives the output based on the null values in the specified column. SELECT *
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FROM emp WHERE comm IS NULL;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE comm IS NOT NULL;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE sal > 5000 AND comm IS NULL;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE deptno= 10 AND comm IS NULL;

LIKE: This will be used to search through the rows of database column based on the pattern you specify. SELECT * FROM emp WHERE name LIKE ‘S%’

SELECT *

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FROM emp WHERE name LIKE ‘_O%’;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE name LIKE ‘%S%’;

ORDER BY :

This will be used to ordering the columns data (ascending or descending).

By default oracle will use ascending order. If you want output in descending order you have to use desc keyword after the column.

SELECT * FROM emp ORDER BY deptno;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE job = ‘SALESMAN’ ORDER BY deptno;

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE job = ‘SALESMAN’
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ORDER BY ename;

Comparison operators: a) USING =, >, <, >=, <=, !=, <> SQL> select * from student where no = 2; SQL> select * from student where no < 2; SQL> select * from student where no > 2; SQL> select * from student where no <= 2; SQL> select * from student where no >= 2; SQL> select * from student where no != 2; SQL> select * from student where no <> 2; CASE:Case is similar to decode but easier to understand while going through coding Ex: SQL> Select sal, Case sal When 500 then ‘low’ When 5000 then ‘high’ Else ‘medium’ End case From emp;

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SQL FUNCTIONS Functions can be categorized as follows. • • Single Row Functions Group Functions

Single Row Functions:  Number Functions  Character Functions  Date Functions  Analytical Functions  Miscellaneous Functions  Conversion Functions Multi Row Functions  Aggregate Function Aggregate Function • • • SUM COUNT MAX
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• •

MIN AVG

Single Row Functions: Number Functions • • • • • • • • • ROUND TRUNCATE CEIL FLOOR MODULUS POWER SQRT ABS SIGN

Character Functions Character Functions _____________________ lower()-- converting into lower case upper()-- converting into upper case initcap() ---- converting into initial letters as capital

ltrim() -- cut leftside gaps rtirm() -- cut rightside gaps trim() -- cut bothside gaps **lpad() **rpad() -- attach special characters at leftside of string -- attach special characters at rightside of string
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**substr() **instring()

-- to fetch part of String -- to fetch position of required string

diff b/w substr and instr

????

• • • • •

LOWER UPPER INITCAP CONCAT SUBSTRING: Substr(colname,x,y) If m is +ve then its forwarded If m is –ve then its backwarded If n is not given ,then it returns from mth position to end of string If n <=0 then it returns null

INSTRING: Instr(columnname,searchpattern,x,y); Where x= from position Y= yth number of occurance

• • • • • Date Functions

Lpad Rpad LTRIM RTRIM TRIM

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• • • • • • •

SYSDATE MONTHS_BETWEEN ADD_MONTH NEXT_DAY LAST_DAY ROUND(DATE,’FORMAT’) TRUNC(DATE,’FORMAT’)

Analytical Functions: • • • • • RANK: SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) FROM EMP RANK DENSE_RANK LEAD LAG ROW_NUM

SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL NULLS FIRST) FROM EMP

SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,DEPTNO,RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY DEPTNO ORDER BY SAL NULLS FIRST) FROM EMP
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DENSE_RANK():

SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,DEPTNO,DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) FROM EMP

SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,DEPTNO,DENSE_RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY DEPTNO ORDER BY SAL) FROM EMP

LEAD: SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,SAL,DEPTNO, LEAD(SAL,1,0) OVER(ORDER BY SAL) FROM EMP SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,SAL,DEPTNO, LEAD(SAL,1,0) OVER(PARTITION BY DEPTNO ORDER BY SAL) FROM EMP

LAG: SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,SAL,DEPTNO, LAG(SAL,1,0) OVER(ORDER BY SAL)
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FROM EMP

SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,SAL,DEPTNO, LAG(SAL,1,0) OVER(PARTITION BY DEPTNO ORDER BY SAL NULLS FIRST) FROM EMP

ROW_NUMBER: SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,SAL,DEPTNO, ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY SAL NULLS FIRST) "SEQ NUMBER" FROM EMP

MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS: • • • UID USER VSIZE

CONVERSION FUNCTIONS • • • TO_CHAR TO_DATE TO_NUM

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INSERT

This will be used to insert the records into table. We have two methods to insert. • • By value method By address method

A) Using Value Method

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (1122,’SATEESH’,’ANALYST’,7902,’24-JUN-10’,3000,200,10);

INSERT INTO emp(empno,ename,sal,hiredate,deptno) VALUES (1123,’HEMA’,5000,’22-JAN-10’,10);

INSERT INTO emp(empno,ename ,hiredate) VALUES (1123,’RAMU’,’4-DEC-10’);

INSERT INTO emp(hiredate ,ename ,empno) VALUES (’4-DEC-10’,’RAMU’, 1123);

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To insert a new record again you have to type entire insert command, if there are lot records this will be difficult. This will be avoided by using address method.

of

B) Using Address Method This will prompt you for the values but for every insert you have to use forward slash.

INSERT INTO emp(empno,ename ,job,mgr,hiredate,sal,comm,deptno) VALUES (&empno,&ename,&job,&mgr,&hiredate,&sal,&comm,&deptno);

INSERT INTO emp(empno,ename ,hiredate) VALUES (&empno,&ename ,&hiredate);

UPDATE This can be used to modify the table data. Ex: SQL> update student set marks = 500; If you are not specifying any condition this will update entire table. SQL> update student set marks = 500 where no = 2; SQL> update student set marks = 500, name = 'sateesh' where no = 1; DELETE This can be used to delete the table data temporarily. This can be used to delete specific “row/s “from the table using the condition.
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SQL> delete student; If you are not specifying any condition this will delete entire table. SQL> delete student where no = 2;

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DDL
CREATE TABLE: SQL> create table student ( no number (2), name varchar (10), marks number (3) ); ALTER: This can be used to add or remove columns and to modify the precision of the datatype. a) ADDING COLUMN: SQL> ALTER TABLE student ADD sdob date; b) REMOVING COLUMN SQL> ALTER TABLE student DROP COLUMN sdob; c) MODIFY COLUMN SQL> ALTER TABLE student MODIFY marks number (5); * To decrease precision the column should be empty. * Or we can decrease the precision if length of the datatype is greater than the Column value.
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d) RENAMING COLUMN Ex: SQL> ALTER TABLE student RENAME COLUMN marks to smarks;

TRUNCATE: This can be used to delete the entire table data permanently. But table structure is available in the database. Here (after truncate ) we can re enter the values into table. SQL> TRUNCATE TABLE student;

DROP : This will be used to drop the database object. Here entire data and structure of the table will lose from the database. SQL> DROP TABLE student; RENAME: This will be used to rename the database object; SQL> RENAME student TO stud;

TCL
COMMIT: This will be used to save the work. Commit is of two types.
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 

Implicit Explicit

a) IMPLICIT: This will be issued by oracle internally in two situations.   When any DDL operation is performed. When you are exiting from SQL * PLUS.

b) EXPLICIT: This will be issued by the user. Syntax: Commit or commit work;

* When ever you committed then the transaction was completed. ROLLBACK: This will undo the operation. This will be applied in two methods.   Syntax: Upto previous commit Upto previous rollback Roll or roll work; Or Rollback or rollback work;

* While process is going on, if suddenly power goes then oracle will rollback the transaction.

SAVEPOINT: You can use savepoints to rollback portions of your current set of transactions. Syntax: Ex: Savepoint <savepoint_name>; SQL> savepoint s1;
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SQL> insert into student values(1, ‘a’, 100);

SQL> savepoint s2; SQL> insert into student values(2, ‘b’, 200);

SQL> savepoint s3; SQL> insert into student values(3, ‘c’, 300);

SQL> savepoint s4; SQL> insert into student values(4, ‘d’, 400); Before rollback SQL> select * from student; SQL> rollback to savepoint s3; Or SQL> rollback to s3; This will rollback last two records. SQL> select * from student;

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DCL
DCL commands are used to granting and revoking the permissions.

GRANT: This is used to grant the privileges to other users. Syntax: Grant <privileges> on <object_name> to <user_name> [with grant option]; -- you can give individual privilege -- you can give set of privileges -- you can give all privileges

SQL> grant select on student to Sateesh; SQL> grant select,insert on student to Sateesh; SQL> grant all on student to Sateesh; The Sateesh user has to use dot method to access the object. SQL> select * from scott.student;

The Sateesh user can not grant permission on student table to other users. To get this type of option use the following. SQL> grant all on student to Sateesh with grant option; Now Sateesh user also has the grant permissions on student table.

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REVOKE: This is used to revoke the privileges from the users to which you granted the privileges. Syntax: Revoke <privileges> on <object_name> from <user_name>; SQL> revoke select on student form Sateesh;-- you can revoke individual privilege SQL> revoke select, insert on student from Sateesh; -- you can revoke set of privileges SQL> revoke all on student from Sateesh;
-- you can revoke all privileges

PARTITIONS

A single logical table can be split into a number of physically separate pieces based on ranges of key values. Each of the parts of the table is called a partition. A non-partitioned table can not be partitioned later.

TYPES:
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 

Range partitions List partitions

ADVANTAGES:  Reducing downtime for scheduled maintenance, which allows maintenance operations to Reducing downtime due to data failure, failure of a particular partition will no way affect Partition independence allows for concurrent use of the various partitions for various

be carried out on selected partitions while other partitions are available to users.  other partitions.  purposes.

ADVANTAGES OF PARTITIONS BY STORING THEM IN DIFFERENT TABLESPACES   Reduces the possibility of data corruption in multiple partitions. Back up and recovery of each partition can be done independently.

DISADVANTAGES  Partitioned tables cannot contain any columns with long or long raw datatypes, LOB

types or object types.

RANGE PARTITIONS: Creating range partitioned table
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SQL>

CREATE TABLE student_rpd ( no number(2), name varchar(10) ) partition by range(no) ( partition p1 values less than(10), partition p2 values less than(20), partition p3 values less than(30), partition p4 values less than(maxvalue) );

Note: If you are using maxvalue for the last partition, you can not add a partition. b) Inserting records into range partitioned table SQL> Insert into student values(1,’a’); SQL> Insert into student values(11,’b’); SQL> Insert into student values(21,’c’); SQL> Insert into student values(31,’d’); c) Retrieving records from range partitioned table SQL> Select *from student; SQL> Select *from student partition(p1); d) Possible operations with range partitions  Add  Drop
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-- this will go to p1 -- this will go to p2 -- this will go to p3 -- this will go to p4

 Truncate  Rename

e) Adding a partition SQL> ALTER TABLE student ADD PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN (40); f) Dropping a partition SQL> ALTER TABLE student DROP PARTITION p4; g) Renaming a partition SQL> ALTER TABLE student RENAME PARTITION p3 TO p6; h) Truncate a partition SQL> ALTER TABLE student TRUNCATE PARTITION p6;

LIST PARTITION: Creating list partitioned table SQL> CREATE TABLE student_lpd ( no NUMBER(4),
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name VARCHAR(10), branch VARCHAR2(10) ) PARTITION BY LIST(branch) ( PARTITION p1 VALUES ('ece','eee'), PARTITION p2 VALUES ('cse','it'), PARTITION p3 VALUES ('civil','mechanical') ); c) Retrieving records from list partitioned table d) Possible operations with list partitions  Add  Drop  Truncate  Rename • • • • GROUP BY HAVING ROLL UP CUBE select deptno,job,sum(sal) from emp * group by rollup(deptno,job) DEPTNO JOB 10 MGR 10 CLERK SUM(SAL) 24675 1729.91

1 select deptno,job,sum(sal) 2 from emp 3* group by deptno,job DEPTNO JOB 30 SALESMAN 20 MANAGER SUM(SAL) 1965.15 6218.92

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20 CLERK 30 CLERK

3971.74 1094.5

10 MANAGER

34760.19

10 PRESIDENT 6653.45 10 67818.55 3971.74 6271.19 6218.92

10 PRESIDENT 6653.45 30 MANAGER 10 CLERK 3283.52

20 CLERK 20 ANALYST

1729.91 34760.19 6271.19 24675

10 MANAGER 20 ANALYST 10 MGR

20 MANAGER 20

16461.85 1094.5 3283.52 1965.15

30 CLERK 30 MANAGER

0 rows selected.

30 SALESMAN 30 6343.17 90623.57

CONSTRAINTS Constraints are categorized as follows. Domain integrity constraints  Not null  Check Entity integrity constraints  Unique  Primary key Referential integrity constraints

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 Foreign key Constraints are always attached to a column not a table. We can add constraints in three ways.  Column level  Table level  Alter level -- along with the column definition -- after the table definition -- using alter command

While adding constraints you need not specify the name but the type only, oracle will internally name the constraint. If you want to give a name to the constraint, you have to use the constraint clause. NOT NULL: This is used to avoid null values. We can add this constraint in column level only. SQL> create table student(no number(2) not null, name varchar(10), marks number(3)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) constraint nn not null, name varchar(10), marks number(3));

CHECK: This is used to insert the values based on specified condition. We can add this constraint in all three levels. COLUMN LEVEL SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3) check (marks > 300)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3) constraint ch check(marks > 300)); TABLE LEVEL
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SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), check (marks > 300)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), constraint ch check(marks > 300)); ALTER LEVEL SQL> alter table student add check(marks>300); SQL> alter table student add constraint ch check(marks>300);

UNIQUE: This is used to avoid duplicates but it allows nulls. We can add this constraint in all three levels. Ex: COLUMN LEVEL SQL> create table student(no number(2) unique, name varchar(10), marks number(3)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) constraint un unique, name varchar(10), marks number(3));

TABLE LEVEL SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), unique(no)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), constraint un unique(no));

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ALTER LEVEL SQL> alter table student add unique(no); SQL> alter table student add constraint un unique(no);

PRIMARY KEY: This is used to avoid duplicates and nulls. This will work as combination of unique and not null. Primary key always attached to the parent table. We can add this constraint in all three levels. Ex: COLUMN LEVEL SQL> create table student(no number(2) primary key, name varchar(10), marks number(3)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) constraint pk primary key, name varchar(10), marks number(3));

TABLE LEVEL SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), primary key(no)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), constraint pk primary key(no));

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ALTER LEVEL SQL> alter table student add primary key(no); SQL> alter table student add constraint pk primary key(no);

FOREIGN KEY: This is used to reference the parent table primary key column which allows duplicates. Foreign key always attached to the child table. We can add this constraint in table and alter levels only. Ex: TABLE LEVEL SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2), primary key(empno), foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno)); SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2), constraint pk primary key(empno), constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno));

ALTER LEVEL SQL> alter table emp add foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno); SQL> alter table emp add constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno);

Once the primary key and foreign key relationship has been created then you can not remove any parent record if the dependent Childs exist.

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ON DELTE CASCADE: By using this clause you can remove the parent record even it Childs exists. Because when ever you remove parent record oracle automatically removes all its dependent records from child table, if this clause is present while creating foreign key constraint. TABLE LEVEL SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2), primary key(empno), foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on delete cascade); SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2), constraint pk primary key(empno), constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on delete cascade);

ALTER LEVEL SQL> alter table emp add foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on delete cascade; SQL> alter table emp add constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on delete cascade;

COMPOSITE KEYS: A composite key can be defined on a combination of columns. We can define composite keys on entity integrity and referential integrity constraints. Composite key can be defined in table and alter levels only. UNIQUE (TABLE LEVEL) SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
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unique(no,name)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), constraint un unique(no,name)); UNIQUE (ALTER LEVEL) SQL> alter table student add unique(no,name); SQL> alter table student add constraint un unique(no,name);

PRIMARY KEY (TABLE LEVEL) SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), primary key(no,name)); SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), constraint pk primary key(no,name));

PRIMARY KEY (ALTER LEVEL) SQL> alter table student add primary key(no,anme); SQL> alter table student add constraint pk primary key(no,name);

FOREIGN KEY (TABLE LEVEL) SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2), dname varchar(10), primary key(empno), foreign key(deptno,dname) references dept(deptno,dname)); SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2), dname varchar(10), constraint pk primary key(empno), constraint fk foreign key(deptno,dname) references dept(deptno,dname));

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FOREIGN KEY (ALTER LEVEL) SQL> alter table emp add foreign key(deptno,dname) references dept(deptno,dname); SQL> alter table emp add constraint fk foreign key(deptno,dname) references dept(deptno,dname);

OPERATIONS WITH CONSTRAINTS: Possible operations with constraints as follows.  Enable  Disable  Drop ENABLE: This will enable the constraint. Before enable, the constraint will check the existing data. Ex: SQL> ALTER TABLE student ENABLE CONSTRAINT un;

DISABLE: This will disable the constraint. Ex: SQL> ALTER TABLE student DISABLE CONSTRAINT un;
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DROP: This will remove the constraint. Ex: SQL> ALTER TABLE student DROP CONSTRAINT un; Once the table is dropped, constraints automatically will drop.

SET OPERATORS TYPES  Union  Union all  Intersect
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 Minus

UNION: This will combine the records of multiple tables having the same structure. Ex: SQL> SELECT * FROM student1 UNION SELECT * FROM student2; UNION ALL: This will combine the records of multiple tables having the same structure but including duplicates. Ex: SQL> SELECT * FROM student1 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM student2; INTERSECT: This will give the common records of multiple tables having the same structure. Ex: SQL> SELECT * FROM student1 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM student2; MINUS: This will give the records of a table whose records are not in other tables having the same structure. Ex: SQL> SELECT * FROM student1 MINUS
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SELECT * FROM student2;

JOINS  The purpose of a join is to combine the data across tables.  A join is actually performed by the where clause which combines the specified rows of tables.  If a join involves in more than two tables then oracle joins first two tables based on the joins condition and then compares the result with the next table and so on.

CATEGORIES OF JOINS: 1) ANSI SQL JOINS (works in all RDBMS environments)

2) ORACLE PROPRIETARY JOINS (works in only ORACLE environment) TYPES OF JOINS: Inner joins Outer joins (reality) (reality & virtuality)

Inner Joins: Displays result only when matched records are found.  Equi join  Non eqvi join Self join , Natural joins are extended joins of Inner joins
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Self join Natural join

: works on same table but different columns : system automatically applies join condition Both result set should have same column to perform natural join

Outer Joins:  Left outer join  Right outer join  Full outer join

Inner joins: Equi join: When tables are joined based on common column, then it is called as equi join SQL> select empno,ename,sal,dept.deptno,dname,job from emp,dept where emp.deptno=dept.deptno

SQL> select empno,ename,sal,d.deptno,dname,job from dept d inner join emp e on d.deptno=e.deptno

Non equi join:
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When table are joined without any common columns then it is called as non equi join. SQL> select empno,ename,grade,sal,lsal,hsal from emp,salgrade where sal between lsal and hsal write a query to fetch all the employees along with their deptname and grade SQL> select ename,dname,grade from emp e,dept d,salgrade s where e.deptno=d.deptno and e.sal between lsal and hsal Self Join: When a table is joined to itself is called self join. In self join , we will create two table aliases for same table. SQL> select e.ename,m.ename from emp e,emp m where e.mgr= m.empno; Natural Join: SQL> select * from emp natural join dept where dname=’accounting’;

VIEWS

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A view is a database object that is a logical representation of a table. It is delivered from a table but has no storage of its own and often may be used in the same manner as a table. A view takes the output of the query and treats it as a table, therefore a view can be thought of as a stored query or a virtual table. TYPES:  Simple view  Complex view Simple view can be created from one table where as complex view can be created from multiple tables. WHY VIEWS ?  Provides additional level of security by restricting access to a predetermined set of rows Hide the data complexity. Simplify commands for the user.

and/or columns of a table.  

VIEWS WITHOUT DML:  Read only view  View with group by  View with rownum  View with aggregate functions  Partition view  View with distinct Ex: SQL> Create view dept_v as select *from dept with read only; SQL> Create view dept_v as select deptno, sum(sal) t_sal from emp group by deptno; SQL> Create view stud as select rownum no, name, marks from student;

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SQL> Create view student as select *from student1 union select *from student2; SQL> Create view stud as select distinct no,name from student;

VIEWS WITH DML  View with not null column -- insert with out not null column not possible -- update not null column to null is not possible -- delete possible  View with out not null column which was in base table -- insert not possible -- update, delete possible  View with expression -- insert , update not possible -- delete possible  View with functions (except aggregate) -- insert, update not possible -- delete possible  View was created but the underlying table was dropped then we will get the message like View was created but the base table has been altered but still the view was with the initial

“view has errors”.  definition, we have to replace the view to affect the changes.

Complex view (view with more than one table) -- insert not possible -- update, delete possible (not always) CREATING VIEW WITHOUT HAVING THE BASE TABLE

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SQL> Create force view stud as select * from student; -- Once the base table was created then the view is validated.

VIEW WITH CHECK OPTION CONSTRAINT SQL> Create view stud as select *from student where marks = 500 with check option constraint Ck; - Insert possible with marks value as 500 - Update possible excluding marks column - Delete possible DROPPING VIEWS SQL> drop view dept_v;

SEQUENCE It’s a sql objects to genereate unique sequential numbers It’s used as primary key ,unique key purpose Syntax: CREATE SEQUENCE seq_name INCREMENT BY integer START WITH integer MAXVAL integer MINVAL integer

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CYCLE/NOCYCLE CACHE integer/NO CHACHE INCREMENT BY:  Interval between serial numbers  Can be +ve or –ve but not zero.  If not mention default is 1.

MIN VALUE: Represents min value of sequence. MAX VALUE: Represents max value can be generated. CYCLE: Represents sequence will continue to generate values after reaching max value or min value also NOCYCLE: Represents sequence should stop generating new numbers once it reaches to targeted limits. CACHE: Represents pre allocation of sequence numbers

NOCYCLE: Represents value of sequence are not pre allocated. ALTER OPTIONS  The alter option is available here to alter sequences  Only upcoming values are effected due to these alterations.
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 START WITH option cannot be changed by using ALTER option.  To change the START WITH option , drop the sequence and then recreate the sequence.  While altering MAXVALUE we cannot give lower than currvalue.

DICTIONARY TABLES: User_objects User_sequences catalog.

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MATERIALIZED VIEWS  Materialized view contains image of data from base tables in client system memory location  Hence select statements on materialized view run faster than normal views.  In order to create materialized view on a base table table should have primary key  Materialized views purpose is read only.

Advantages: You can use materialized views to achieve one or more of the following goals:
   

Ease Network Loads Create a Mass Deployment Environment Enable Data Subsetting Enable Disconnected Computing

Creating of materialized views
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There are series of steps to create materialized views. 1) Grant permissions like “create materialized view” , ”create database link” ur target account. 2) Create database link to source account/login to access objects 3) Make sure that our source table must have primary key. 4) Create log table to our source table. Which consist of all updations done to source table 5) Create materialized view to source table here.

Step—1: Login as system/manager: SQL>Grant create materialized view to sateesh34; SQL>Grant create database link to sateesh34; Step -–2 Login into source table account: o Create primary key o Create log table SQL> CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON EMP; Step—3:
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Login as sateesh34/sateesh34: SQL> create database link www.scott.com connect to scott identified by tiger using 'prod'; SQL> create materialized view mv_com refresh fast with primary key start with sysdate next sysdate+1/(24*60) as Select * from emp@www.scott.com

SYNONYM A synonym is a database object, which is used as an alias for a table, view or sequence. A synonym is an alias for one of the following objects:  table  view  stored procedure  stored function  package  java class  used defined object object type  another synonym etc…
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TYPES:  Private  Public Private synonym is available to the particular user who creates. Public synonym is created by DBA which is available to all the users. ADVANTAGES:   Hide the name and owner of the object. Provides location transparency for remote objects of a distributed database.

CREATE AND DROP: Syx1: CREATE SYNONYM synonym-name FOR OBJECT_NAME; Syx1: CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM synonym-name FOR OBJECT_NAME;

SQL> create synonym s1 for emp; SQL> create public synonym s2 for emp; SQL> drop synonym s1;

SUBQUERIES AND EXISTS SUBQUERIES Nesting of queries, one within the other is termed as a subquery. A statement containing a subquery is called a parent query. Subqueries are used to retrieve data from tables that depend on the values in the table itself. TYPES
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 Single row subqueries  Multi row subqueries  Multiple subqueries  Correlated subqueries

SINGLE ROW SUBQUERIES: In single row subquery, it will return one value. Ex: SQL> select * from emp where sal > (select sal from emp where empno = 7566);

MULTI ROW SUBQUERIES: In multi row subquery, it will return more than one value. In such cases we should include operators like any, all, in, not in, between, the comparision operator and the subquery. Ex:/

SQL> select * from emp where sal > any (select sal from emp where sal between 2500 and 4000);

SQL> select * from emp where sal > all (select sal from emp where sal between 2500 and 4000);

MULTIPLE SUBQUERIES: There is no limit on the number of subqueries included in a where clause. It allows nesting of a query within a subquery.

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SQL> select * from emp where sal = (select max(sal) from emp where sal < (select max(sal) from emp)); CORRELATED SUBQUERIES: A subquery is evaluated once for the entire parent statement where as a correlated subquery is evaluated once for every row processed by the parent statement. SQL> select distinct deptno from emp e where 5 <= (select count(ename) from emp where e.deptno = deptno);

EXISTS: Exists function is a test for existence. This is a logical test for the return of rows from a query. Ex: Suppose we want to display the department numbers which has more than 4 employees.

SQL> select deptno,count(*) from emp group by deptno having count(*) > 4;

From the above query can you want to display the names of employees? SQL> select deptno,ename, count(*) from emp group by deptno,ename having count(*) > 4; no rows selected The above query returns nothing because combination of deptno and ename never return more than one count. The solution is to use exists which follows. SQL> select deptno,ename from emp e1 where exists (select * from emp e2 where e1.deptno=e2.deptno group by e2.deptno having count(e2.ename) > 4) by deptno,ename; NOT EXISTS: order

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SQL> select deptno,ename from emp e1 where not exists (select * from emp e2 where e1.deptno=e2.deptno group by e2.deptno having count(e2.ename) > 4) order by deptno,ename;

WALKUP TREES AND INLINE VIEW WALKUP TREES: Using hierarchical queries, you can retrieve data based on a natural hierarchical relationship between rows in a table. However, where a hierarchical relationship exists between the rows of a table, a process called tree walking enables the hierarchy to be constructed. SQL> select ename || '==>' || prior ename, level from emp start with ename = 'KING' connect by prior empno=mgr; In the above Start with clause specifies the root row of the table. Level pseudo column gives the 1 for root , 2 for child and so on. Connect by prior clause specifies the columns which has parent-child relationship.

INLINE VIEW OR TOP-N ANALYSIS: In the select statement instead of table name, replacing the select statement is known as inline view. Ex: SQL> Select ename, sal, rownum rank from (select *from emp order by sal); INDEXES
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An index can be created in a table to find data more quickly and efficiently. The users cannot see the indexes, they are just used to speed up searches/queries. Note: Updating a table with indexes takes more time than updating a table without (because the indexes also need an update). So you should only create indexes on columns (and tables) that will be frequently searched against.

Index is typically a listing of keywords accompanied by the location of information on a subject. We can create indexes explicitly to speed up SQL statement execution on a table. The index points directly to the location of the rows containing the value.

WHY INDEXES? Indexes are most useful on larger tables, on columns that are likely to appear in where clauses as simple equality. TYPES  Unique index  Non-unique index  Btree index  Bitmap index  Composite index  Reverse key index  Index organized table

UNIQUE INDEX: Unique indexes guarantee that no two rows of a table have duplicate values in the columns that define the index. Unique index is automatically created when primary key or unique constraint is created.
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Ex:

SQL> create unique index stud_ind on student(sno);

NON-UNIQUE INDEX: Non-Unique indexes do not impose the above restriction on the column values. Ex: SQL> create index stud_ind on student(sno);

BTREE INDEX: The default type of index used in an oracle database is the btree index. A btree index is designed to provide both rapid access to individual rows and quick access to groups of rows within a range. The btree index does this by performing a succession of value comparisons. Each comparison eliminates many of the rows. Ex: SQL> create index stud_ind on student(sno);

BITMAP INDEX: This can be used for low cardinality columns: that is columns in which the number of distinct values is small when compared to the number of the rows in the table. Ex: SQL> create bitmap index stud_ind on student(sex);

COMPOSITE INDEX: A composite index also called a concatenated index is an index created on multiple columns of a table. Columns in a composite index can appear in any order and need not be adjacent columns of the table. Ex: SQL> create bitmap index stud_ind on student(sno, sname);
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REVERSE KEY INDEX: A reverse key index when compared to standard index reverses each byte of the column being indexed while keeping the column order. Such an arrangement can help avoid performance degradations in indexes. Ex: SQL> create index stud_ind on student(sno, reverse);

We can rebuild a reverse key index into normal index using the noreverse keyword. Ex: SQL> alter index stud_ind rebuild noreverse;

FUNCTION BASED INDEX: This will use result of the function as key instead of using column as the value for the key. Ex: SQL> create index stud_ind on student(upper(sname));

INDEX-ORGANIZED TABLE: An index-organized table keeps its data sorted according to the primary key column values for the table. Index-organized tables store their data as if the entire table was stored in an index. An index-organized table allows you to store the entire table’s data in an index. Ex: SQL> create table student (sno number(2),sname varchar(10),smarks number(3) constraint

pk primary key(sno) organization index;

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---------------------------------------case statements------------------------------------------

select empno,ename,deptno, case deptno when 10 then 'accounts' when 20 then 'sales' when 30 then 'purchase' else 'raw material' end from emp order by deptno / -----------------------------------------------------------

select ename,sal, case when sal>800 and sal<3000 then 'grade 1' when sal>=3000 and sal<6000 then 'grade 2' when sal>=6000 and sal<9000 then 'grade 3'
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else 'grade 4' end from emp order by deptno /

------------------------------------pseudo columns--------------------------------------------------

Pseudo column behave like a table column, but not actually stored in a table Against pseudo column only SELECT will work Against pseudo column INSERT, DELETE,UPDATE(DML) cannot work CASE AND DEFAULT CASE: Case is similar to decode but easier to understand while going through coding Ex: SQL> Select sal, Case sal When 500 then ‘low’ When 5000 then ‘high’ Else ‘medium’ End case From emp;

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Ex:

select empno,ename,deptno, case deptno when 10 then 'accounts' when 20 then 'sales' when 30 then 'purchase' else 'raw material' end from emp order by deptno /

Ex:

select ename,sal, case when sal>800 and sal<3000 then 'grade 1' when sal>=3000 and sal<6000 then 'grade 2' when sal>=6000 and sal<9000 then 'grade 3' else 'grade 4' end from emp order by deptno /

DEFAULT:
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Default can be considered as a substitute behavior of not null constraint when applied to new rows being entered into the table. When you define a column with the default keyword followed by a value, you are actually telling the database that, on insert if a row was not assigned a value for this column, use the default value that you have specified. Default is applied only during insertion of new rows. Ex: SQL> create table student(no number(2) default 11,name varchar(2)); SQL> insert into student values(1,'a'); SQL> insert into student(name) values('b'); SQL> select * from student; SQL> insert into student values(null, ‘c’); SQL> select * from student; - Default can not override nulls. DECODE:

In oracle PL/SQL, The decode function has the functionality of an IF-THEN-ELSE Statement.

SYNTAX:-

Decode(expression, Search_1,result_1, Search_2,result_2, Default
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) Here

Expression is the Value to Compare.

Search is the value that is compared against expression.

Result is the Value Returned if the Expression is equal to search.

Default is optional. if no matches are found then decode will return default.If Default is omitted then the decode statement will return null value.(IF NO MATCHES ARE FOUND).

Increment the salaries with decode operator

select empno,ename,deptno, sal old_sal, sum(decode(deptno, 10,sal+(sal*(10/100)), 20,sal+(sal*(20/100)), 30,sal+(sal*(30/100)),

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'0000') )newsal from vamsi_emp /

With out default value in synatax:

select empno,ename,deptno, sal old_sal, decode(deptno, 10,sal+(sal*(10/100)), 20,sal+(sal*(20/100)), 30,sal+(sal*(30/100)) ) newsal from vamsi_emp /

Sum of new salaries incremented by decode

select sum(decode(deptno,
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10,sal+(sal*(10/100)), 20,sal+(sal*(20/100)), 30,sal+(sal*(30/100)), '0000')) newsal from vamsi_emp /

Using decode multiple times in query:

select empno,ename,deptno, decode(deptno,10,'ece', 20,'cse', 30,'eee', 40,'it' ) dname, decode(deptno,10,sal+(sal*(10/100)), 20,sal+(sal*(20/100)), 30,sal+(sal*(30/100)) ) newsal from vamsi_emp
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INTRODUCTION What is PL/SQL? SQL statements operate independently, having little effect on one another. This is of limited use for writing programs, where you must create a body of code that is going to vary its behavior according to the data and to user or other input. Advantages of PL/SQL These are the advantages of PL/SQL.
• • • • • • • • •

Block Structures Better Performance Higher Productivity Full Portability Tight Security Error Handling: Access to Pre-defined Packages Support for Object-Oriented Programming Support for Developing Web Applications and Pages

The basic unit in any PL/SQL program is block. All PL/SQL programs are composed of blocks which can occur sequentially or nested. BLOCK STRUCTURE Declare
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-- declarative section Begin -- executable section Exception -- exception section End; In the above declarative and exception sections are optional.

BLOCK TYPES • • Anonymous blocks Named blocks

ANONYMOUS BLOCKS An anonymous block implies basic block structure. Ex: BEGIN Dbms_output.put_line(‘My first program’); END; COMMENTS Comments improve readability and make your program more understandable. They are ignored by the PL/SQL compiler. There are two types of comments available. • • Single line comments Multiline comments

SINGLE LINE COMMENTS: A single-line comment can start at any point on a line with two dashes and continues until the end of the line. Ex: BEGIN Dbms_output.put_line(‘hello’); END;
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-- sample program

MULTILINE COMMENTS: Multiline comments start with the /* delimiter and ends with */ delimiter. Ex: BEGIN Dbms_output.put_line(‘hello’); END; /* sample program */

VARIABLE DECLERATIONS Variables can be declared in declarative section of the block; Ex: DECLARE a number; b number := 5; c number default 6; d number constant := 7; ANCHORED DECLERATIONS PL/SQL offers two kinds of achoring. • • Scalar anchoring Record anchoring

SCALAR ANCHORING: Use the %TYPE attribute to define your variable based on table’s column of some other PL/SQL scalar variable. Ex: DECLARE dno RECORD ANCHORING: Use the %ROWTYPE attribute to define your record structure based on a table. Ex: DECLARE V_dept dept%rowtype;
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dept.deptno%type;

PL/SQL CONTROL STRUCTURES : PL/SQL has a variety of control structures that allow you to control the behaviour of the block as it runs. These structures include conditional statements and loops. Syntax:1 If <condition1> then Sequence of statements; Elsif <condition1> then Sequence of statements; …… Else Sequence of statements; End if; Ex: DECLARE dno number(2); BEGIN select deptno into dno from dept where dname = 'ACCOUNTING'; if dno = 10 then dbms_output.put_line('Location is NEW YORK'); elsif dno = 20 then dbms_output.put_line('Location is DALLAS');
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elsif dno = 30 then dbms_output.put_line('Location is CHICAGO'); else dbms_output.put_line('Location is BOSTON'); end if; END; Output: Location is NEW YORK

SIMPLE LOOP: Syntax: Loop Sequence of statements; Exit when <condition>; End loop; In the syntax exit when <condition> is equivalent to If <condition> then Exit; End if; Ex: DECLARE i number := 1; BEGIN loop dbms_output.put_line('i = ' || i); i := i + 1; exit when i > 5; end loop; END; Output: i=1
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i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5

WHILE LOOP: Syntax: While <condition> loop Sequence of statements; End loop; Ex: DECLARE i number := 1; BEGIN While i <= 5 loop dbms_output.put_line('i = ' || i); i := i + 1; end loop; END; Output: i = 1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 FOR LOOP: Syntax: For <loop_counter_variable> in low_bound..high_bound loop Sequence of statements;
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End loop; Ex1: BEGIN For i in 1..5 loop dbms_output.put_line('i = ' || i); end loop; END; Output: i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 Ex2: BEGIN For i in reverse 1..5 loop dbms_output.put_line('i = ' || i); end loop; END; Output: i=5 i=4 i=3 i=2 i=1

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CURSORS Introduction: Cursor is a pointer to memory location(RAM) called as context area which contains the information necessary for row by row processing, including the number of rows processed by the statement, a pointer to the parsed representation of the statement, and the active set which is the set of rows returned by the query. Cursor contains two parts • • Header Body

Header includes cursor name, any parameters and the type of data being loaded. Body includes the select statement. Ex: Cursor c(dno in number) return dept%rowtype is select *from dept; In the above Header – cursor c(dno in number) return dept%rowtype Body – select *from dept CURSOR TYPES • • Implicit (SQL) Explicit  Parameterized cursors  Nested Cursors  REF cursors
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CURSOR STAGES • • • • Declare Open Fetch Close

CURSOR ATTRIBUTES • • • • • • %found %notfound %rowcount %isopen %bulk_rowcount %bulk_exceptions

CURSOR DECLERATION Syntax: Cursor <cursor_name> is select statement; Ex: Cursor c is select *from dept; CURSOR LOOPS: • • • SIMPLE LOOP: Syntax: Loop Fetch <cursor_name> into <record_variable>; Exit when <cursor_name> % notfound;
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Simple loop While loop For loop

<statements>; End loop; Ex: DECLARE cursor c1 is select * from emp; v_data c1%rowtype; begin open c1; fetch c1 into v_data; while c1%found loop dbms_output.put_line(v_data.empno); fetch c1 into v_data; end loop; close c1; END; SQL> / 2233 7369 7499 7521 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. WHILE LOOP: Syntax: While <cursor_name> % found loop Fetch <cursor_name> into <record_variable>; <statements>; End loop; Ex: DECLARE cursor c1 is select * from emp;
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v_data c1%rowtype; begin open c1; fetch c1 into v_data; while c1%found loop dbms_output.put_line('record number'||c1%rowcount||' is '||v_data.empno ||' with '||v_data.ename); fetch c1 into v_data; end loop; close c1; END; SQL> / record number1 is 2233 with SURESH record number2 is 7369 with SMITH record number3 is 7499 with ALLEN record number4 is 7521 with WARD record number5 is 7566 with JONES PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. FOR LOOP: Syntax: for <record_variable> in <cursor_name> loop <statements>; End loop; Ex: DECLARE cursor c1 is select * from emp; v_data c1%rowtype; begin for v1 in c1 loop
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dbms_output.put_line(v1.empno); end loop; END; SQL> / 2233 7369 7499 7521 7566 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Ex: DECLARE cursor c1 is select * from emp; v_data c1%rowtype; begin open c1; fetch c1 into v_data; while c1%found loop dbms_output.put_line('recordnumber'||c1%rowcount||' fetch c1 into v_data; end loop; close c1; END; SQL> / record number1 record number2 record number3 record number4 record number5 2233 7369 7499 7521 7566 '||v_data.empno);

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PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Ex: SQL> DECLARE v_deptno emp.deptno%type :=&deptno; begin update emp set sal=1500 where deptno = v_deptno; --dbms_output.put_line('1 row has been updated'); dbms_output.put_line(sql%rowcount||'rows are updated'); if sql%notfound then dbms_output.put_line('data not found... updation abruptly terminated'); end if; END PARAMETARIZED CURSORS: • • • • Ex: DECLARE cursor c(dno in number) is select * from dept where deptno = dno; v_dept dept%rowtype; BEGIN open c(20); loop fetch c into v_dept; exit when c%notfound;
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This was used when you are going to use the cursor in more than one place with different Cursor parameters must be in mode. Cursor parameters may have default values. The scope of cursor parameter is within the select statement.

values for the same where clause.

dbms_output.put_line('Dname = ' || v_dept.dname || ' Loc = ' || dept.loc); end loop; close c; END; Output: Dname = RESEARCH Loc = DALLAS

NESTED CURSORS: EX: DECLARE cursor c1 is select * from dept; cursor c2(a number) is select * from emp where deptno=a; v_data c1%rowtype; v_data2 c2%rowtype; begin for v1 in c1 loop dbms_output.put_line(v1.deptno||' '||v1.dname); for v2 in c2(v1.deptno) loop dbms_output.put_line(v2.empno||' '||v2.ename||' '||v2.sal); exit when c2%notfound; end loop; exit when c1%notfound; end loop; END; / Output: 20 SALES
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7566 JONES 6218.92 7876 ADAMS 2299.43 7369 SMITH 1672.31 30 HR 7499 ALLEN 20000 7698 BLAKE 3283.52 7900 JAMES 1094.5 10 accounting 7782 CLARK 3104.94 7839 ssssssssss 6336.62 4477 MUNE 23500 7934 MILLER 1647.53 REF cursor: A ref cursor in Oracle PL/SQL is much like an ordinary PL/SQL cursor in that it acts as a pointer to the result set of the cursor with which it is associated. However, the difference is that a ref cursor can be assigned to different result sets whereas a cursor is always associated with the same result set. Cursors and ref cursors are not interchangeable. The real purpose of ref cursors is to be able to share cursors and result sets between the client and the Oracle server or between different subroutines

There are two steps required to create a cursor variable.  define a ref cursor TYPE.  declare cursor variable(s) of that type. Ex: Create or replace procedure proc123 is Type ty_dt is ref cursor; C_V ty_dt; v_data emp%rowtype;
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Begin Open C_V for select * from emp; loop Fetch C_V into v_data; Dbms_output.put_line(v_data.empno|| v_data.ename|| v_data.sal); Exit when C_V%notfound; End loop; Close C_V; END; EXCEPTIONS Introduction: PL/SQL implements error handling with exceptions and exception handlers. Exceptions can be associated with oracle errors or with your own user-defined errors. By using exceptions and exception handlers, you can make your PL/SQL programs robust and able to deal with both unexpected and expected errors during execution. ERROR TYPES:  Compile-time errors  Runtime errors Errors that occur during the compilation phase are detected by the PL/SQL engine and reported back to the user, we have to correct them. Runtime errors are detected by the PL/SQL runtime engine which can programmatically raise and caught by exception handlers. Exceptions are designed for run-time error handling, rather than compile-time error handling. HANDLING EXCEPTIONS: When exception is raised, control passes to the exception section of the block. The exception section consists of handlers for some or all of the exceptions. An exception handler contains the
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code that is executed when the error associated with the exception occurs, and the exception is raised. Syntax: EXCEPTION When exception_name then Sequence_of_statements; When exception_name then Sequence_of_statements; When others then Sequence_of_statements; END; EXCEPTION TYPES  Predefined exceptions  User-defined exceptions PREDEFINED EXCEPTIONS: Oracle has predefined several exceptions that corresponds to the most common oracle errors. Like the predefined types, the identifiers of these exceptions are defined in the STANDARD package. Because of this, they are already available to the program, it is not necessary to declare them in the declarative secion. EX:1 DECLARE a number :=&A_Number_is; b number :=&B_Number_is; c number; begin c:=a/b; dbms_output.put_line('the value for c is'||c); exception when zero_divide then
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dbms_output.put_line('plz enter non zero value for b '); END; / EX:2 DECLARE v_empno varchar2(20):='&empno'; v_ename varchar2(20):='&ename'; begin insert into emp(empno,ename) values(v_empno,v_ename); exception when invalid_number then dbms_output.put_line('sorry this is invalid number format'); when dup_val_on_index then dbms_output.put_line('duplicate index is comming'); when no_data_found then dbms_output.put_line('sorry this number is not available'); END; / EX:3 DECLARE cursor c1 is select * from emp; v_data c1%rowtype; begin open c1; fetch c1 into v_data; dbms_output.put_line(v_data.empno); open c1; --close c1; close c1; exception
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when invalid_cursor then dbms_output.put_line('this is invalid cursor'); when cursor_already_open then dbms_output.put_line('the cursor alredy is open'); END; /

EX:4. declare v_grade varchar2(10):='&entergrade'; begin case v_grade when 'a' then dbms_output.put_line('excellent'); when 'b' then dbms_output.put_line('good'); when 'c' then dbms_output.put_line('average'); when 'd' then dbms_output.put_line('poor'); end case; exception when case_not_found then dbms_output.put_line('sorry u entered invalid grade'); end; / USER-DEFINED EXCEPTIONS: A user-defined exception is an error that is defined by the programmer. User-defined exceptions are declared in the declarative secion of a PL/SQL block. Just like variables, exeptions have a
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type EXCEPTION and scope.

RAISING EXCEPTIONS User-defined exceptions are raised explicitly via the RAISE statement. Ex_1: DECLARE e exception; BEGIN If <condition> then Statement1; else raise e; End if; EXCEPTION when e then dbms_output.put_line('e is raised'); END; Output: e is raised Ex_2: DECLARE e1 exception; e2 exception;
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BEGIN BEGIN raise e1; EXCEPTION when e1 then dbms_output.put_line('e1 is raised'); raise e2; when e2 then dbms_output.put_line('e2 is raised'); END; EXCEPTION when e2 then dbms_output.put_line('From outer block: e2 is raised'); END; Output: e1 is raised From outer block: e2 is raised RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR: You can use this built-in function to create your own error messages, which can be more descriptive than named exceptions. Syntax: RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR(error_number, error_message,, [keep_errors_flag]); The Boolean parameter keep_errors_flag is optional. If it is TRUE, the new error is added to the list of errors already raised. If it is FALSE, which is default, the new error will replace the current list of errors.

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PROCEDURES Introduction: Procedure is a subprogram used to perform a specific action. A procedure contains two parts specification and the body. Procedure specification begins with CREATE and ends with procedure name or parameters list. Procedures that do not take parameters are written without a parenthesis. The body of the procedure starts after the keyword IS or AS and ends with keyword END. Advantages:  Stored Procedures are precompiled one.  It is the group of sql statements.  Stored procedure is a fast one because it is already precompiled.  stored procedure is the one ie easy to maintain.

Syntax: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters]
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IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END;

CREATE TABLE T2 (a INTEGER, b CHAR(10)); Ex1: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE insert_record(p_no IN NUMBER, p_name IN varchar2) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO T2 VALUES(p_no,'p_name'); dbms_output.put_line('one row is inserted'); END; / Ex2: (out parameter) create or replace procedure outpa(a in number, b out varchar2, c out number, d out number) is begin select ename,sal,comm into b,c,d from emp where empno=a;
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end; / Procedure created. SQL> var x varchar2(10) SQL> var y number SQL> var z number SQL> exec outpa( 7934,:x,:y,:z); PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> print x; X -------------------------------MILLER SQL> print y; Y ---------1647.53 SQL> print z; Z ----------

Ex:(inout parameter) Create procedure proc123(x in out number) is Begin X:=x+1; --x acts like out Dbms_output.put_line(x); End; Declare
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i NUMBER:=10; BEGIN Proc123(i); -- passing value – in mode END; Ex1: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE salary_increment(p_deptno IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN if p_deptno=10 then update emp set sal=sal+sal*(10/100) where deptno=p_deptno; elsif p_deptno=20 then update emp set sal=sal+sal*(15/100) where deptno=p_deptno; elsif p_deptno=30 then update emp set sal=sal+sal*(20/100) where deptno=p_deptno; else update emp set sal=sal+sal*(25/100) where deptno=p_deptno; end if; commit; dbms_output.put_line('updation is over||thank you'); END;

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FUNCTION Introduction: A function is a named PL/SQL Block which is similar to a procedure. The major difference between a procedure and a function is, a function must always return a value, but a procedure may or may not return a value. PROCEDURES VERSES FUNCTIONS:  Procedures may return through “out” and “in out” parameters where as function must return.  Procedures can not have return clause where as functions must.
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We can use call statement directly for executing procedure where as we need to Functions can use in select statements where as procedures can not. Functions can call from reports environment where as procedures can not. We can use exec for executing procedures where as functions can not. Function can be used in dbms_output where as procedure can not.

declare a variable in case of functions.    

The General Syntax to create a function is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [parameters] RETURN return_datatype; IS Declaration_section BEGIN Execution_section Return return_variable; EXCEPTION Exception section Return return_variable; END;

EX: CREATE or REPLACE function ITAX(num number) RETURN number IS t number(9,2); BEGIN t:=num*(2/100); RETURN t;
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END EX: CREATE or REPLACE FUNCTION PExp(V_Empno NUMBER) RETURN number IS V_HireDate Emp.HireDate%TYPE; V_Exp number(4,2):=1; BEGIN SELECT HireDate INTO V_HireDate FROM Emp WHERE Empno=V_Empno; V_Exp:=MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE,V_HireDate)/12; RETURN V_Exp; END; How to execute functions (Three ways) 1.select <functionname> from dual; 2.begin Dbms_output.put_line(functionname); end; 3.declare X number; Begin X := functionname; End;

Calling Procedures From Functions: CREATE or REPLACE function calpro(num number) RETURN number IS t number(9,2);
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BEGIN t:=num*(2/100); msg_display(); RETURN t; END; PACKAGES Introduction: Packages shows you how to bundle related PL/SQL programming resources into a package. The resources might include a collection of procedures and functions. A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types, items, and subprograms. Packages usually have two parts, a specification and a body, although sometimes the body is unnecessary. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to your applications; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available for use. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the spec.  The first time a packaged subprogram is called or any reference to a packaged variable or Each session will have its own copy of packaged variables, ensuring that two sessions In many cases initialization needs to be run the first time the package is instantiated type is made, the package is instantiated.  executing subprograms in the same package use different memory locations.  within a session. This can be done by adding initialization section to the package body after all the objects.    Packages are stored in the data dictionary and can not be local. Packaged subprograms has an advantage over stand alone subprogram. When ever any reference to package, the whole package p-code was stored in shared pool Package may have local subprograms. -- we are calling this procedure from function

of SGA. 

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Advantages of PL/SQL Packages:  Modularity  Easier Application Design  Information Hiding  Added Functionality  Better Performance

Package Specification: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE UD_Pkg IS FUNCTION ITAX(Num NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER; FUNCTION PExp(V_Empno NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER; PROCEDURE insert_record(p_no IN NUMBER,p_name IN varchar2); PROCEDURE salary_increment(p_deptno IN NUMBER); END UD_Pkg;

Package Body: CREATE or REPLACE PACKAGE UD_Pkg AS FUNCTION ITAX(Num NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER IS
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t number(9,2); BEGIN t:=Num*(2/100); RETURN t; END ITAX; FUNCTION PEXP(V_Empno NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER IS V_HireDate Emp.HireDate%TYPE; V_Exp number(4,2):=1; BEGIN SELECT HireDate INTO V_HireDate FROM Emp WHERE Empno=V_Empno; V_Exp:=MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE,V_HireDate)/12; RETURN V_Exp; END PEXP; PROCEDURE insert_record(p_no IN NUMBER, p_name IN varchar2) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO T2 VALUES(p_no,'p_name'); dbms_output.put_line('one row is inserted'); END insert_record;
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PROCEDURE salary_increment(p_deptno IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN if p_deptno=10 then update emp set sal=sal+sal*(10/100) where deptno=p_deptno; elsif p_deptno=20 then update emp set sal=sal+sal*(15/100) where deptno=p_deptno; elsif p_deptno=30 then update emp set sal=sal+sal*(20/100) where deptno=p_deptno; else update emp set sal=sal+sal*(25/100) where deptno=p_deptno; end if; commit; dbms_output.put_line('updation is over||thank you'); END salary_increment; END UD_Pkg; PRAGMA Autonomous Transactions: PRAGMA's are directives for the Oracle PL/SQL compiler. The AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION pragma instructs the compiler to treat the following pl/sql block as autonomous (independent) from whatever transaction calls it. This means that any changes made to the database in the autonomous transaction are independent of the main transaction and are either committed or rolled back without affecting the main transaction. Oracle pl/sql autonomous transactions must explicitly either roll back or commit any changes before exiting and can be:•

stand alone procedures or functions
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• • •

procedures/functions defined in a package (but not nested) triggers schema-level anonymous pl/sql blocks

Example. First we declare an anonymous transaction CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE log_details (msg IN VARCHAR2) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION BEGIN INSERT INTO log(msg_id ,log_msg,time_of_msg) VALUES (log_seq.NEXTVAL,msg,SYSDATE);

COMMIT; -- must commit or rollback END; Next, we have another transaction that calls this procedure. BEGIN DELETE employees; log_msg('Deleting all employees'); ROLLBACK; log_msg('after rollback of delete employees'); END;

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TRIGGERS Introduction: Triggers are similar to stored procedures. A trigger stored in the database can include SQL and PL/SQL or Java statements to run as a unit and can invoke stored procedures. However, procedures and triggers differ in the way that they are invoked. A procedure is explicitly run by a user, application, or trigger. Triggers are implicitly fired by Oracle when a triggering event occurs, no matter which user is connected or which application is being used. Advantages:  Triggers is a special kind of procedure.  the Main advantage of the trigger is automatic.  whenever the table affected by insert update or delete  query that time the triggers will implicitely call.

You can write triggers that fire whenever one of the following operations occurs: 1. DML statements (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) on a particular table or view, issued by any user 2. DDL statements (CREATE or ALTER primarily) issued either by a particular schema/user or by any schema/user in the database 3. Database events, such as logon/logoff, errors, or startup/shutdown, also issued either by a particular schema/user or by any schema/user in the database
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Parts of a Trigger: A trigger has three basic parts:
• • •

A triggering event or statement A trigger restriction A trigger action

Types of Triggers: This section describes the different types of triggers:
• • • •

Row Triggers and Statement Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers INSTEAD OF Triggers Triggers on System Events and User Events

Trigger Execution:

A trigger is in either of two distinct modes:

Trigger Mode Enabled Disabled Definition An enabled trigger runs its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to true. A disabled trigger does not run its trigger action, even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to true.

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EX: create or replace trigger aft_ins after insert or update or delete on emp declare v_day varchar2(10); begin v_day:=to_char(sysdate,'dy'); dbms_output.put_line('you are inserting rows at '||v_day||' day '); end; / EX: create or replace trigger bef_ins before insert or update or delete on emp declare v_day varchar2(5); begin v_day:=to_char(sysdate,'dy'); IF v_day is 'SAT' or v_day is 'SUN' then dbms_output.put_line('server not allowing week end transactions'); end if; end; / Co-Relation Identifiers in Row Level: Two co-relation identifiers provided by pl/sql are :OLD & These are special kind of bind variables. EX: create or replace trigger deptrbin before delete on dept
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:NEW.

for each row begin insert into recyclebin values(:OLD.deptno,:OLD.dname,:OLD.loc); end; EX: create or replace trigger aft_ins_fe after delete on emp for each row begin dbms_output.put_line('you are deleting rows'); end; / Ex: create or replace trigger non_working_hours before insert or update or delete on emp for each row begin if(to_char(sysdate,'hh24')<07 or to_char(sysdate,'hh24')>17 or to_char(sysdate,'dy')='sat' or to_char(sysdate,'dy')='sun' ) then raise_application_error(-20010,'sorry these are non working hours'); end if; end;

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