Concepts and Fundamentals

Objectives • To know and understand the concepts and fundamentals related to the study of microcontrollers Microcontrollers 2 .

Contents • • • • • Review of a microcomputer system Central processing unit. CPU CPU cycles Definition of buses PIC microcontroller architecture Microcontrollers 3 .

A Typical Microcomputer System Microcontrollers 4 .

A Typical Microcomputer System • The operation of the whole system is under control of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) • There is support for bidirectional human interface (I/O) • I/O ports for interaction with the outside world (peripheral) • Primary memory for program and data • Secondary memory for mass storage and data backup • Auxiliary memory for graphics processing Microcontrollers 5 .

Central Processing Unit (CPU) WRITE 4 8 LD_IR LD_IR_LSN INSTRUCTION DECODER 8 R0-R15 WEN CEN OEN IR 4 4 4 PROGRAM 17 1111111111111 0000000000 C 7 7 AOP Z ALU SEL_DATA_RAM PC 7 JUMP_PC 7 + INC_PC 1 ACC 4 Microcontrollers 6 .

CPU Cycles • The operation of a typical CPU can be decomposed into three main cycles: fetch. selection an ALU operation and storing the result in either an internal register or the data memory Microcontrollers 7 . decode and execute • The fetch cycle consists in getting an instruction from the instruction memory and storing it in the instruction register • The decode cycle consists in translating the bit pattern of the instruction into control signals (instruction decoder) • The execute cycle consists in inputting data to the ALU.

i.e.Buses • Three buses can be found in a microcomputer system: data. reading or writing access Microcontrollers 8 . control and address bus • The data bus is the communication channel between the CPU and the rest of the system • The address bus allows the selection of the source/destination of the data • The control bus determines the type of communication that takes place.

Buses • A schematic diagram indicating the communication of the three buses with the CPU is shown below Microcontrollers 9 .

Microprocessors vs. Microcontrollers • Microcontroller-based systems are microcomputer system built around a microprocessor (CPU) and a set of memories and peripherals. all encapsulated in an integrated circuit (IC) Microcontrollers 10 .

interrupts and timers Microcontrollers 11 . • Microcontrollers are aimed to controlling and monitoring I/O ports in terms of verification of status bits. Microcontrollers • Regarding applications • Microprocessors are used in data-processing applications • Microcontrollers are used as reactive systems that deal with events from the outside world and as control systems with I/O interfacing • Regarding the instruction set • Microprocessors support complex addressing modes that are aimed to handling several structures of data: arrays. etc. pointers.Microprocessors vs.

PIC Microcontrollers • Among the most important features of the PIC microcontrollers are • • • • Harvard architecture Pipeline processing scheme Orthogonal instruction format Register-banks internal organizations Microcontrollers 12 .

Von Neumann Architecture • A single integrated circuit memory that holds data and program • The CPU is in charge of identifying data from program • Same bits width for data and instructions DATA and PROGRAM MEMORY CPU Microcontrollers 13 .

Harvard Architecture • Data and program have their own memory • The bit widths may differ • Simultaneous access are allowed PROGRAM MEMORY (ROM) CPU DATA MEMORY (RAM) Microcontrollers 14 .

Pipeline Processing • The internal architecture is divided into independent blocks that are serially connected forming a pipeline • The execution of an instruction is allocated to a certain number of blocks • Execution of several instructions can be simultaneously executed in an one-after-the-other fashion BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3 BLOCK 4 Microcontrollers 15 .

RISC. CISC ans SISC Processors • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) • Large number of instructions • Complex and powerful instructions • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) • Reduced number of instructions • Simple instructions ans easy coding • SISC (Specific Instruction Set Computer) • Reduced number of instructions • Application-oriented instructions Microcontrollers 16 .

the outcome of an ALU operation can only be stored in the accumulator • In an orthogonal architecture. the outcome of an ALU operation can be stored in an internal register as well as the accumulator Orthogonal DATA MEMORY DATA MEMORY W Traditional ALU ALU ACC Microcontrollers 17 .Orthogonal Architecture • In a traditional architecture.

Summary • Microcontrollers are microcomputer systems made up of a CPU. decode and execute • Microchip’s PIC have a harvard. RISC and orthogonal architecture • The microcontrollers that will be studied are 8-bit data wide Microcontrollers 18 . memories and peripherals presented as an IC • The execution of instructions by the CPU has three phases: fetch.

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