A peek into the history before Hazrath Hassan and Hussain. 1.
Hazrath Osman is assassinated and Hazrat Ali is the next Caliph After Hazrath Osman’s assassination for three day there was no Caliph . The rioters had started to create a riot in the whole of meccah. They proposed Hazrath Ali to become the next Caliph , he spoke to the companions and they told him he should come forward to serve the people. So Hazrath Ali agreed to become the next Caliph. The people wanted the revenge of Hazrath Osmans murder and they wanted the the rioters punished. Hazrath Ali told them to wait for some time and the murderers will be punished , some were ready to wait some were not . The rioters created more misunderstanding among the people and kept the riots going on. Battle of the Camel Hazrath Aisha had gone for Hajj when Hazrath Osman was slain. On her way back she got the news of his murder, she went back to makkah to avenge the death of the late Caliph. Thousands of men joined her to fight , she was advised to go to Basra for more help . They reached Basra and the Governor of Basra asked for the objective of their visit and they told him they had come to avenge the death of the late Caliph. The Governor of Basra opposed them as Hazrath Ali was the Caliph and the people had not pledged loyalty to Hazrath Ali. Now two armies stood face to face. Before the War Hazrath Aisha explained the need of revenge and half the army of Basra moved to Hazrath Aisha’s side. The War began and the Governor of Basra was defeated and Hazrath Aisha occupies Basra. Battle of Siffin Hazath Ali now turned the attention towards Muawia. Except Syria which was under Muawia ,the whole empire had now accepted Hazrath Ali as the Caliph. Hazrath Ali sent an envoy to Muawia. The envoy requested the Syria Governer to accept Hazrath Ali as the new Caliph, to this Muawia replied “ Let the murderers of Hazrath Osman be slain first, then let the Muslims choose their Caliph by vote ”. It was clear Muawia would not accept Hazrath Ali as the new Caliph and he wanted bloodshed. Harath Ali prepared himself for the war and moved from Kufa with a large army towards Syria. Muawia came to know of Hazrath Ali’s advance and He too led an army to face him. Before the war began all Peace talk did happen but none came out with a positive result, Muawia stuck to his point and Hazrath Ali would not agree to Muawias terms and conditions.
Finally the war is pronounce and Hazrath Ali gave orders to attack the Syrian army and the fierce battle begins.The war goes on for a long time. The Historic words of Prophet(SAW) last sermon kept ringing in their years “ The life, honor and property of a brother Muslim is more sacred to you than the sacred month of Hajj and the sacred area of Makkah”. There were men in both the armies who had heard the Prophet(SAW) utter these words , but they were in such a position that they had to fight and they had no other option. Muawia’s army was under a powerful attack and his army was not able to stand the attack of Hazrath Ali’s army. Muawia hastily consults Hazrath Amr bin Aas and a signal is passed to the army. After some time the Qurans are hanging with the spears of the Syrian and they said “ This is the Book of Allah, the Almighty, let it decide between us. If we are gone who will defend the western frontiers? And if you are gone who will defend the eastern frontiers?” Hazrath Ali understands the trap and says “This is a trap laid by the enemy don’t fall into it, Go on fighting victory is already in sight. This is a move to deceive you”. But many of the men in Hazrath Ali’s army refuse to listen to him. “ How can it be ? They cried “ we are being called out towards the book of Allah and how can we refuse?. Hazrath Ali pressed his point that fighting be carried on, but those men said” Either order the army for stop fighting or we will deal with you the way we dealt with Hazrath Osman”. Hazrath Ali felt hepless and disappointed that his own army was helping the enemy. He unwillingly called his army back. An agreement was signed by leading men of both sides , which said that the judges from both sides would finalize the award by the month of Ramadan. Battle of Nahrwan A separate group was formed called as Khariji they were people who objected to the Agreement of Siffin. They said when the rules are set by Allah in the Quran why should we follow the judgment of these judges. They said Hazrath Ali has gone against the Allah’s command by accepting the agreement. The award was announced they decided not to have Hazrath Ali or Muawia as the Caliph and let the prople choose a new Chalip . Amr one of the judges said that Hazrath Ali is unfit and he would prefer Muawia as the next Chaliph. There was a big uproar and all honest people left the place in great disgust. The Kharijis began torturing Muslims and killing Muslim men, women and old people who said they were followers of the Caliph. Hazrath Ali sent two noted companions to tell the Khariji leaders to stop the killing and surrender the people who have killed the Muslims but they dint agree and they continued with their immoral killings. Hazrath Ali sent a big army and the Kharijis were defeated but some still remained , they moved to different places and created unrest over there. Hazrath Hasan(AS)
Hasan ibn ‘Alī was the grandson of Muhammad, son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (final Rashidun Caliph and first Shī‘ah Imām) and Fātimah Zahrā (daughter of Muhammad). He is an important figure in Islām as he is a member of the Ahlul Bayt (the household of Muhammad it has been narrated that upon the birth of his grandson in 3 AH, Muhammad was ordered by the archangel Gabriel to name him Hasan - a name that had not yet been used in the pre-Islāmic period. Muhammad also honoured his grandson by reciting the Adhān in his right ear, the Iqāmah in his left ear, shaved the head of his grandson, and sacrificed a ram in his name. Hasan ibn Ali and his younger brother, Husayn ibn Ali, are said to have been greatly beloved by their grandfather. There are numerous Hadiths (oral traditions) that affirm this claim. There are also Hadiths which states that Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali are the leaders of the youth in paradise. Muhammad also said that Hasan and Hussain are Imams, whether they sit (agree to a peace treaty) or stand (go to war). PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN IMAM AL-HASAN AND MU'AWIYA Imam Hasan (a.s.) faced extremely difficult conditions from the start. He observed that fear, anxiety and much distress were ever present in Kufa, Basrah, Medina and other towns. The anxiety, uncertainty and insecurity were caused by Mu'awiya's ill dealing of sincere Muslims. Mu'awiya had spread secret agents all over to defame Ahlul Bayt. Imam Hasan knew that his father Imam Ali (a.s.) had stood like a lion in all difficulties and fought battles against Mu'awiya, but these confrontations had resulted in heavy casualties on both sides. A mass scale family devastation was visible everywhere. Considering all circumstances, Imam Hasan (a.s.) discussed the matter with his brother Husain (a.s.) and other relatives. He revealed to them that in order to end the bloodshed and to provide a reasonable safety and security to the Ummah, he would make a peace agreement with Mu'awiya and abdicate until after Mu'awiya's death. After a few days of careful consideration, Imam Hasan (a.s.) accepted an agreement as per the terms dictated by the Imam and agreed to by Mu'awiya.
Four noteworthy terms of this agreement were
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People of Syria, Iraq, Hijaz, Yemen and other places shall enjoy amnesty against persecution, Friends and companions of Imam Ali (a.s.) and all their women and children shall be protected from all dangers, Mu'awiya is to immediately stop the use of abusive language with reference to Ahlul Bayt (cursing Imam Ali) after Salat of Jumu'a), and Mu'awiya shall not appoint anyone as his successor.
Once the treaty was signed, Imam Hasan (a.s.) and brother Husain (a.s.) moved out of Kufa and settled in Medina. Over there both Imams lost no time in holding nightly meetings for Islamic discussions. The nightly meetings proved very successful and gained tremendous popularity. More people started to attend, to hear the Imams give of their fountain of knowledge on Islam and humanity. The reputation of these meetings began to fly to far away places. People from as far away as Egypt, Iraq, Yemen, and other distant areas travelled to Medina to learn about the Islamic values. As years passed, the knowledge thus given started to bear fruits. The number of Islamic scholars multiplied and increased considerably. In the meantime Mu'awiya, unabashedly elected to disregard the terms of his treaty with Imam Al-Hasan. a) He sent secret agents to terrorize, kidnap, or even kill innocent people specially those who were loyal to Ahlul Bayt (a.s.). b) Instead of helping the needy with the public treasury, Mu'awiya's governors and their surrogates used the public treasury for personal use, freely and excessively as they wished. c) Freedom suddenly died, and dictatorship took its place. d) Mu'awiya gathered a very large number of collaborators who unabashedly would do any thing for money. MU'AWIYA'S PLOT TO POISON IMAM HASAN (AS) It was Mu'awiya's ardent desire to impose his son Yazid (who had been named after his uncle) upon the Muslims by making him the succeeding Khalifa, despite the fact that Yazid was the playboy of the time, with many evil habits including gambling, heavy drinking, and indulgence in the pleasures of the flesh. But the peace agreement would not permit Mu'awiya to appoint Yazid as his successor, (According to the agreement Imam Hasan would immediately become Khalifa upon Mu'awiya's death).Therefore, it was obvious to Mu'awiya that, if Al-Hasan did not outlive him, Mu'awiya could do as he pleased. Thus Mu'awiya planned to kill Imam Al-Hasan in order to pave the way for his son Yazid to be his successor. Mu'awiya sent one of his agents to contact Imam Al-Hasan's wife Joda who was the daughter of Al-Ash'ath (once a secret agent for Mu'awiya against Imam Ali in the Battle of Siffin). Joda was asked a small favor, i.e., to put a little poison in Al-Hasan's food, and in return Mu'awiya would give her a large sum of money and also make her wife of his son Yazid. She found the offer too attractive to ignore, and foolishly agreed to accept it. A few days later, she mixed poison in honey and gave it to the Imam. As soon as the Imam took the poisoned honey he became seriously ill. Sensing that his death was imminent, the Imam designated his brother Al-Husain (a.s.) to be the third Imam. Although Imam Al-Hasan knew he was poisoned, he did not reveal that to anyone but to his brother Al-Husain. One thing Al-Hasan had wished was to have his burial by the side of his grandfather, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Imam Husain made all the arrangements to fulfill that wish but Mu'awiya's governor over Medina did not let that happen and used military force to stop it. Imam Al-Hasan was 47 year old when he died of poisoning.
Introduction about Hazrath Hussain Hazrath Hussain was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH). Al-Hussain was the second son of Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad, by her husband Ali, the fourth Khalifah. A brother to al-Hasan . He was born A.H. 4, and died at Karbala A.H. 61. Hussain ibn ‘Alī is revered as a martyr who fought tyranny, as he refused to pledge allegiance to Yazīd , the Umayyad caliph. He rose up to create a regime that would reinstate a “true” Islāmic polity as opposed to what he considered the unjust rule of the Umayyads . As a consequence, Hussain was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbalā in 680 (61AH) by Shimr Ibn ThilJawshan. He and his brother Imam Hassan were the only descendants of Muhammad who remained alive. Many of the accounts about Muhammad's treatment of his grandsons and his great love for them deal with them together and at times confuse them. Muhammad is reported to have said that "whoever loves them [his grandsons] loves me and whoever hates them hates me" and "al-Hasan and al-Hussain are the sayyids of the youth of Paradise". The latter saying has been particularly important for Shias who used it in support of for the right of Muhammad's descendants to the imamate. Muhammad, according to other traditions, is pictured with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, or even on his back during the prayer at the moment of prostrating himself. According to Madelung, Muhammad loved them and declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt frequently. Hassan, who was the successor to Ali's Imamate should be the caliph and the Islamic tradition must not be discarded again. Muawiyah had fought Ali for the leadership of the empire and now prepared to fight Hassan. After a few inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hassan and Muawiyah, Hassan reminded his followers of Ali's position that Imamate is sufficient for successor ship of the prophet and that leading the Muslim state was not a criterion. Thus, to avoid agonies of another civil war, he signed a treaty with Muawiyah and relinquished the control of what had turned into an Arabian kingdom; while not having pledged his allegiance to Muawiyah. Even after taking such a stance, Hassan was poisoned and killed in 669 by Muawiyah. Hussain left Medina with his households, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Hassan. He traveled the main road to Mecca, refusing to avoid being pursued by taking a side road. In Mecca Hussain stayed in the house of `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and remained there for four months Hussain uprised against Yazid and declared Umayyad rule was not only oppressive but also religiously misguided. In his view the integrity and survival of the Islamic community depended on the reestablishment of right guidance. When Hussain was in Mecca open revolt began in Kufa, due to the fact that succession of YazidI was the first attempt to establish a hereditary dynasty. Religious attitude against Umayyad and Iraqi tendencies to recapture power inspired people alongside with those who believe that leadership of the Muslim community rightly belonged to the descendants of Ali to rose and
invite Hussain to Kufa to establish his caliphate. had no imam.
They urged Hussain to join them, since they
Yazid perceived Hussain's refusal to pledge allegiance as a danger to his throne. He plotted to kill the grandson of the prophet during the Hajj, in the precincts of the Holy Kaaba, thus defiling and desecrating it (killing a person in Mecca is prohibited in Islam). In order to avoid this sacrilege, Hussain took along his wives, children, a few friends and relatives and headed towards Kufa to fulfill the responsibility of the bearer of Imamate and to fulfill his destiny as was prophesied by his grandfather, Mohammad. Imam Husain continued with the journey along with close companions and family members until he was face to face with 1,000 horsemen led by Hur al-Riyahi representing the enemy. On the way to Kufa the army of the Governor Ibn Ziyad blocked the camps of Imam Husain (a.s.) from advancing. Tension started to rise between the two. The Imam addressed the enemy explaining to them his motives for going to Kufa, that it was in response to the invitation of the people. He even showed them a bagful of letters he received from Kufa. Hur said that he and his men were not the writers of those letters. Imam told them that if they did not like him to advance with the journey, he was prepared to return to Hijaz. Hur replied, "We are commissioned to follow you until we take you to Governor Ibn Ziyad, and suggested to the Imam to go towards a station which is neither Kufa nor Medina." Imam Husain found the proposal fair and turned the caravan away from Kufa. Hur and his army marched parallel to the Imam. The two sides reached a village called Nainawa where Ibn Ziyad's messenger (Yazid's governor over Kufa) delivered a message to Hur. The message read, " ...force Husain to a halt. But let him stop in an open space, without vegetation or water." Hur conveyed the contents of the letter to Imam Husain. The Imam, his family and companions defiantly resumed their journey and reached a place where another enemy force blocked their move and forced them to stop. When Imam Husain learned that the place was called Karbala, On the 7th day of Muharram he moved his troops closer to the camp and began to surround the Hussaini camp. Ibn Sa'ad laid a blockade around the camp to cut it off from access to the river Euphrates, to deprive it of water in a move to force them to surrender. It had been a few days since the water supply was cut off by the enemy. Children were crying for water, the women were desperate for water, Zainul-Abideen, the son of Imam Husain (a.s.) was sick with fever. The suffering from the thirst was too painful to bear. And despite this, not a single person in the camp made any complaints or even questioned the mission of Imam Husain. Each member supported the Imam wholeheartedly and enthusiastically. Two days later, (on the 9th of Muharram), the enemy's military forces closed in on the camp of Imam Husain (a.s.). Imam asked his brother, Abbas, to talk to Ibn Sa'ad and request a delay of the aggression by one night. Umar Ibn Sa'ad agreed to the demand. He ordered his troops to delay the aggression till next morning. Imam Husain and his pious companions spent that night in prayers. During the night the Imam told the companions, " ....the enemy is interested in none but me, me alone. I'll be most delighted to permit each and every one of you to go back, and I urge you to do so...." All companions screamed in response, "By Allah, never, never! We will either live with you or die together with you."
Hussain in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, led by al-Hurr al-Riyahi (a top commander in the Umayyad army who later changed sides). At the Battle of Karbala it is recorded that seventy two people were martyred. On his way toward Kufa, Hussain encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, which was led by Hurr. The heroes began to fall, they were men of valor welcoming martyrdom, they fell one after another, for the enemy was overwhelming in number. By noon time the Imam stopped the fight to perform the Salat. By this time those left were mainly his family and a few supporters. They performed the Salat together. Two supporters were guarding the performers of Salat. The enemy was standing still, watching!! When Salat was finished one of the guards fell dead; there were 17 arrows in his back. On 10 October 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of his followers and family members, who were between 72 or more, people of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of Muhammad)., fought with a large army of perhaps 4000-5000 men under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad, son of the founder of Kufah. Hussain and all of his men were killed and beheaded. The bodies were left three days without burial and all the heads and whomever was left from Husain's family were taken as prisoners to al-Sham (Syria and Lebanon today) to Yazid
Sayings of Muhammad about Hussein ibn Ali in Sunni books
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Al-Hasan and al-Hussein are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise and Fatimah is the chief of their women." Muhammad said, " Hussein is from me and I am from him." Muhammad looked toward Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Hussein, and then said, "I am in war with those who will fight you, and in peace with those who are peaceful to you."