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Indo‐German Winter Academy 2006

Presented By :

**Puneet Kumar Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Tutor : Dr. Sanjay Mittal
**

3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras 1

Contents

• • • • • • • • Compressible flow – History Basics of Compressible flow Speed of Sound A Brief Review of Thermodynamics Propagation of sound source Shock waves and Normal shock Oblique Shock Summary

3/8/2007

Puneet Kumar, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras

2

Historical Prospective

• Convergent – divergent steam nozzles of ‘de-Laval’ • Advent of jet propulsion and high speed flights as ‘Bell XS-1’ • Dealing with high temperature, chemical reactive gases associated with rocket engines

3/8/2007

Puneet Kumar, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras

3

Compressible flow

• Compressible flow – Variable density flow • Compressibility of fluid 1 dv 1 dρ τ =− = − v dp ρ dp • Gas velocities less than 0.3 of the speed of sound are considered as incompressible flow • Compressible flows are high energy flow • Shock waves in all disturbed supersonic flows • Examples : High speed airplanes and jet engines

3/8/2007

Puneet Kumar, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras

4

IIT Madras 5 .Flow Regimes • Subsonic Flow – Flow velocity everywhere less than the speed of sound • Transonic Flow – Flow velocity is close to the speed of sound • Supersonic Flow – Flow velocity is everywhere greater than the speed of sound • Hypersonic Flow – Properties of flow increases explosively across the shock wave 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.

Department of Chemical Engineering.Basic Conservation Equations Conservation Equations Three Fundamental Principles Continuity equation Momentum equation Energy equation Models of Flow Some Applications 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 6 .

Department of Chemical Engineering.dS ∫∫ ∂t ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎠ ⎝ S 7 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.V)dV = V S V ∫∫∫ V r uur ⎛ ∂ ⎡ ⎛ V2 ⎞⎤ V2 ⎞ u ρ ⎜e+ ⎢ρ ⎜ e + ⎟ ⎥ dV + ⎟ V .d S = ρ dV ∫∫∫ ∂t V • Momentum equation ur ur uu r ur ur u r ∂ ( ρ V) dV = pd S + Fvis ρ (V.d S ) V + ρ f dV − ∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫ ∂t S V V S • Energy equation ur uu r ur ur ∫∫∫ q ρ dV − ∫∫ ρ (V. IIT Madras .d S ) + ∫∫∫ ρ ( f .Balance Equations • Continuity equation − ∫∫ S ur u r ∂ ρ V.

Department of Chemical Engineering.One Dimensional Flow One Dimensional Flow Normal shock waves Speed of sound One dimensional flow with heat addition One dimensional flow with friction 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 8 .

Wave Propagation • • • • Waves carry information in flow Travel at local speed of sound For incompressible flow speed of sound is infinite Speed of sound is finite for compressible flow 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 9 .

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 10 .Speed of Sound • Air molecules in random motion • Perfect gas properties are only T dependent • Make the sound wave stationary for analysis 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

Department of Chemical Engineering.Speed of Sound… • By applying Mass and Momentum balance to the CV • Neglect the higher order terms • Replacing the term momentum equation in the which simplifies to 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 11 .

IIT Madras 12 . Department of Chemical Engineering.Speed of Sound… • By combining two equations • For an isentropic flow we get • For a perfect gas • Mach number M = v a 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

IIT Madras 13 . cv are functions of Temperature only • Using First and Second Law of thermodynamics T2 P2 s2 − s1 = c p ln − R ln T1 P 1 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.A Brief Review of Thermodynamics • Perfect Gas – Intermolecular forces are neglected – Valid in the low pressures and high temperatures PV = M RT P = ρ RT • For a thermally perfect gas all the properties like e. Department of Chemical Engineering. cp. h.

IIT Madras 14 . pressure and temperature in an isentropic flow • All the properties will become a function of γ and mach number Μ • By using basic energy equation for an adiabatic process = constant 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.Isentropic Relations • Relation among density.

IIT Madras 15 . energy equation becomes which is equal to 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.Isentropic Relations Differentiate the energy equation For a thermally perfect gas For a calorific perfect gas In stagnant conditions. Department of Chemical Engineering.

IIT Madras 16 .T relations for an isentropic flow 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.Isentropic Relations… • Eliminate T using we get • Now multiply by and get • By using P.

Stationary Source Source moving at Subsonic Speeds Source moving at the Speed of Sound Source moving at Supersonic Speeds 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 17 . d. b. Department of Chemical Engineering. c.Propagation of Source of Sound a.

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 18 .Propagation of Source of Sound… 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

Response of Subsonic and Supersonic Flows to an Obstacle 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 19 . Department of Chemical Engineering.

Shock Waves • Spontaneous change in a flow • Shocks that are oriented perpendicular to the flow Normal Shock waves • Detached shock wave ⇒ • Attached shock wave 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 20 . Department of Chemical Engineering.

Formation of a Shock Wave • Give jerk at t = 0 which emits a weak wave • The wave propagates and sets the gas into motion • The pressure jump across the stronger wave is not dp1 but is dp1+dp2. • This phenomenon where the waves merge is called Coalescence 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 21 . Department of Chemical Engineering.

Department of Chemical Engineering.Formation of a Shock Wave… 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 22 .

IIT Madras 23 . Department of Chemical Engineering.Normal Shock Wave • Shocks which are stationary and normal to the flow • Shock thickness is very small • Balance equations across the shock • Substitute for the term in momentum equation and get 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

IIT Madras 24 .Normal Shock Wave Equations • Total enthalpy is constant across the shock h01 = h02 which is for a thermally perfect gas T01 = T 02 • By using isentropic relation • By eliminating ρ and u from the continuity equation 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 25 .Normal Shock Wave Equations… • Substitute for the temperature ratio • Solutions to this equation are • By neglecting the imaginary and trivial solution 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 26 .Normal Shock Wave Equations… • Using this relation we can relate all the properties across the shock • Relations for the total properties are • Entropy change across the shock 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

Department of Chemical Engineering. then M2< 1 • If M1 < 1 . then M2> 1 Possible Mathematically • Shocks with M1 < 1 are physically impossible 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 27 .Characteristics of Normal Shock Wave • If M1 > 1 .

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 28 .Traffic Rules for Compressible Flow 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

Applications of 1-D flow • Flow through ducts and nozzles • Subsonic flow responds to area changes in the same manner as an incompressible flow • Supersonic flow behaves in an opposite manner 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 29 .

Department of Chemical Engineering.Flow through a Converging Nozzle • Back Pressure. IIT Madras 30 .p0 Î No flow • In sonic range flow increases with decreasing pb • After reaching sonic conditions nozzle get choked 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. pb is equal to the reservoir pressure.

Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 31 .

IIT Madras 32 .Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.

IIT Madras 33 .Oblique Shock Wave • Normal Shock – a special case of oblique shock • Change in flow direction across an oblique shock 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.

Department of Chemical Engineering.Oblique Shock Wave Formation • For subsonic flow beeper always stays inside the circular sound wave fronts • For supersonic flow beeper will move outside the circular wave fronts 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 34 .

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 35 .Oblique Shock Relations • Additional tangential velocity component • Tangential component remains unchanged across the shock • Normal component changes according to the normal shock relations • Flow gets deflected towards the shock wave 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

Oblique Shock Relations… • β is shock angle and θ is deflection angle • Define mach no. M1 . we have a minimum shock angle. the maximum inclination is 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. for the normal velocity component • For a given Mach Number. and . Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 36 .

3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. IIT Madras 37 .Oblique Shock Relations… • There exists two solutions for this equation • The smaller value gives what is called a Weak Solution. The other solution with a higher value of is called a Strong Solution. Department of Chemical Engineering.

Department of Chemical Engineering. IIT Madras 38 .Oblique Shock Relations… • Relationship between θ and β 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

IIT Madras 39 .Summary • Under subsonic conditions compressible and incompressible flow behaves similarly • Speed of sound is infinite for incompressible flow whereas finite for compressible flow • Shock forms in supersonic compressible flows • Incoming supersonic flow will become subsonic after the shock 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Department of Chemical Engineering.

Further Reading • Modern Compressible Flow 3rd edition– » John D.usyd.au/aero/gasdyn 3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar. Anderson • Compressible Fluid Flow » Patrick H.aeromech.edu. Carscallen • www. IIT Madras 40 . Department of Chemical Engineering. Oosthuizen. William E.

IIT Madras 41 . Department of Chemical Engineering.3/8/2007 Puneet Kumar.

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