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IS 4880-3 (1976): Code of practice for design of tunnels conveying water, Part 3: Hydraulic design [WRD 14: Water Conductor Systems]

Invent a New India Using Knowledge

! $ ' +-
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! > 0 B
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( Reaffirmed 2000 )

IS : 4886 (Part III) - 1976

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR -DESIGN OF TUNNELS CONVEYING
PART CII HYDRAUIJC DESIGN

WATER

( First Revision)
Water Conductor Systems Sectional
Chaimaan Ramalayam, Members
SHRI S. P. BHAT SHRI P. M. MANE

Committee,

BDC 58

Peddar Road, Bombay 400026

Refiresen ting Public Works and Electricity Department, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore &RI K. R. NARAYANARAO (Altimate) Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board, Hyderabad CHIEF ENGINEER (CIVIL) SUPERINTENDING ENGII~EER
(DESIGN AND PLANNING) (AZBmate) Kerala State Electricity Board, Trivandrum C~EP ENGINEER(CIVIL) SHRI K. RAMABHADRAN NAIR (Alternate) Public Works Department, Government of Tamil CHIEF ENGINEER(IRRIGATION) Nadu, Madras SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER (DESIGNS)(Alternate) CHIEP ENGINEER(PROTECT AND Tamil Nadu Electricitv Board, Madras
CONSTRUCTION)

.SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER ECHNICAL/&IL) (Al?, r;t&) SHRIO?' DATTA DEPUTV DIRECTOR (HCD-I) DIRECTORIPRI S-1

DIRECTOR (HCD-I)

Beas Designs Organization, Nangal Township Central Water Commission, New Delhi (Alternate)
Irrigation Department, Chandigarh Government

of Punjab,

SHRI R. K. JOSHI (Alternate) DR S. P. GARG

SHRXR. G. GANDHI

H. L. SHARMA (Alternate)

Hindustan Construction Co Ltdt Bombay

Irrigation Department, Pradesh, Lucknow

Government

of

Uttar

(Continued on page 2) Q Copyright BUREAU OF INDIAN 1977 STANDARDS

This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 4880 (Fart 311)- 1976


(Cbn61ucd frontpage 1)
I~epresertlirtg &In bcrs SIUU hf. S. JAIN Geological Survey of India, Calcutta &RI N. K. MAND~AL (dllentate) Ministry of Railways, New Delhi JOINT DIKECTURS.PANDARDS (SM) DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS (B & S)-1 (Alternate) Irrigation Depar!ment, Government of hIallaSIIRI ]u. S. KAPRE rtihtra, Bombay SHRI_S. M. BHALERAO(iiben&) National Projects Couslruction (Jorporatiou Ltd, SHRI D. N. KOCHHAR New Delhi SHRI G. PARTHA~~RTHY (Alkmate) Pate1 Engineering Co Ltd, Bombay SHRI Y. G. PATEL SHRI C. K. CWOKSHI (Alternate) Assam State Electricity Board, Shillong SHRI S. N. &XXAN SHRI S. C. SEN (Alternate) R. J. Shah & Co Ltd, Bombay &RI A. R. &CHUR Mysore Power Corporation Itd, Governmcut ol SHRI S. R. S. SAsrRY Karnataka, Bangalore Irrigation Department, Government of Uttar SHRI G. N. TANDON Pradesh. Lucknow Concrete Association of India, Bombay SIIRI B. T. UNWALLA S~IKIE. T. ANTIA (illiertzalc) SlInr D. A~rrIi_4SIMIIA, Director Gcncral:B_S (fix-o&cio Ahber) DIRECTOR (Civ Engg)
Secretary

SIIRI K. K. SIIARMA Assistant Director (Civ Engg), BlS

l%wd for Design of Tunnels, BDC: 58 : 11


SiilU c. K. Cbmet!e,rer
CHOKSIiI

Pate1 Engineering Co Ltd, Bombay University of Roorkee, Roorbe Public Works Department, Governmenl of lamil Nadu, Madras Central Water Commission, New Delhi (li~lernale) Irripalion Der)artmcnt. Governmciit of U I Iar -Pradesh, I&know Geological Survey OF India, C!alcutta irrigation Department, Government of Maharashtra, Bombay Beas Designs Organization, Naugal lownship R. J. Shah & Co Ltd, Bombay

~Mzntbers DR BHAWANISINCH CHIEFENGINEER (IRKIGI\rION) Du<bU.roR(HCD-I) DEPUrY l1)IRECIOR (HO-I)


SIIRI OM PRAKASII C;UP.rA

SIIIU hf. S. JAIN SIIRI 13. S. KAPRE


SIIRI

R. P.

SING~I

(dllemale)

SlfRI 0. I~.
SIIRI A.

~ksII-I.~

I<. hICIIUR

IS : 4880 (Part III) - 1976

Indian Standard
DESIGN CODE OF PRACTICE FOR OF TUNNELS CONVEYING
PART III I. HYDRAULIC DESIGN

WATER

(Fkst Revision)
0.

FO R E W 0 R I)

0.1 This Indian Standard (Part III) (First Revision) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 24 July 1976, after the draft finalized by the Water Conductor Systems Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. 0.2 The Indian Standard Code of practice for design of tunnels conveying water : Part III Hydraulic design was first published in 1968. This revision has bccu taker) up with a view to keeping abreast with the technological developments that have taken place in the field of tunnel design and conWitJi the confidence gained in the construction of a large number struction. of tunnels and the availability of concretes of higher strengths in the country, the provisions of the code have been recommended for adoption for tunnels carrying water at velocities up to 8 m/s without need for model studies. In keeping with the practice, provision for limiting instant velocity during surge oscillations has been cl&ted. 0.3 This standard has been published in arc as follows : Part I-1975 General design Part II-1976 Geometric design Part IV-1971 Structural design Par1 v-1972 Structural &sign soil Par1 VI-1971 Iunnel supports Part VU-1975 Structural design parts. Other parts of the standard

(@t revision) of concrete lining in rock of concrelc lining ill sofi strata and

of steel lining

0.3.1 This part covers recommendations in regard to the hydraulic design of tunnels conveying water. These recommendations may be usccl for tunnels carrying water at velocities up to 8 m/s. For tunnels carrying water at velocities more than 8 m/s the design based on these recommendations may have to be corroborated by hydraulic model studies. 0.4 This code of practice represents standard ofgood practice and, therefore, takes the form of recommendation. 3

IS : 4880 (Part III) - 1976 0.5 In the formulation


of this standard due weightage has been given to international co-ordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country. This has been met by referring to various publications including the following : United States of America, Department of the Interior and Bureau of Reclamation. Design of small dams. Government Printing Office, Washington. United States of America. Department of the Interior and Bureau of Reclamation. Engineering monograph No. 7, friction factors for large conduits flowing full. Government Printing Office, Washington. Brown (JG), Ed. Hydro-Electric Engineering Practice, Vol I.Blackie Son Ltd, Glasgow (by permission of the publisher). &

1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part III} covers the hydraulic design of tunnels conveying water under pressure or under free flow conditions. This does not, however, cover the hydraulic design of other tunnel structures.
2. GENERAL

CONSIDERATIONS

For the hydraulic design, in most cases hydraulic gradient shall be required. However, in addition to hydraulic gradient in certain locations, energy gradient, principles of momentum, transient conditions like water hammer, surges, etc, shall have to be considered. Where air is likely to be entrained because of high velocities, its effect due to bulking should be considered. Due consideration shall be given to maximum and minimum levels at the head and tail end. 2.1.1 The factors which combine to determine the tunnel include such variables as pressure head, slope, surface roughness of the tunnel, and the inlet and combined effect of these factors determines the location turn determines the discharge characteristics of the free flowing tunnels proper aeration shall be ensured. be so designed that pulsating conditions are minimised. of flow, expected variations in the friction factor shall nature of flow in a size, shape, length, outlet shapes. The of control which in tunnel. In case of The tunnel shall In the calculation be considered. tunnel the depth condition. The of air would not sufficient precau-

2.1 General -

2.2 Obligatory Levels of Tunnel - In case of a pressure of intake shall be such that no air is sucked in under any location of outlet of a tunnel shall be such that the entry adversely affect tunnel operation and safety provided that tions for preventing air locks are taken (see 6).

2.2.1 All tunnels should preferably have a positive gradient in the direction of flow, since they may have to be emptied and drained from time to time 4

IS : 4880 (Part III) - 1976


However, it may be borne for the purpose of inspection and maintenance. in mind that in a well designed and constructed tunnel there would be only Gradients and depth shall be such that under a little need of maintenance. fluctuating conditions, including transient conditions, there shall be no possibility of air locks. 2.3 Cross Section - The geometric design of various sections adopted for tunnels is covered in IS : 4880 (Part II)-1976. usually

2.3.1 Area of cross section of a tunnel shall be of sufficient size to carry the maximum required flow on the head available and in addition shall conform to construction requirements. 2.3.1.1 Tunnel dimensions and shape should be decided on the basis of The following economic studies so as to obtain a most economical section. should be taken into account : a) Velocity requirements, b) Loss due to tunnel friction, c) Interest charges on capital cost of tunnel, d) Annual maintenance charges, e) Whether lined or unlined, and f) Cost of gates and their hoists. 2.3.1.2 The tunnel diameter determined as a result of economic studies should be examined from practical considerations, such as space requirements for the excavating equipment and the section may be modified if A minimum height of 2 m necessary, based on the above considerations. For mechanized handling of excavated material a minimum is necessary. section of 2.5 x 2.5 m is required. NOTE- In sound rock the unit cost of excavation decreases as the diameter increases
to a point that permits the use of full sized shovel equipment, say up to 10 m in diameter. In weak rock the unit cost may increase as the size increases owing to extra cost of supports.

2.4 Cavitation - Design shall be such that negative pressures are avoided. To make sure that cavitation is avoided and to allow for uncertainties, the residual positive pressure shall not be less than 3 m of water head in concrete lined tunnels. 2.4.1 The recommended limiting sub-atmospheric pressures, based on probable minimum atmospheric pressures at different elevations above sea ievel, are indicated in Fig. 1. NOTE- In locations which are susceptible to effects of cavitation such as downstream

of gate slot, where there is a change of grade in high velocity floi~, etc, steel lining may be considered.

3. TRANSITION

SHAPES

3.1 From the tunnel section, either entry into or exit from the tunnel requires
transition. to reduce the head losses to a minimum and to avoid cavitation. The length and shape of the transition depends upon the velocity and flow
*Code revtin). of practice for design of tunnels conveying water: Part II Geometric design (first

IS : 4880

(Part II+1976

-4
ALLOWABLE

5 SUBATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

6 IN METRES

7 OF WATER

FIG. 1

ALLOWABLE SUBATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES FOR VARIOIX ELEVATIONS ABOVE SEA LEVEL

conditions prevailing in the tunnel, economics, construction limitations, etc. It is recommended that hvclraulic model studies are conducted to determine an efficient and econoniical transition. The recommended shapes for entrance, contraction or expansion and exit transitions for pressure tunnels are given in 3.2 to 3.4. However, for partly flowing tunnels the methods of design shall be the same as for open channel transition. 3.2 Entrance - To minimize head losses an&to avoid zones where cavitation pressures may develop, the entrance to a pressure tunnel shallhe streamTo obtain best ink-t lined to provide gradual and smooth changes in flow. eIficiency the shape entrance should simulate that of a jet discharging into air and should guide and support the jet with minimum interference until it is contracted to the tunnel dimensions. If the entrance curve is too sharp or too short, subatmospheric pressure arcas which may induce cavitation, will develop. A bellmouth entrance Avhich conforms to or slightly encroaches upon free jet profile will provide the best entrance shape.

of

3.2.1 For a circular tunnel the bellmouth shape may be approximated by an elliptical entrance curve represented by the following equation :

x2
(0.5D)2

-I- &,=l ci

IS : 4880 (Part III) - 1976 where x and y are co-ordinates and D is the diameter of the tunnel at The x-axis of the elliptical entrance is the end of entrance transition. parallel to and at a distance of 0.65 0 from the tunnel centre line; y-axis is normal to the tunnel centrc line and 0.5 D downstream from the entrance face. 3.2.2 The jet issuing from a square or rectangular opening is not ar, easily defined as one issuing from a circular opening; the top and bottom curves may differ from the side curves both in length and curvature. Consequently, it is more difficult to determine a transition which will eliminate subatmospheric pressures. An elliptical curved entrance which will tend to minimize the negative pressure effects may be defined by the following equation : -&+ (0.;; 0) =I

where D is the vertical height of the tutmel for defining the top and bottom curves, and also is the horizontal width of the tunnel for defining the side curves. The major and minor axes~are positioned similar to those indicated for the circular bellmouth in 3.2.1. 3.2.2.1 For a rectangular entrance with the bottom placed even with the upstream floor and with curved guide piers at each side of the entrance openings, both the bottom and side contractions will be suppressed and a sharper contraction will take place at the top of the opening. For this condition the top contraction curve may be defined by the following equation : g+ (0.6;2D)Z =

where D is the vertical height of the tunnel downstream from the entrance. 3.3 Contraction and Expansion - To minimize head losses and to avoid cavitation tendencies along the tunnel surfaces, contraction and expansion transitions to and from gate control sections in a tunnel should be gradual. For contractions, the maximum convergent angle should not exceed that indicated by the relationship :

Wll.ElY? L,=

angle of the tunnel wall surfaces with respect to its centre line, arbitrary & average of the velocities and diameters beginning and end of the transition, and acceleration due to gravity. 7 parameter

lJ= v and

n = g=

at

the

IS : 4660 (Part Ill)

- 1976

3.3.1 Expansion should be more gradual than contraction because of the danger of cavitation where sharp changes in the side walls occur. Furthermore, head loss coefficients for expansions increase rapidly after the angle 4 exceeds about IO. Expansion should be based on the following relationship : 1
tan 4 = 2u in 3.3. For pressure

The notations are the same as for equation given tunnels, the angle < may not normally exceed 10.

3.4 Exit - When a circular tunnel flowing partly full empties into a chute, the transition from the circular section to one with a flat bottom may be made in the open channel downstream from the tunnel portal, or it may be made within the tunnel so that the bottom will be flat at the portal Ordinarily, the transition should be made by gradually decreasing section. the circular quadrants from full radius at the upstream end of the transition For usual installations the length of the to zero at the downstream end. transition can be related to the exit velocity. An empirical rule which may be used to design a satisfactory transition for velocities up to 6 m/s is as follows: L -2vD -where L = v = D = 3

length of transition in m, exit velocity in m/s, and tunnel diameter in m.

NOTE- For velocities higher than 6 m/s and depths greater than 5 m hydraulic model studies are essential.

4. PREssuRE

FLOW LOSSES

factors for estimating the friction losses 4.1 Friction Losses -Friction For tunnels flowing full, friction shall be based on actual field observations. loss may be computed by the use of the formula given in 4.1.1 and 4.12. 4.1.11 Mannings Formula The formula is given below :

where
V =

velocity hydraulic

in m/s, radius

R= S= n =

area in m, ( wetted perimeter > slope of energy gradient, and roughness coefficient or rugosity coefficient. 8

IS : 4880 (Part III) - 1976 4.1.1.1 For concrete lined varies from 0.012 to O-018.
tunnels the value of rugosity coefficient n

4.1.1.2 The value of rugosity coefficient n for use in the Mannings formula for an unlined tunnel depends on the nature of the rock and the quality of trimming, and is possibly influenced by the amount and distributian Qf overbreak. Recommended values of n for various rock smface conditions are given below:

Surface Characteristic Min Very rough Surface Surface trimmed trimmed and invert concreted 0.04 0.025 0*020 Max 0.06 0.035 0.030

NOTE - In a number of unlined tunnels the~roughness haF been experimentally determined by measuring discharges and friction losses or aerodynamically, data about which are given in Appendix A which may be used for design purpose assuming the effective area and overbreak.

4.1.2 Darcy Waisbach Formula -

The formula

is given below :

where 11, = JL I! R .:= friction headloss in m, friction coefficient, the length of the tunnel in m, diamctcr of the tunnel in m,

n=_

velocity of flow in the tunnel in m/s, and -= acceleration due to gravity in m/3.

Nope L- The formula given above is superior to the other empirical formulae, such as Bazin, Rehbock and Williams and Hazen because the friction factorfis dimensionless and no fractional powers are involved. The friction coefficient depends on the Rayllolds number and the relative roughness,

K;: - where

KS is the equivalent sand grain roughness.

4.1.2.1 For lined tunnels the value ofJshal1 be computed in accordance The values of Xs, the equivalent sand grain with IS : 2951 (Part I)-1965. roughness for concrete, may be adopted as below :
*Recommendations for estimation of flow of liquids in closed conduits: Part I Head Ioss in straight pipes due to frictional resistance.

IS : 4880 (Part IIl) - 1976 Surface Characteristics


Concrete Lining : Unusually rough Rough wood form work Erosion of poor concrete Poor alignment of joints Rough Eroded by sharp materials in transit Marks visible from wooden forms Spalling of laitance Granular Wood floated or brushed dition-good joints

1
J
joints I J

0.4 to 0%

surface in good con-

O.lC to o-4,

New or fairly new-smooth concrete Steel forms-average workmanship Noticeable air voids on surface-smooth

New-unusually smooth concrete steel forms 0.015 to tYO6 -first class workmanship Smooth joints > NOTE - The value of KS for steel shall be taken from IS : 2951 (Part I)-1965*.

4.1.2.2 For unlined tunnels the value off depends on the variation in cross-sectional area obtained in the field as well as the direction of drivirlg Tests in, mostly, granite indicate that the friction loss mify lx; the tunnel. estimated by measuring cross-sectional areas at intwvals and drtcrmmir,~ the value off by the following formula :

,f =1 0*002
where 6 = A,, AI = Ass ---A, icl()o AI area corresponding area corresponding

57 6

to 99 percent Frequency, to 1 percent frequency,

anIl

4.1.2.3 For tunnels of non-circular cross-section the diameter II in 4.1.2 shall be replaced by 4R, where R is the hydraulic mean raciills, 11~~ reading as follows:

*Recommendations
in straight

for estimation of flow of liquids in closed conduits:


resistance.

Par1 I IIIYHI low

pipes due to frictional

10

IS : 4880 (Part

I?.I) - 1976

4.1.3 For tunnels flowing partly full the head loss in friction shall be computed by the method specified in IS : 4745-1968*.

4.2 Trash Rack Losses - Trash rack structure which consists of widely i;>aced structural members without rack bars will cause very little head loss and trash rack losses in such a case may be neglected in computing tunnel losses. When the trash rack consists of a rack of bars, the loss will depend on bar thickness, depth and spacing and shall be obtained from the Following formula : ht= E-t u %

where ht = trash rack head loss, Xt = loss coefhcient for trash rack an $ ) at an - net area through trash rack bars, at = gross area of the vent (racks and supports), U = velocity in net area, and = acceleration due to gravity. s
_=

1*45_0*45

Cl

4.2.1 Where maximum loss values are desired, 50 percent of the rack area shall be considered clogged. This will result in twice the velocity through the trash rack. For minimum trash rack losses, the openings may not be considered clogged when computing the ICAYS coefficient or the loss may be neglected entirely. 4.3 Entrance cqua tion :
Losses -

Entrance loss shall be computed by the following h, z Ic, u? %

where he K,
V

= head loss at entrance, = loss coefficient for entrance, = velocity, and = acceleration due to gravity.

4.3.1 Values of loss coefficient ,K, for various types of entrances shall be assumed to be as given in Table 1. 4.4 Transition Losses - Head loss in gradual contractions or expansions in a tunnel may be considered in relation to the increase or decrease in velocity head and will vary according to the rate of change of area and *Code of practice for designof cross-section of lined canals. 11

IS : 4880 (Part TII) - 1976


TABLE 1 LOSS COEFFICIENT FOR TUNNEL ENTRANCES

(clallre 4.3.1) SL No. (1) ENTRANCE Loss I


COEFFICIENT

TYPE

OF

h~aximum (3) I.80 1.x 1.00 0.70 0.60

* Minimum (4) 1.00 0.50 0.10 0.40 0.18 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.56

FOR

ENTRANCE,

Kp

Average (5) 1.50 I.00 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.05 0.16 0.80

(2) i) Gate in thin wall-unsuppressed rontrartion

ii) Gate in tbill wall-bottom suppressed iv) Square-cornered entrances

and side:

iii) Gate in thin wall-corners rounded v) SIightly roundecEentranccs vi) Fully rounded entrances ~.0.15

0.27 0.10 0.20 0.93

vii) Circular I~clln~outI~entrances viii) Square bellmouth entrances ix) Inlvard projecting entrances

length of transition. (Bart II)-1965*. 4.4.1 For gradual

These losses shall be assumed as specified in IS : 2951 contractions, loss of head he, shall be computed by

the following equation

KC == loss coefficient for contraction, vz = velocity in contracted section, q z velocity in normal section, and g = acceleration due to gravity.

4.4.1.1 The value of loss coefficient K, shall be assumed to vary from 0.1 for gradual contractions to 0.5 for abrupt contractions. Where flare angle does not exceed those specified in 3.3 the loss coefficient shall be assumed to be 0.1. For grca.ter flare angles the loss coefficient shall be assumed to v;ry in straight lint rcla~tionship to a maximum of 0.5 for a right angle contraction.
*Recommendations in valves and fittings. for estimation of flow of liquids in closed~conduits: Part II Head loss

12

IS : 4880 (Part III) - I976 4.5 Bend and Junction Luss - Head loss at bends and junctions assumed as given in IS : 2951 (Part II)-1965*. shall be

4.6 Gate Loss in Pressure Tunnels - ~NOgate loss need be assumed if the velocity of flow is less than 1 m/s. Where a gate is mounted at either the upstream or downstream side of a thin head wall such that the sides and bottom ofjet are suppressed and the top is contracted, loss coefficients given in item (ii) of Table 1 shall be taken. Where a gate is so mounted in a tunnel that the floor, sides and the roof, both upstream and downstream, are continuous with the gate openings, only the losses due to the slot shall be considered as given below assuming the value of loss coefficient Ke not exceeding 0.10 :

gate head loss, loss coefficient for gate, velocity, and acceleration due to gravity. 4.6.1 For partly open gates Ae coefficient of loss will depend on top contraction; for smaller openings it will approach a value of I.0 as indicated in item (ii) of Table 1. 4.6.2 For wide open gates value of loss coefficient shall be assumed to be 0.19. Similar to partly open gates, value of the loss coefficient will increase for smaller gate openings. 4.7 Exit Losses .- Where no recovery of velocity head will occur, such as where the release from a pressure tunnel discharges fi-eely, or is submerged or supported on a downstream floor, velocity head loss coefficient Ke, shall be assumed to be equal to 1-O. IHead loss at exit shall be computed by the Mowing equation:

f1 e+ -r;,,-where h,, Kex II s = = = = exit head loss, loss coefficient for exit, exit velocity, acceleration and

2g

due to gravity.

of a portion

4.7.1

Where a diverging tube is provided at the end of tunnel, recovery of the velocity head will be obtained if the tube expands gradually Part II FIead ioss in
r

*Recommendations for estimation of flow of liquids in closed conduits:


valves and fittings.

13

Is : 4880 (Part *II) - 1976


and if the end of the tube is submerged, the loss coefficient & reduced from the value of 1.0 by the degree of head recovery. 5. VELOCITY 5.1 Average permissible velocity in a concrete lined tunnel may be about 6 m/s. For steel lined tunnels velocities as dictated by economic studies shall be chosen. In case of river diversion tunnels and tunnel spillways there may be no such limitations on the maximum permissible velocity, however, the lining and its surface shall bc designed to withstand the velocities which will occur. 5.1.1 Permissible velocities in tunnels of different surfaces (unlined, concrete lined, steel lined) also depend upon the sediment load carried by the water. Where water carrying abrasive material in suspension and as bed load is to be conveyed the permissible velocity should be reduced. A recommended velocity is 2.3 m/s. 6. AIR LOCXING AND REMEDIAL MEASURE 6.1 General - The presence of air in a pressure tunnel can IX a source of grave nuisance as given below: The localization of an air pocket at the high point in a tunnel or at a change in slope which occasions a marked loss of head and diminution of discharge. The slipping of a pocket of air in a tunnel and its rapid elimination by an air vent can provoke a water hammer by reason of the impact between two water columns. The supply of emulsified water to a turbine affects its operation by a drop in output and efficiency thus adversely affecting the operation of generator. The presence of air in a Pelton nozzle can be the cause of water hammer shocks. Admission of air to a pump may occasion loss of priming. 4 If the velocity exceeds a certain limit air would be entrained causing bulking. 6.2 Source of Air .-- Air iuay cntcr and accumulate in a tmmcl by the following means: a) During filling, air may bc trapped along the crown at high points or at changes in cross-sectional size or shape; b) Air may be entrained at intake tither by vortex action or by means of hydraulic jump associated with a partial gate opening; and c) Air dissolved in the flowing water may come out of solution as a result of decrease in pressure along the tunnel. 6.3 Remedial Measures -The following steps arc recommended to prevent the entry of air in a tunnel: a) Shallow intakes are likely to induce air being sucked in. Through14 shall bc

IS : 4880 (Part IIf) - 1976 out the tunnel the velocity should either remain constant or incrcasc towards the outlet end. Itshould be checked that at no point on the tunnel section negative pressures are developed. b) Vortices that threaten to supply air to a tunnel should be avoided, however, if inevitable they should be suppressed by floating baffles, hoods or similar devices. c) Partial gate openings that result in hydraulic jumps should be avoided. d) Traps or pockets along the crown should be avoided. 6.3.1 In some cases, such as secondary feeder shafts supplying a main tunnel air entrance may appear inevitable. In such cases de-aeration chamber with enlarged area should be provided so that no air enters the main tunnel. Where possible it is advisable that such intakes are checked on hydraulic models to ensure no entrance of air.

APPENDIX
(Note
VALUES YL No. T&E ROCK OF n FOR

A
TUNNELS OVERBREAK MANNING'S n

ztnder Clause 4.1.1.2)


EXISTING ACTUAL EFFECTIVE -Area Hvdrau lit Radius (4) (R,) ms 33.8 57.4 61.5 35.9 64.0 3i.z 40.1 114.3 80.5 m 1.54 2.09 2.16 I.62 0% 164 1.74 2.88 2.42 1.128 1.15 1.23 1.20 167 1.32 1.21 1.13 1.088 1.15 12.7 14.8 23.0 19.6 6.6 32.0 8.9 15.1 0.035 0.034 0.030 0.038 4* 3* o* 4*

THEORETICAL -Area Hydrau- lit Radius (R) m 1.46 1.85 1.85 1.45 2.00 0.59 1.53 168 2.74 2.24

OF

-A,
A:

(4
ma i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Granite-gneiss Granite-gneiss Granite-gneiss Granite-gneiss Gneiss-granite with some diabase Vein-gneiss Arkose sand-storm Arkose sand-stone Upper sillurian slate horizontally stratified Black slate with granite intrusions 30 50 50 30 60 22.7 35.4 105 70

Percent (Volume)

0.027 0* 0.033 9* 0.038 1 0.038 t 8029 2* 0.043 7*

Calculated from the length of tunnel, the effective area and the hydraulic radius and he observed friction head. tCalculated from the length of tunnel, from actual area of tunnel and hydraulic radius of quivalent circle.

15