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John Marston's Fawn: A Saturnalian Satire Author(s): Joel Kaplan Source: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 9, No. 2, Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama (Spring, 1969), pp. 335-350 Published by: Rice University Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/449784 . Accessed: 10/07/2013 21:43
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Antonio's Revenge. ed.170 on Wed. Satirist (Ithaca. This content downloaded from 197. in which devices fromthe traditionsof formalsatire and holiday revelryformthe backdrop for Hercules's ultimatetriumph.ed.an overall unity to Hercules's dual function-his satiric and saturnalian roles-as those who have crimes against procreation. M. Wine (Lincoln. 1964). Duke Hercules. Both are dramas of the "disguise plot" variety. in which a process of suppling replaces the satirist's more traditional lancet and invective is superseded by a rhetoricof increase. Nebraska. ed.for permissionto cite passages from his excellent edition of The Fawn now in the final stages of preparation as a University of Toronto doctoral dissertation. to demand. G. Hunter (Lincoln. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2This classificationis discussed fullyin AnthonyCaputi's JohnMarston.Each centers about an incognitoduke who exposes a lascivious court. University of Toronto. each dominated by an incognito duke who exposes the follies of a courtstewedin corruption. in fact. a facsimileof a copy now in the HuntingtonLibrary. The Fawn. [Regents Renaissance Drama Series] The Wonder of WomenOr The Tragedie of Sophonisba.Yet in its course of action and resolution The Fawn seems closer to The Dutch Courtesan. might be called a saturnalian satire. New York.Q1606.In part at least this appears to be the resultof its resemblance to The Malcontent. On the basis of thissimilarity.2 WITH THE EXCEPTION of The Malcontent. K. [Regents Renaissance Drama Series]. quite possiblyMarston'slast comedy. Nebraska.1 is a play that has been especiallyneglected.John Marston's Fawn: A Saturnalian Satire JOEL KAPLAN The initial situation of John Marston's Fawn resembles that of the playwright'searlier Malcontent. Arnold Davenport (Liverpool. appropriatelyspans both modes.Because of the lack of an acceptably accurate edition of Marston's completeworks I have used the following editionsof individualworks for citationin this article: The Poems of John Marston.53.2. There is. and in purging Gonzago's court while assuring the perpetuationof his own royal line. the dramas of JohnMarstonhave not generallyreceivedthe that theircomplexity criticalattention and meritwould seem The Fawn. in which Marston's raillerygives way to a type of curative exuberance. The Malcontent. 1961). the Duke symbolically completes two Herculean labors that held particular significance for Marston: the cleansing of the Augean stables and the creation of a royal line in Beotia. Blostein of Victoria College. 1965). defiledthe courthave done so by committing This helps to explain the play's concludingmasque. L. the play's protagonist. The Fawn has oftenbeen dismissedas a feeble attempton 'I would like to thank David A. however. 1961).
replacingin'For an exceptionto this apparent consensus see A.and makes possible. They remain.Rejectingraillery sioned involvements theyoperateby means of a saturnalianexuberance(especially notable in Cocledemoy) that subordinatesreason to the raw energyof non-logical language and action.336 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE Marston'spart to wringone moreplay froma successful plot or has beenjudged by the light (or darkness) of its predecessor and foundwanting.display a dexterity ing both verbal and physical disguises that enables each to '. as the banishedAltofrontohaunts his formerduchy in the guise of the foulmouthedrailer. The "satyr. Kernan's excellent study of this phenomenonin The CankeredMuse: Satire of the English Renaissance (New Haven. 1969).and Cocledemoy. always conscious of their roles and avoid the impasof Marston'ssatirists. 'See Alvin B. of role and identity. J. The duke must maintainhis own identityand sanity while he spews the venom of the malcontentupon the debauchedcourtat Genoa. This is the dilemma that lies verynear the heart of The Malcontent. Axelrad's symof the play in his Un MalcontentElizabe'than: John pathetictreatment Marston (1576-1634). revealing in the process its precise relationship to The Malcontent. a figure that appears throughout Marston's dramaticand non-dramatic writings.onlythe mosthesitantacceptanceof the play's comic In The Dutch CourtesanMarstonproposesa soluresolution.runs the risk of contamination through too intimate an acquaintance with vice. This content downloaded from 197. The split betweenthe public and private personalitiesof the satiric persona apparentlyfascinated Marston." in brief. (Paris. Malevole. We must begin. wittyCity in manipulatcompanion"in the subplot.the "roman"a knavishly tic" lead of the piece.cure" other charactersin the play.nonetheless.comes dangerouslyclose to the type of emotionalentanglement that destroysVindice in The Revenger's Tragedy.with a more general considerationof the satiric railer. however. His passion for his role. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for many of Marston's readers. however.170 on Wed.4In his versesatires written in the late 1590's as well as in the plays he composedfor the children'scompaniesat Paul's and the Chapel.3 The presentarticle will attemptto deal with The Fawn on its own merits. tionto this problem Freevill. our attentionis directedtowards an inherentconin the satiristfigure: an affinity tradiction for filththat is at odds witha professed desireto cleansesociety. 1955).2.53.
The Fawn in fact might be called a saturnalian satire.5 vectiveby a movement that of The If the initialsituationin The Fawn resembles bringit closer its courseof action and resolution Malcontent. however.53.2. god of fertility and also spanning both modes. 'The legend survives in many versions. 5Saturnalia is here used to define what C. There is.anotheraspect of Hercules that takes on an even greater importancein Marston's canon. The cleansingof the Augean stables in particularwas an action to which the satyr's fascination its removal might be compared. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . althoughhe retains the virgin daughter (Mythologiae.170 on Wed. Libri Dece7n. This content downloaded from 197. . labor. 6).suggests not only "flatterer" the play's controlling but botha varietyof the savage man and Faunus (or Pan) and abundance. apparentlyrejecting (as Pausanias himself did) the account of a single reluctant daughter sentenced to perpetual virginity for her refusal (Descriptions of Greece.JOEL KAPLAN 337 towards sanity throughrelease.iii.. i). or Faunus. the impregnation The hero's apocryphalthirteenth proof King Thespius's fiftydaughtersin a single night.Equally significant. This also is the version adopted by Natalis Comes. In The Scourge of Villanie (1598) we hear of Hercules's "farming Oxe-staules" (Satire V. while the reception given Antonio by the Venetian senators at the close of Antonio'sRevenge. L. the role assumed by figure. himself. IX. VII. Fawn. "Thou art another Hercules to us / In ridding huge pollutionfrom our state" (V. Marston follows Pausanias in assigning but one night for the achievement. to The Dutch Courtesan. that betweensatire and saturnalia. Barber describes as a process of "clarification through release" in Shakespeare's Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and its Relationship to Social Cutstom (Princeton. xxvii). and its title appropriately spans both modes.1959). with filth and. ostensibly.In this respectits veryresemblance to The Malcontentserves to underscorethe differentapas great as a difference proachesof Marston'sprotagonists.129-130) implies an associationforthe son of Zeus more in line with the tumbrilthan the club. is the name of Marston's duke in his own person-Hercules.6 vided Marstonwith a comic patternof virilityand creative In CertaineSatyres (1598). For Marstonthe figureof Hercules served more oftenas a prototype of the satiristthan as the modelof a fierceand audaciouslyheroicman. Marston'sfirstliterexuberance.
" (The Tragedie of Sophonisba. This helps to explain the curious combination of the Court of Love and Ship of Fools motifsin the masque that wanting . .in the same work. . and wondrous delight In strength of lustand Venussurquedry Rob'd fifty wenches of virginity." (II.For Marston.v.1). however.. The prologueto Antonio'sRevengerefersto the "sweat of Hercules [that] can ne'er beget / So blest an issue" (11-12). 89) and the "fiftiemore Beotian gerles [who] will sue / To haue thy loue.170 on Wed. the realms of the satirist and what we may call the saturnaliancharacter. Appropriately these acts are. Mendoza. 70-71).6-8). .338 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE ary venture.greatease. This have . He is at the same time a satiric and saturnalian figure. Raillery and diatribe. we hear how: backtHerculesin one poorenight strong Withgreat.53. E. concluding that "He that attemptsa princess' lawless love / Must wise Hercules whom Syphax calls upon in his designs upon Sophonisba: "boue all 0 Hercules / Let not thy backe be incidentin fact accountsfor more references to Hercules in Marston's works than the remaininglabors combined. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..comparesthe hapless Ferneze to the worthy.2. (Satire V.then. curingfollyin the mannerof a Cocledemoy or a Lord of Misrule. while the charactersof The Malcontentare so familiarwith the storythat Pietro can correctMalevole whenthe lattertellshimthat"Hercules. cleansing Gonzago's polluted court at Urbin while perpetuatinghis own house at Ferrara.the verbal tools of the malcontent. give place to a techniqueof exposingabsurdityby intensification. the figure of Hercules. in the broadest sense of the terms. first at the Augean stalls and then in the bedroomsof Beotia. Marston's Duke Hercules fulfillsboth functions. . [the] back of Hercules . . got forty wenches with child in one night" (IV. His satire.But there is an overall unityto Hercules's dual purpose: those who have defiledthe court have done so by committing crimes against the procreativeprocess. the respective domains of renaissance satire and comedy. (so that thy back be true. It is like- This content downloaded from 197.58-59). was associated with both the carting of filthand the creationof progeny. 47-50) The Scourge of Villanie tells us of "Alcides thirteenth act" (Satire IV. .)" (Satire VIII. sig.v. This conceptof Hercules also appears in the plays.is itself saturnalian.
on the outskirtsof Urbin. 205.and thoughI proposedto him ever-resolved thisveryladyto whomhe is gonein myrightto negotiate. ciliationmusttake place withinHerculeshimself. (Yale.8 "Then" in line 22 is as "even then" to support this conclusion. Far from being a structural weakness. Alvin B. 249.Whenhis motivesare "only the duke repliesthat he can give his brother questioned and to he leaves of proceeds Ferrara. Now how his coolerbloodwill behaveitselfin this businesswouldI have an onlytestimony.there is no specificreference 7Philip J.i. He has enhis brother.JOEL KAPLAN 339 concludesthe play. and is about to enterUrbinin disguise. (I. 1954). 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "John Marston's Concept and Use of Satire. ii onwards.170 on Wed.53." SP. See "The Use of Middle Temple's Christmas Revels in Marston's The Fawne. (Harvard. some glimpses" why to his son. 264.the duke's own resolutionearly in the play and anticipationof the greater may be seen as a microcosm he workstowards in the remainingacts." Unpub.althoughmyselfwas then an widower.as youcan well witnesswithme. harmony As The Fawn opens we firstsee Hercules taking leave of Renaldo. Finkelpearl "The Works of John Marston: A Critical Study. diss. Kernan.couldI never persuade to marriage. explain how he never could persuade marry: myson. April 1967. the perverters condemns of the satiric and Yet beforesuch a general reconciliation a more personal reconsaturnalian modes can be effected. This content downloaded from 197. LXIV. diss. During the last four acts of The Fawn we are not so much concernedwith Hercules as withhis labors-the purgingof Gonzago'scourtand the perpetuationof Ferrara's royal line. trustedRenaldo with the rule of his own Duchy of Ferrara." Unpub. Devices in the spirit of holiday revelry7 and "formal"satire are juxtaposedas Herculesat one stroke of love and spoilersof the court. Finkelpearl argues very persuasively for the annual Christmas Revels of the Middle Temple as the specific source for Marston's Court of Cupid. and for the remainderof the play Hercules is free to realize the widest implications of the synthesishe achieves.20-25) this passage Previousreadingsof The Fawn have understood to mean that Herculeshopes to trickhis son into a marriage that will secure his line at Ferrara. 8Caputi. Tiberio.Yet interpreted althoughsuch congenial deceptionis Hercules's plan from to it the end of I.2.199-209. 1954).This is accomplishedby the end of Act I. Philip J.
the inflection of meaning not only the 22 determine will to "then" in I. of him. . Yet in the end we mustmake a choice if we are to approach the work at all."Then" may also be read as "previously" and the entirepassage construedin the followingmanner: decidedto take Herculesat the outsetof the play has himself a wife and has sent Tiberio to negotiatethe marriage. . when Hercules was "an ever-resolved he had proposed this very same princess for his son but Tiberio's blood was too cold for the match. . presentingus with a ruler whose "exorbitantaffects" gottenthe better and "wild longings"have." than he had eitherthe energyor inclinalarger conception tion to pursue.170 on Wed. [in This content downloaded from 197. Finkelpearl. . i. and it can be read eitherway. In brief. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . .340 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE in this initialscene. In widower. we must simply choose whicheverreading play.ii. .62-63)." the past. then.53. This reading is consistentwith Hercules's soliloquyabout his own "appetite of blood" that concludes I. i. irrelevant beginning of the play . and under the circumstancesour only crieria will have to be both aesthetic and subjective. ii.2. Now Hercules." Finkelpearlthen makes specific reference of what he which] Hercules gives a totallyfalse impression is goingto do. given and abandonshis originalplan. entire of the plot but the the passage in which it occurs comedy.297).wishes to see withhis own eyes how a son naturally who would not woo on his own behalf will woo in behalf of his father. The plot to interestTiberio in Dulcimel would then begin with Hercules's second soliloquy at the end of I. [but] curiously to "the creaky.this is the gives us a more satisfactory place to point out that at least two extremelyperceptive readingand place the beginnings criticswho adoptthe former of Hercules'splan to wed Tiberioto Dulcimelin I. No wonder Marston cautionsus that "Comediesare writ to be spoken. Perhaps. of the play dramatically own interpretations Thus Philip J. i] a life and thathe is goingto free thathe has led too restricted himself from his self-imposed regimen . i findtheir ineffective.not read: the life of these thingsconsistsin action" (To My remember Equal Reader. enough. and . after the duke is made to realize how old he is (I. for the moment. "wants Tiberio to becomeinterested has gone to Urbin to watch and assist his son in this act of "a laments Marston's abandonment of filial disloyalty. He claims [in the soliloquyat the end of I.who tells us that Hercules in [Dulcimel].
Alvin it" onlybecause of the disabuseHerculessuffers undramatic B.Hercules's attentionis first occupiedby the price he has paid for maintainingthe decorum of his office. . Dulcimel himself. He now feels a breakingout of "the appetiteof blood" that is at odds with the austerityof his public image.53. and. Kerman also imposesa static and admittedly upon Hercules and then complainsthat Hercules personality one is a major characterin whom"thereis no development.then.he human nature . [and] the least of disranked shapes" (I." in station and put his belief to the test. he emergeswith.i. The procurementof a young wife is linked with this downward Herculesnow leaves in a social and naturalhierarchy.these latter "sufficings"become the subject of a lengthyverse soliloquy. or merely additional reasons for going which he enumerates for Renaldo's benefit."Nothingcomes of in I.JOEL KAPLAN 341 nothingcomes of it. . the view of Like Finkelpearl. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ."283-284. JustbeforeHercules and Renaldo part companythe duke confessesother "contents"" and "sufficings"that have figuredin his decisionto visit Urbin. .2. ii. ii.WhenRenaldoleaves./ Wild longings.by a descentin the chain of being froma creatureof reason to one of appetite.170 on Wed.a decorumthat has robbedhim of "exorbitantaffects. "Kerman. Why." 260.this passage can be seen as of Hercules's character link in the development an important and the progressof Marston'splay. believing for the while that his "blood" is closer to his true Herculesresolvesto descend naturethan is his "sovereignty.for these "other contents" may mean either specious reasons which Hercules expects to use at Gonzago's court to conceal his true reason for the visit.the duke's "breaking out of blood" is in keepingwith his desire for the princess. 9Finkelpearl. motion the symbolic vantagepoint fromwhichhe observesthe "far"The Worksof JohnMarston. If we choose this second alternativethe phrasing will seem somewhatstilted in accepting the formerreading and a bit curious.If we delay the diatelyfollowshis conversation "nuptialplot" to I. yet the difficulties are still greater. however. would Hercules need to explain away his presenceat Urbin if he is going there in disguise? This content downloaded from 197. A decline in social positionis paralleled. "The wording here is dificult. for example." who "takes into the action [of the play] .44-45). "JohnMarston'sConceptand Use of Satire."" Yet the opening of the play is only "creaky" and "irrelevant"if we assume that Hercules's moIf Hercules's originalplan is to wed tives remainunchanged."'10 too is unable to account for Hercules's soliloquythat immewithRenaldo.
Severeindictions Freeness. Dulcimel.i.His openingwords flatterers.The discovery cules draws fromhis disabuse at Urbin. His original desire is modifiedby a plan to wed the This content downloaded from 197.297). whichthe princessreveals to be neitherfair nor youthful. and for the firsttime reconcileshimself to the genre of satire as a possible antidote: I nowrepent to somesharpstyles. an even more deceptivecounterfeit of the duke's true likeBoth are exposed as base flatterers ness.as Hercules adopts new attitudestowardshimselfand satire. such [as] my fatherhath been" (I. or morespecifically matecriticism.2. however.111-112).Having prowhen no outletat all fora healthy"freeness. Is grateful Evidently as Duke of Ferrara Herculeshad suppressedlegitithe"sharp style"of satire.1-2) and assuring us that "the bottomof gravityis nothinglike the top" (I. He conof himselfthat destroy frontstwo "flattering"counterfeits his new faith in blood and appetite.ii.308-311) to just states.ii.however. He accuses flatterers all degrees for his previousblindnessto his own faults and limitations(R05-308). and as a result remainedignorantof his natural passions is analogous withthe lesson Herand failings.342 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE appearing spires [that] rise from the city" (I.When we were first to the duke he had already discoveredthat the introduced demandsof blood could not simplybe ignored.34-35) comes down to the city itself.ii. (I." vided. fixes upon this "hath been.170 on Wed.103). bringhomethe impactof this confrontation-"I neverknew of till now how old I was" (I.i. As he observes the initial interviewbetweenhis son and the princess.so't grownotto licentiousness." and shows Tiberio in the fullnessof his youthto be than Hercules's portrait. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ii. such freenesscame it first took the form of a "licentious" desire: his wish to wed Dulcimel. but adds that if the princess is disappointedwith it.102). Once in Gonzago's court Hercules is disabused. she may behold in him his father's"true form/ And livelierimage.This soliloquyis a turning point. of Tiberio replies that it is rather"the perfectcounterfeit" the duke (I.ii. Herculesto medileavingthe distraught The courtretires.his inhe had sent her and asks tendedbride producesa miniature Tiberio if it is his father's "true proportion" (I.53. and fawns. tate on counterfeits.
of character central to "Malevole" as the dominant as the not figure "Faunus. are told in his opening We firstsee Duke Herculesas himself.170 on Wed. (I. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." but thinkof Hercules. he but tion flattery the lancet is replaced by a "suppling" that causes sores to This content downloaded from 197.331-334) By the end of the firstact. the dukeintosuch straits whichhad firstbrought the flattery and appropriatemeans of channelwill providea convenient ing the heat. and watch him don the disguise that others will later meet as "Faunus.2.yet the carefully are most likelyto refer We bothplays. in our minds. a course of action consistent his "repentance"and evident desire for heirs. In addition. then.329-331) December.JOEL KAPLAN 343 with both princessto his son.In the earlier work." between these two manners of presentation The difference calculatedeffectsreis verysimple indeed.in which the duke's manipulation of masks is less adept and the danger of contamination in his role of Maleoftenimminent.shaping our attitudestowards Altoforemost frontowhen we finallydo meethim. In depthof numbed He now intendsto expendhis unseasonableenergy all in flattering viciousness. in this respectto compareMarston's be interesting It might in The Malof Herculeswith that of Altofronto presentation content. Restoredto his senses. Marston makes sure that there is to be no such confusion. speech that he is Ferrara's proper ruler. And meetfullbuttthecloseof vice's shame. as becomesa parasitasteror false fawn.Herculeshas made a major decisionthatsets his soul at peace and enableshimto manipulate various roles or masks withoutplacing his own identity in jeopardy.53. however. mostprodigious flames That fallsinto [his] age likescorching (I.ii.ii. In The Fawn. Thus vole beforehe is even mentioned discordantmalcontent remains the portraitof a struggling. Altofronto is introduced in his own capacity. throughout verberate The Malcontent. In all oftheirextremest Till in theirownlovedrace theyfallmostlame. The in Fawn. Hercules is ready to undertakehis labors: to cleanse Gonzago's house and assure his own a The methodhe chooses is not vilificameasure of posterity.
i when he blesses the sheetsof his son and Dulcimel: 0. is apparent from the very outset. no less saturis one of inducinga catharticover-abundance."So end all desperate (II.youimpostumed on I'll thrust. two labors of the comedy. Wood." but as "sear" is not recorded as the Qq reading in any of these editions it would seem that "fear" is an ratherthan an emendation. his reparteewith the courtiersfastens upon the subject.i. hence. Free speechgains foes.170 on Wed." by an excessof energetic propelled The process.The firstof these challenges.6-9) And endedin abhorred and its implications Hercules is concernedwith inheritance fromthe openingof the play. Herculesnow desires nalian in spiritthan the consummation for his children.2. Tiberio's coldnessis as unnatural a reaction to love as those the courtiersof Urbin exhibit. is seen as a veryreal threat. "kill our hope of name in his dull coldness" (V. ""Sear" is the reading of Qq and Blostein.when.53. (V. And whenin shameyoufall. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Since 'tis in vain to hinder. The race ofprincely issue.i. Swell.14).I'll laughfrom impudence.344 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE burst and drain of theirown accord: Shouldone rail And cometo sear12a vice. Although he does not make this explicit until V. and it is hardly a which might surprise to learn that Tiberio's indifference.can be divided roughlybetween the storyof Tiberio and Dulcimeland the purgingof GonzaHercules's endeavor go's court. As Faunus. Amoroso. and Smith follow Sheares's collectionof 1633 (which has no textual authority) in printing "fear. barrenness. and Garbetza into the taintedrealm of the bringthe themeof inheritance Yet the dominant themes.537-545) "benevolence. Halliwell. Of yonder chamber. to procure an heir. oversight This content downloaded from 197. of a corruptand pervertedcourt and a The phenomenon in boththe main heirs are intertwined concernfor begetting and subplotof The Fawn.bewareleg-rings hand if softer keyon thee. tillyouburst.the play's "satiric" movement. while the predicamentsof Herod. Bullen.base fawnings members.i. blessthesheets thatFerrara's dukedom." And cry. And theturned Supplinga sorethatitches(whichshouldsmart)stealtheheart.be notcursed.
i.is drawn mustin turnbegetmore dukes.a "cruelty [that] bodies. 'For a similar double entendre see Middleton's A Mad World. and above all "past child-getting" (III. to be Donna Philocalia's only reason for being in the play. to nature" (I.i. When Hercules realizes "how old" he is. sour.173-174). undoubted (III. In the following Tiberio.bothlicentiousand sterile.that (III.53. betweenlegitimatepassion.178-180). The objections raised are those Hercules himself would have recognizedas quite sufficient:impotence and sterility. . Nebraska. . Yet in the same breath the princess confesses.i.[and] honour.195-197).i.2. Finkelpearl tells us that on the romantic effect "Hercules. My Masters. .180).i. in fact. of great blood. undertaking In his own rightthe Duke of Ferrara is regardedas one of the "few worthy"of "a lady . has almostno significant but . action. . To Dulcimel the duke's suit is "a scandal to the soul of all being" (III. .but . Hercules's role in bringingabout the marriage of Tiberio and Dulcimel should not be overshadowedby the initiative the princess takes in the affair. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . [Regents Renaissance Drama Series]. This content downloaded from 197.with sexual innuendos." that "part" which then. firm age. Standish Henning (Lincoln. rheumy" (III. His son has indeed requiredsome prodding. and she sugwith all other gests that Hercules mightbe burnedtogether men unable to get children (III. III.i. most binds breastto breast not onlydifferent withan enforcement even scandalous unequal mindstogether.ii. she does "even dote upon the best part of the duke"'14 line Dulcimelexplains that she means 182). above her sex. and fertility.170 on Wed.170). "This appears. 1965). . which is capable of fulfillment and impotent desire.JOEL KAPLAN 345 Such a concern was an importantelementin Hercules's original desire to wed Dulcimel. austere. . 38: "When his best parts hung down their heads for shame. he acknowledges Tiberio as his "best part" and devises a plan (as he had done once in the past) to obtain heirs throughthis organ. rough.but the pun holdstrueon bothlevels: Tiberiosprings fromand now is the duke's "best part. mostmodestly artful.and Gonzago's court which knows only of this earlier plan criticizeshim soundly for a task that appears both unnaturaland futile. iii.149-151). but in his designs upon naturallymodest"'13 the youngerDulcimel he seems "dull. A distinction. .Herod considersthe proposed marriage a tyranny beyondthe torturesof Mezentius." ed.
Gonzago'sspeech is rootedin his same self-conscious of himself.like Hercules's. We may see something of this in the many ludicrous situations in Antonio and Mellida in whichcharactersbecomeso preoccupied withtheir own eloquencethat theylose track of the play's action. 15Finkelpearl. we ha' been eloquent" (I.His rhetoric we yet can speak.53. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ." (II.as she uses his conceit to furtherher own ends. He re- This content downloaded from 197.more consistently than manyof his contemporaries. It remains for Hercules to interpretGonzago's message to his son: "Do you not ?" (II."'" Yet in emis Dulcimel'sproddingreally enough? Her ingenuity is certainly ployingher fatheras an unwitting go-between impressive.what means this? / Is the duke sober" (II. and its relationship to the self and its masks.i.170 on Wed.restsupon Dulcimel'semployment of bothherself and her objective.85-86).In his comediesfollyis often use of involvedtropes and figbetrayedby a self-conscious ures at preciselythe wrongmoment. Throughouthis dramaticworks Marston. The prince'sreactions-"What means mylord?" (II. stroveto portraystates of rhetorical mindthrough devices. Tiberio is simply embellished unable to penetrateGonzago's incomprehensibly rhetoric. His role as a great oratorbecomesa "blindside" that he ironicalis pepperedwith"I think ly pointsto withpride. i.2. but the veryobtuseness that makes Gonzagosuch an easy tool almost frustratesher plans. In contrast.487).513-514)-may be read to conveyutter bewilderment rather than outrage.92). "La.488) and similar expressions.517) Herculesworksupon courtthe lady for yourself Tiberio muchas Dulcimeldoes upon her father.ii.i. can speak . and his failureas a manipulaown misconception tor of language reveals the foolishnessof this illusion.an underan understanding "The Worksof JohnMarston. "Astonishment and wonder. to be makinga serious statement about the use and misuse of language. Marstonseems In theseefforts to bringabout the marriage."271-272.ii.and bothare necessary links in carryingthe princess's message to the prince.346 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE Dulcimel performsthis task more than adequately. sir! thus men of brain mains all the while unaware of his "stalking" daughter. of language.i. The quality (more ignoranceof Gonzago is indeedof a different like Balurdo's than Antonio's) yet it manifestsitselfin the manner. . "pray ye note my phrase" (I.
"The Works of John Marston. "Herod's doing himself out of his inheritance. and also focuses our attentionupon Hercules who "stays beneath"and offers Love is seen as natural.170 on Wed.. 203. slumberhave I been in !" (V.as Caputi has noted. sense completed The flatness. [Regents Renaissance Drama Series]. Tiberio climbs towardstakes place at the beginning to the princess's chamberand they are wed in dumb show "Whilst the act is a-playing. intensifies own advantage. that Hercules and Dulcimel both work The consummation of Act V."insists on turningthe course "Caputi. of the courtiersat Urbin has oftenbeen pointedout. and are derived from stock incioften even their predicaments Yet Marstondoes a good deal more dents in formalsatire. and to his edition of The Fawn (Lincoln. turningthem to her already existingabsurdities.but helps cure her father in the bargain.Hercules has in this dance and fruitfulness his labor of procreation.Her decisionin Act III to "stalk on the blind father's wit" (IJI.233) is justified side of my all-knowing of Gonzago's "wisdom": by such an absurd acknowledgement 'no sooner had my father's wisdom mistrustedmy liking but I grew loth his j udgementshould err.'6 They are walking humorsthat exist only to be deflatedby Hercules. Smith's introduction Nebraska.for example. Satyra Nova. Gerald A. Finkelpearl. legitia prayer for their fertility. What a I am ashamed of myself. that's the plain troth.i. In the end he is at last able to say: "By the Lord. they bear the names of their individual follies. xiii.The princess not only wins her prince. Togetherwith Hercules she supples Gonzago's sores untiltheyswell and burst. This content downloaded from 197. has its source in Marston's own The Scourge of Villanie. 27-32."'8 The sins or follies of the court are variationson a commontheme: the perversionof love. and sacred only when it is a microcosm of nature itself. 1965). Gonzago." 266. I pitied he should prove a fool in his old age. and again like Hercules." 266.53.she The methodshe uses is flattery. "Finkelpearl. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and withoutcause mistrust me" (III. of the abunmate.17 than merelypresent one more random "processionof fools [in] a dramatizedsatire.JOEL KAPLAN 347 standingthat permitsthe princess to know others as well. "The Works of John Marston.i."This theatricaldevice conveys the ease with which the action is accomplished(indicating that the strugglewas indeedlargelyverbal).437-439).2...219-222).i.or perhaps more accuratelythe hollowness.
1-21). but at the same time they representthe serious alternativesto the natural love of Tiberio and Dulcimel.or like flies procreatewith blowing. 1Caputi." "John Marston's Concept and Use of Satire."19Sir Amorosois impotent.348 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE of true love.348-351) referring contemptuously to human This content downloaded from 197. and delivers invectivesagainst human love as a procreativeprocess: "O heaven. Their swellings and their pregnancies seem prurientparodies of pregnancy. earninghim "a special cabin in the ship of fools" (IV.i. . while Donna Garbetza is an adultress who has committed incest with her Ovidian. but by women! 0. themis the same he uses to purge Gonzago." 339. An even more extremeexample of unnaturallove is foundin Don Zuccone. They are "the vainer bubbles"that float upon "The giddy . brother-in-law. Herod told that his lies are "policy" and must "swell bigger than his natural skin" (IV. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .that God made for a man no other means of procreation . that we could increase like roses by being slipped one from another.79).158-163). Nymphadorourged to methodof wooing (III. or self-defeating.i.170 on Wed.Like their ruler themselves the courtiersat Urbin are unable to distinguish and Hercules'smethod of dealingwith from theiraffectations. Herod. Garbetza is thus made to rationalize her adultery (IV.532-534). while Herod's illegitimate offspring his cuckolded brother's fortune.2.i.342-344). Nymphadoro is an unrequited and even the silent Granuffo(althoughhe serves primarily to complement Gonzago's extremeloquaciousness) is accused of being one of those "false seemers.i. / And forthwith sea of humour break" (II. Each is encouraged to pursue the follies he personifiesuntil the bubble bursts and his humor drains. -" (IV.53. and seemingwise onlyby silence" (V.i. ." images consistent lels of love and humor already suggested. Donna Zoya only preare eitherfraudulent does him out of tends.or any otherway than by a woman as "swell[ing].378-379). and Zuccone advised to believe his unfounded jealousies and divorce his wife (II.i.i. courtingonly by signs. 214.i."a causelessly jealous lord" who forswearshis wife's bed." and finallyconcluding thatwomen pregnancy are but "hollowbubble withthe paral[s]. . .that abuse ladies with counterfeit faces.63unsuccessful pursuehis obviously 122). Kernan also notes that the courtiers are "primarily developed in terms of [their] attitude[s] toward love.
We now see Hercules in his Bacchicaspect." while Gonzago is indictedfor his [his] counterfeit intentionsto interferewith the course of love: "An act against privy conspiracies" condemns him for "ambitious wisdom" which had hoped "to outstripLove" (V.156) that dominates the duke's dumb show. and all the moneyout of the purse" (V.i. for example. and Shakespeare's Anithony(in Anthony and Cleopatra).The duke his claim by producingthe prince and princess corroborates hand in hand." Harvard Studies in Philologyand Literature. all the wit out of the pate. as alThe juxtapositionof two such divergent indicativeof Hercules'scomicor saturnalian readysuggested.an early and popular vehiclefor displayinga collection of satiric types.2. whose complexityis alof the Bacchic-Herculeanidentification increased by a heightening ready implicitin North's Plutarch. followsand each courtieris condemned for The arraignment of love: Nymphadoro fora "plurality his particular corruption Amorosofor feigning Herod for the potency. The Facrie Queene. Cited by Finkelpearl.i.VI (Boston. it is Gonzago who drinks deepest at the masque. admits his folly. Granuffois found guilty of "abusling] ladies with faces.170 on Wed. are condemned to the ship. Here Middle Temple revelrycombines with the medieval tradition of the Ship of Fools20." love lettershe has forged.425)."the plays of fulfilling manner in the "fluent receives personification metaphor. the satyr'sfunction. of mistresses. Given the dry mock of "Ironia" (V. be related to a traditionalassociation of Hercules and Bacchus that gained special currency with many renaissance authors.i." 205 n. 24. 2'This might.and Zuccone for slander.i. This content downloaded from 197. and brings her forth" is oftentimes as she "bringsall the drinkout of the pot. The Origins and Sources of the "Court of Love.in fact.359-360). part he has Herculesnow explains to Gonzago the unwitting played in unitingTiberio and his own daughter. To conclude. ii. also has a medieval pedigree. "Middle Temple's Christmas Revels in Marston's The *Fawne. Neilson. V.162-165).21 as he assures us that"Drunkenness implicitly the motherof [Truth]. The courtiersmust first be judged and thenthose by Cupid.whose laws theyhave transgressed. Fittingly. I. controlling and swelling" figure of Drunkenness (V. when Hercules reGonzago sheepishly turns "in his own shape. deemedincurableor unrepentant traditionsis." displays for the first time some"The Court of Love. See William A.53. 1898).and. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "Swelling. of course.JOEL KAPLAN 349 and bursting of sores takes place The eventualarraignment in the Parliamentof Cupid in Act V. See.
350 A SATURNALIAN SATIRE thing approachingthe wisdom he had only affectedearlier. Marston's can be observed throughout traditionthe ambiguities embody earlier satiricpersonalities ally inherentin such figures. As we have seen.170 on Wed. and he can assure us of a conclusion successfully. Marston seems and saturnalian of the satiricfunction to say.but it transforms the entirespirit of Marston'scomedy. movement UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO confessing ".They seem both repulsed and fascinatedby the corruptworldabout themand becomeboth scourgersof the base age and participantsin its baseness.i. Not only does this the impostumes new techniqueachieve remarkableresults. Both labors have been (V. completed that is quite exceptionalin the comedies of Marston: "all thingssweetlyfit" (V.i.Through such a critic. Hercules too is a critic. . Hercules has triumphed. 10 Jul 2013 21:43:26 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he substitutes lance used to customarily process of supplingfor the scalpel of a sick social order.We find invectiverewith placed by the rhetoricof increase.440).438). . an exposureof corruption towards clarification throughrelease.53. Consideredtogether Hercules's "procreative"functionin the romanticaction of the play.yet his methodsare the a antithesisof the satyr's.as binds themto a diseased vision of their methodof criticism humanity. that a development Here The Fawn brings to completion its author's works. a rejuvenationof society is suggestedthat is essentiallyexuberant.2. I know now wherefore this parliament was" This content downloaded from 197. a reconciliation that is itself a mode is possible.
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