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Professor Victor Yakovenko Oﬃce: 2115 Physics

Web page: http://physics.umd.edu/~yakovenk/teaching/ Textbook: Goldstein et al., Classical Mechanics, 3rd edition, 2002, ISBN 0-201-65702-3 Do not forget to write your name and the homework number! Total score is 37 points.

**Ch. 1 & 2 Lagrange Equations and Conservation Laws
**

The problems are inspired by the textbook, but reformulated by me. You must answer the questions asked in the homework, NOT in the textbook. For inspiration and hints how to solve this homework, see Problems 1–4 at the end of Ch. 1 in Landau and Lifshitz Mechanics. 1. Inspired by Problem 2.20, 18 points. (a) A particle of mass m2 slides on a wedge of angle α and mass m1 which glides on a horizontal surface. Take the horizontal coordinates of the particle to be x2 and of the sharp end of the wedge to be x1 , both relative to a laboratory frame. Show that the vertical coordinate the particle is z = (x2 − x1 ) tan α. (1)

Make a sketch of the setup indicating these coordinates. Equation (1) represents a constraint imposed on the coordinates x1 , x2 , and z in this problem. (b) Write down the kinetic and potential energies (due to the vertical gravitational acceleration g ) in terms of the coordinates x1 , x2 , and z and their time derivatives. Eliminate z using Eq. (1) and obtain the Lagrangian L(x1 , x2 , x ˙ 1, x ˙ 2 ). Then obtain Lagrange’s equations of motion for x1 and x2 . Ignore any friction. (c) From the Lagrange’s equations of motion, show that a certain linear combination of x ˙ 1 and x ˙ 2 remains constant in time, i.e., is conserved. What is this conservation law, and what symmetry of the problem is responsible for it? (d) The conservation law obtained in Part (c) can be utilized to eliminate one of the two degrees of freedom. Using this conservation law and the constraint (1), obtain the Lagrangian as L(z, z ˙ ), assuming that the system is initially at rest and then released. Obtain Lagrange’s equation for the acceleration z ¨ in terms of g and other parameters of the problem. (e) From the Lagrangian L(z, z ˙ ), construct the energy function h(z, z ˙ ) and discuss which symmetry of the problem is responsible for its conservation. (f ) Suppose the sharp end of the wedge curves smoothly so that the particle continues gliding on the horizontal surface when it reaches the level z = 0. Assuming that the initial height of the particle is z0 , calculate the ﬁnal velocities x ˙ 1 and x ˙ 2 of the wedge and the particle after they disconnect and continue gliding horizontally in opposite directions.

18. Fall 2013. h(φ. ˙ ) and calculate φ ˙ as a function of (b) Construct the conserved energy function h(φ. φ obtain Lagrange’s equation of motion for φ.2 Homework #1. Position of the particle on the hoop is characterized by the angle φ. Show that for ω < ω0 the minimum is located at φ = 0. You should ﬁnd a cubic equation for cos φ∗ = z∗ /a. (c) Calculation the radial reaction force between the hemisphere and the particle as a function of the particle position. φ obtain Lagrange’s equation of motion for φ. φ φ. Yakovenko 2. ˙ ) of the particle and (a) Make a sketch of the setup. while the particle is still on the hemisphere. This equation has a simple solution in the case m1 = ∞. A particle of mass m is constrained to move on a massless hoop of radius a ﬁxed in a vertical plane that rotates about its vertical symmetry axis with constant angular speed ω . while the particle is still on the hemisphere. Verify that your solution in this case coincides with the answer on page 47. Derive the Lagrangian L(φ. such that φ = 0 corresponds to the bottom position. a particle of mass m2 is given an inﬁnitesimal displacement and slides down without friction in a gravitational ﬁeld of the acceleration g . 3. The particle is subject to a vertical gravitational ﬁeld of the acceleration g . Observing that cos φ∗ = 2 is one (unphysical) solution in this case. along which it can slide without friction. φ. 10 points. What is the limiting value of φ∗ when ω → ∞? September 19. (b) Does the Lagrangian explicitly depend on time t? Construct the energy function ˙ ) and discuss whether it is conserved. Position of the particle is characterized by the angle φ relative to the origin of the hemisphere. Derive the Lagrangian L(φ. Inspired by the example on page 47. The cubic equation can be also solved analytically in the case m1 = m2 . ˙ ) of the particle and (a) Make a sketch of the setup. At the top of the hemisphere. Inspired by Problem 2. such that φ = 0 corresponds to the top position. Derive an equation for the height z∗ = a cos φ∗ where the particle detaches from the hemisphere. φ (c) Write down the potential energy U (φ) in the energy function and sketch U vs. 2013 . Phys601. whereas for ω > ω0 it is located at φ = 0. Calculate the critical value ω0 and the equilibrium position φ∗ for ω > ω0 . Prof. reduce the cubic equation to a quadratic one and ﬁnd a physical solution for cos φ∗ . Discuss where the minimum of potential energy is located. 9 points. Consider a smooth solid hemisphere of mass m1 and radius a placed with its ﬂat side down on a horizontal surface.

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