A Project Study Report On The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd, Udaipur ‘’Analysis Of Work Life Balance in Banking Sector”

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of Master of Business Administration

Submitted By: Payal Mewara MBA PART 2007-2009

Submitted TO Dr. Harshita Shrimali

CERTIFICATE

This is certify that the project work done on “Analysis of Work Life Balance in Banking Sector” ” submitted to The Bank Of Rajasthan Ltd, Udaipur for the partial fulfillment of requirement of award of MBA programme. This benefited work is carried out by at The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd, Udaipur (Raj).

DATE

:-

PAYAL MEWARA MBA YEAR [07-09 ]

PLACE:-

PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, UDAIPUR PREFACE
Bank may be defined as an institution established for accepting deposits from public for the purpose of lending. Credit is a main stay for any financial institution especially for banks. Banks earn through lending. It accepts deposits and pays interest on them and lends money to public and earns interest thereon .The difference between interest earned and interest expended is its income. In other words, deposits and advances is the backbone of any bank. Bank deals with large amount of public. Now this deposit is banks liability. Hence the bank has to repay the amount of deposits along with interest. Now the question arises from where to get money to repay the obligations and to generate income. Lending is that activity from where a bank earns income and fulfills its obligation to repay the deposits and promised amount of interest. The RBI has prescribed the standard C/D ratio which is 60. In recent years, employers, unions, policy makers and researchers have all tried to identify ways that might better assist New Zealanders to balance paid work with the other aspects of their lives such as study, leisure, and caring for others. Employee engagement has been identified as critical to competitive advantage in a labour market where skilled, committed people are increasingly hard to find and keep. Many of the factors that impact on employee engagement have been identified, or at least speculated on. In this exploratory research, the EEO Trust investigates whether supporting work-life balance results in a more engaged workforce which gives greater discretionary effort at work.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my privilege and honor to have an opportunity of working with The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd., Regional Office, Udaipur to undertake project work I wish to extend my gratitude to all those who helped me at various stages into this report. I am deeply grateful to: Mr. S.C. Maheshwari (Assistant Vice President II), Mr. M.K. Gupta (senior manager, Credit administration department), Mr. N.S. Pipara (deputy manager, CAD), Mr. Ghanshyam Sharma (deputy manager, CAD) and Mr. Niranjan Paliwal (deputy manager, priority sector) for their valuable guidance and support throughout the course of this project. I also thank all the employees at bank who parted with their valuable time and extended full cooperation and support towards me. Last but not the least, I wish to acknowledge cooperation and help from my parents, friends and all those who were a constant source of help and guidance to me in completing my project report.

(Signature of Student)

Payal mewara MBA (07-09)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • The concept of work-life balance has developed out of demographic and social changes that have resulted in a more diverse and declining workforce and different family/work models. Encouraging work-life balance is seen as a way of attracting and retaining the labour force needed to support economic well-being. This review of research and literature in the areas or work-life balance, workplace culture, employee engagement, discretionary effort and productivity aims to demonstrate the links between these factors. A body of research supports a positive relationship between work-life balance and productivity. This includes individual case studies, statistical research across a range of organisations and reviews of a number of studies. However, workplace culture is identified as an intermediary factor in whether work-life balance is related to increased productivity. A positive correlation is dependent on a workplace culture that supports using work-life initiatives. Many studies, including surveys by New Zealand’s Department of Labour, have found a positive relationship between a workplace culture that is supportive of work-life balance and use of work-life provisions. Key aspects of workplace culture that affect the link between work-life balance and productivity are managerial support, career consequences, gender differences in attitudes and use, attitudes and expectations of hours spent in the workplace, and perceptions of fairness in eligibility for work-life options. “Discretionary effort” is the extent to which employees give extra effort to their work. It is one of the outcomes of employee engagement, which also involves a mental and emotional commitment to the job/organisation. Discretionary effort is given by an employee in exchange for some benefit and results in increased productivity. Although little research has been done specifically linking support for work-life balance to discretionary effort and employee engagement, the evidence to date indicates that a positive relationship depends on workplace culture. It can be argued that workplaces can improve employee engagement, discretionary effort and productivity by supporting work-life balance by means of a people-centric culture that wholeheartedly supports work-life balance Key factors identified in changing workplace cultures are: identifying the business case, finding a board level champion, changing organisational

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language and behaviour, monitoring/measurement, and integration of worklife/diversity policies into mainstream policies.

CONTENTS Sr. No. Subject Covered Page No.

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1 2 3 4 4

Introduction to Banking Industry Indian Banking Industries THE BANK OF RAJASTHAN LTD Introduction to the topic .Research Methodology Title of the study Objectives of the study Type of Research Sampling techniques Scope of the study Limitation of study

6-7 8-9 10

11-12 13-15 16-19 20-23 24-25 26-31 32-33 34-41 42-48 49-55

5 6 7 8 9 10

Facts & Findings Data analysis & interpretation Conclusions Recommendation & suggestions Appendix Bibliography

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INTRODUCTION

BANKING STRUCTURE IN INDIA

Scheduled Banks in India

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(A) Scheduled Commercial Banks Public sector Banks (28) • Nationalized Bank • Other Public Sector Banks (IDBI) • SBI and its Associates • • Private sector Banks (27) Old Private Banks New Private Banks Foreign Banks in India (29) Regional Rural Bank

(102)

(B) Scheduled Cooperative Banks

Scheduled Urban Cooperative Banks (55)

Scheduled State Cooperative Banks (31)

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Here we more concerned about private sector banks and competition among them. Today, there are 27 private sector banks in the banking sector: 19 old private sector banks and 8 new private sector banks. These new banks have brought in state-of-the-art technology and Aggressively marketed their products. The Public sector banks are Facing a stiff competition from the new private sector banks. The banks which have been setup in the 1990s under the guidelines of the Narasimham Committee are referred to as NEW PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS.

New Private Sector Banks • • • • • Superior Financial Services Designed Innovative Products Tapped new markets Accessed Low cost NRI funds Greater efficiency

INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRIES

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The Indian banking market is growing at an astonishing rate, with Assets expected to reach US$1 trillion by 2010. An expanding economy, middle class, and technological innovations are all contributing to this growth. The country’s middle class accounts for over 320 million people. In correlation with the growth of the economy, rising income levels, increased standard of living, and affordability of banking products are promising factors for continued expansion.

The Indian banking Industry is in the middle of an IT revolution, Focusing on the expansion of retail and rural banking.

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Players are becoming increasingly customer - centric in

their

approach, which has resulted in innovative methods of offering new banking products and services. Banks are now realizing the

importance of being a big player and are beginning to focus their attention on mergers and acquisitions to take advantage of regulation.

economies of scale and/or comply with Basel II

“Indian banking industry assets are expected to reach US$1 trillion by 2010 and are poised to receive a greater infusion of foreign capital,” says Prathima Rajan, analyst in Celent's banking group and author of the report. “The banking industry should focus on having a small

number of large players that can compete globally rather than having a large number of fragmented players."

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UPCOMING FOREIGN BANKS IN INDIA

By 2009 few more names is going to be added in the list of foreign banks in India. This is as an aftermath of the sudden interest shown by Reserve Bank of India paving roadmap for foreign banks in India

greater freedom in India. Among them is the world's best private bank by EuroMoney magazine, Switzerland's UBS.

The following are the list of foreign banks going to set up business in India :-

• • • • • • • • •

Royal Bank of Scotland Switzerland's UBS US-based GE Capital Credit Suisse Group Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

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INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZTION:

Company profile The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. Introduction:

The Bank of Rajasthan was established at Udaipur on May, 8, 1943.The credit goes to the then finance minister of erst–while Mewar Government, Late Shri Rai Bahadir P.C.Chatterji who persuaded Mansingka brothers of Bhilwara for establishing a joint stock bank with its registered office at Udaipur. The founder chairman of Bank was Late Shri Govind Ram Seksaria. The first Board of Directors comprised such men of eminence as:

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1. Rai Bahadur Seth Shri Rameshwar Lal ji Duduwala. 2. Seth Shri Subhag Mal ji Lodha . 3. Seth Shri Pusalalji Mansingka. 4. Seth Shri damodar lal ji Mansingka. 5. Major Rajdhiraj Amar singhji of Banera. 6. The then Accountant General of Mewar Rai Bahadur Lala Sukhdayalji The promoters being very clear in their vision suggested that the bank should be named as The Bank of Rajasthan since under the new constitution, grouping of then princely states was expected under one umbrella. The naming of Bank glaringly reflected the foresight of the promoters.

Profile: The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. is a private sector bank. It has more than 300 branches all over India with prominent presence in Rajasthan, having specialized forex and industrial finance branches. Landmarks: Year 1948:- The Bank of Rajasthan was included in second schedule by Reserve Bank of India. Year 1955:- The Bank of Rajasthan was given license under section 22 of Banking Regulation Act, 1949 by the RBI. Year 1960:- The Bank of Rajasthan introduced concept of mobile branches and opened its first mobile branch in Jaipur on 5th August, 1960.

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Year 1973:- The Bank of Rajasthan received license to deal in foreign exchange in 1973 from the RBI. Year 1983:- The Bank sponsored rural bank and established The Mewar Anchlik Gramin bank in Udaipur district on 26th January, 1983. Year 1993:- The Bank received authority to deal as a Ist class Merchant Banker. Currency chest was also started in this year. Year 1997:- C-Scheme Jaipur branch qualified for ISO 9002:94 certification (Quality system certified) by DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) London, UK in 1997. Year 1998:- The Bank started ATM services in the series of quality services to its Customers at C-Scheme Jaipur. The Bank was among the first banks in private sector to have been assigned Lead Bank responsibility which it shared with an associate of State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur in Udaipur District. Present Board of Directors: Shri B.M. Sharma is working as Managing Director & CEO of the Bank of Rajasthan.The other members of Board of Directors are : Shri A.N. Chakrabarti Shri P.P Kapoor

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Shri Anil Anand Rao Shri Niraj Tayal Shri P. N. Bhandari Shri Maghraj Calla Shri K.N. Bhandari Shri Ved Prakash Khurana Shri Pran. M. Agarwal Shri Sanjay Kumar Tayal Shri K.G. Kurian Shri Vipul Dharjlal Shah Shri B.M. Sharma- Managing Directo & CEO

Flow chart of Organization Structure of The Bank of Rajasthan ltd.

Corporate Office At Mumbai __________________________________ ↓ Central Office At Jaipur ____________________________↓____________________________ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Banglore Bhilwara Bikaner Chandigarh Delhi Indore Jaipur Jodhpur Kota kolkata Mumbai

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___________________↓___________________ Udaipur (Regional office) _________________________________↓______________________________ __ ↓ Personal Administrative Deptt. ↓ General Banking deptt. ↓ Credit Law Administrative Technology deptt. deptt. deptt. deptt. deptt. Sector Management ↓ ↓ Information ↓ Priority Asset ↓

SENIOR MANAGER │ ---------------------------------------------│ DEPUTY MANAGER │ DEPUTY MANAGER

Regional office, Udaipur: The R.O. Udaipur is located at Clock Tower. It has 51 branches which are as under:

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Agar Anjana Antri Arthuna Bambora Banswara Bedla Bedwa Bhimpur Bhinder

Chawand Chhani Chhinch Danpur Dungarpur Fatehnagar Gangartalai Ghasa Jhadol Jhamarkotra

Kheroda Lasadiya Loonda Mahidam Mamer Naugma Palodara Rikhabdeo Sagwara Salumber

Shergarh Surpur Tambesara Tandaratna Tokar Varda

There are 13 branches in Udaipur city which are as under: Udaipur AM (Ashwini market) Udaipur BB (Bapu Bazar) Udaipur BNC (B.N. College) Udaipur BS Udaipur CT Udaipur HM Udaipur MIA Udaipur RCA Udaipur UC Udaipur VB (Bus Stand) (Clock Tower) ( Hiran Magri) (Madri Industrial Area) (Rajasthan Agriculture College) (University College) (Vidhya Bhawan)

Udaipur GNPS (Guru Nanak Public School)

Udaipur NBHS (Nav Bharat Public School) Udaipur St. Mary’s school

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Organization Structure of Regional office, Udaipur : The head of R.O. Udaipur is Shri S.C. Maheshwari designated as AVP-II. The Chief manager is Shri Naveen Malot . The departments in the R.O. are: 1) Personal Administration Department (PAD) 2) Credit Administration Department 3) General Banking department 4) Law Department 5) Priority Sector Department 6) Information and Technology Department (CAD)

INTRODUCTION TO WORK LIFE BALANCE

The issue of work-life balance has developed out of demographic and social changes that have resulted in a more diverse and declining workforce and different family and work models. Supporting work-life balance is seen as a way

20

of attracting and retaining the labour force needed to support economic wellbeing. This review of research and literature in the areas or work-life balance, workplace culture, employee engagement, discretionary effort and productivity aims to demonstrate the links between these factors.

Definitions and evidence of relationships
Work-life balance
1

Work-life balance is defined as “effectively managing the juggling act between paid work and the other activities that are important to people”. This notes that it is not about saying work is wrong or bad, but that “it shouldn’t crowd out the other things that matter to people, like time with family, participation in community activities, voluntary work, personal development, leisure and recreation”. It also points out that there is no “one size fits all solution”. The “right” balance is a very personal thing that differs for different people and at different stages of the life course. While for some the issue is having too much work, others do not have enough. The concept of work-life balance also includes the priority that work takes over family, working long hours, and work intensification. Work intensification, defined by Burchell (2006, p.21) as “the increasing effort that employees put into the time that they are working” or the amount of work done in a day, the pace of work and its depletion of energy for activities outside of work, is also an issue affecting work-life balance. Public submissions to the Department of Labour (2004a) and the New Zealand Council of Trade Unions (2002) study identified increased intensification of work, partly due to reduced staffing as a major issue for worklife balance, along with long hours and working non-standard hours.

1

21

Work-life balance is an issue not just for individuals, but for employers, the market, the state and society as a whole. The future workforce and consumer market is dependent on women bearing, and parents raising, children. The move from a single male breadwinner family model to one where both parents participate in paid employment has made it increasingly difficult to raise children while the workplace continues to be modelled on male breadwinner workers. “Work-family balance” evolved into “work-life balance” partly in response to workers without family responsibilities who felt that employees with children were getting benefits that they were not. The term “life” applies to any non-paid activities or commitments. While the term does not generally include “unpaid work” when referring to work, it could be extended to cover that. Work-life balance issues appear to affect some groups of people more than others – those working long hours, those whose work spills over into the home as a result of modern technology, those in non-standard employment such as shift work, those on low incomes, those trying to juggle parenting and paid work, and those with cultural obligations beyond the family and paid work.

Productivity Labour productivity is defined as total output divided by labour inputs and is considered as a necessary, though not sufficient in itself, condition for long-term profitability and success (Guthrie, 2001). “People tend to be more motivated in the workplace if they feel appreciated and respected. Creating a positive work environment not only boosts morale but also productivity levels.” (WPWG, 2004:17)

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“High performing workplaces are founded on a strong workplace culture in which motivated and engaged employees are willing to ‘go the extra mile’.” (WPWG, 2004:18) The WPWG report notes that barriers to introducing practices to improve productivity include the short-term costs of new practices and strategies in relation to short-term benefits, a lack of buy-in and a belief that such practices will lead to competitive disadvantage rather than competitive advantage.

Relationship between work-life balance and productivity A body of research supports a positive relationship between work-life balance and productivity. This includes individual case studies, research across a range of organisations and reviews of a number of studies. Some studies do not support a positive relationship between work-life balance and productivity, for example Bloom et al’s (2003) study of 732 manufacturing organisations in the US, France , the UK and Germany found no direct relationship between work-life balance policies/initiatives and increased productivity. However, these studies can usually be analysed to find the confounding factor is workplace culture or management, or lack of implementation of work-life policies. For example, Bloom et al found management to be an intermediary factor, and they only measured having a work-life policy, not implementation or actual provisions. In New Zealand, a Department of Labour (2006) survey of employees found a strong relationship between employees’ ratings of productivity practices in the workplace and their own work-life balance.2

2

23

Similarly, a UK survey of 597 working parents (Working Families, 2005) found a correlation between self-rated productivity, flexibility and satisfaction with worklife balance, and between satisfaction with work-life balance and enjoyment of one’s job (Figs 1&2 ). The authors conclude with a model that relates productivity to good management, flexible working, satisfaction with work-life balance and enjoyment of one’s job. While productivity comprises a combination of complex factors, flexible working options are perceived by working parents to be a factor n their productivity.

Productivity and work-life balance - self perceptions

very satisfied work-life balance 20

42

39

11

7

satisfied

51

25

5 very productive productive neutral not productive

neutral fairly/very dissatisfied 0%

16

44

33

7

15 20%

41 40% 60%

32 80%

11 100%

perceived productivity

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Work-life balance and enjoyment of job

enjoy a lot 15

29

55

10

7

enjoy 6

55

15

15 very satisfied satisifed neutral fairly/very dissatisifed

neutral don't enjoy 1 much at all 0%

40

27

27

24 20%

26 40% 60%

47 80% 100%

satisfaction with work-life balance

A US survey of 151 managers and 1353 mainly professional employees in six major corporations found that 70% of managers believed that allowing staff to work flexibly resulted in increased productivity, 76% reported higher staff retention and 65% reported increased quality of work. The remainder mostly reported no change on these outcomes, with approximately 5% reporting negative effects on productivity (Boston College Center for Work and Family, 2000). These studies have all relied on self-report by either employees or managers of perceived impacts on productivity. The following studies have used actual financial or statistical data.

Other studies have focused on factors or processes influencing productivity. A review of international literature on business benefits of work-life balance concluded that work-life balance can enhance productivity in various ways. One 25

argument is that productivity gains occur as a result of a reduction in home to work spill over (but other evidence eg. O’Driscoll, shows that most spill over goes in the direction of work to home). Another argument is that productivity is improved through reducing long hours at work and fatigue. The third argument is that in exchange for the “gift” of work-life provisions, employees “offer the ‘gift’ of discretionary effort, thereby increasing productivity”. This relationship is discussed below.

Long hours, work-life balance and productivity:
Long working hours is a factor in lack of work-life balance.. Research at case study/organisation level shows an inverse relationship between long working hours and productivity. A study of 12 leading British employers found a positive relationship between long hours and absenteeism and staff turnover, and an inverse relationship between long hours and staff morale and productivity . While long hours may improve productivity in the short-term, this is not sustainable, and quality and productivity decrease in the longer term. Workplace culture was a factor in long work hours in these case studies, and examples of successful interventions to reverse the negative consequences of long work hours involved changing company culture. This includes visibly changed top management behaviour and commitment and the introduction of flexible work patterns, job redesign and training in time management.

Workplace/work-life culture
Organisational culture is defined as the set of shared values and norms that characterise what is held to be important in the organisation (Working Families, 2006:13). It is more informally described as “the way we do things around here”.

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Lewis (2001) cites a definition from Pemberton (1995) as “a deep level of shared beliefs and assumptions, which often operate unconsciously, are developed over time embedded in an organisation’s historical experiences”. Cultures that were initially functional may become dysfunctional as social circumstances change over time. The “ideal worker” workplace culture that developed around male breadwinner female caregiver models of families is now in conflict with gender equality, female labour force participation and dual income families. A supportive work-life culture is defined by Thompson et al (1999) as “the shared assumptions, beliefs and values regarding the extent to which organisations value and support the integration of work and family lives, for women and men”. One example of how current workplace cultural assumptions are in conflict with new models of gender roles and family life is concepts of full-time and part-time work. Full-time work fits the ideal worker/male breadwinner culture of the past while part-time work is better suited to the new social reality of dual income families and a move towards greater gender equity in child-raising. Another type of workplace culture that is in conflict with family life is the long hours culture discussed earlier.. A long hours culture was defined by the employees as one in which long hours were valued, employees were praised for working long hours and working long hours was viewed as a sign of commitment. In one organisation in this study a long hours culture was described as “an expectation of employees to get the job done irrespective of the contracted working hours. Long hours were perceived as ‘part of the job’ and not doing this was seen as a sign the employee was not committed” .

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A long hours culture is set by senior managers working long hours and generating high workloads for those around them, according to Kodz et al (1998). Peer pressure also creates a culture of long hours, either through comments or competition. The third key driver of a long hours culture is that career progress is dependent on long hours and presenteeism. Other drivers of long hours cultures are customer expectations and service provision, staff shortages, new technology which enables 24/7 availability of employees, and the need to travel for work. Only a minority of employees in this study, which included employees from a range of sectors, were driven to work long hours to improve pay as most are not paid overtime.

Relationship between work-life balance and workplace culture Many studies have found a relationship between work-life balance and workplace culture. In New Zealand, the Department of Labour 2006 survey of employees found that an unsupportive workplace culture was associated with poor work-life balance. Almost 60% of employees said aspects of their workplace culture made work-life balance harder to achieve, particularly as expressed in the expectations and attitudes of managers, supervisors, colleagues and workmates. An Australian study (de Cieri et al 2002) which involved surveys of 1500 employees at three periods (1997, 1998 and 2000) found that uptake of work-life balance initiatives varied from 20% to 80% of employees in an organisation. There was also a time-lag from introduction of initiatives to uptake. Key barriers

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to the implementation and on-going effectiveness of work-life balance strategies identified in the literature and borne out in the Australian study were: • • • • • An organisational culture which emphasises and rewards long hours and high organisational commitment (to the neglect of other life commitments). An isolated, hostile and unsupportive working environment for employees with life commitments outside the organisation. Attitudes and resistance of supervisors and middle management. Preference of senior management involved in recruitment to dealing with people perceived as similar to themselves. Lack of communication and education about work-life balance strategies.

The Australian research identified two key factors as barriers to work-life implementation and success: organisational inaction and organisational values. The most influential aspects of organisational inaction were lack of communication to staff, ineffective implementation, failure to evaluate/measure the impact of programmes, lack of middle management education and not getting line managers involved. These factors have all been identified in many studies on implementing diversity and work-life policies. The most influential aspects of organisational values as barriers to positive worklife outcomes in the Australian study were focusing on the programmes rather than culture change and the way work is done, and increased work demands over-shadowing personal needs. The authors state that what is needed to improve utilisation of work-life balance programmes is improved implementation and communication to managers and employees, culture change and the development of a ‘track record’ of achievements to encourage future management commitment to this area” . Thompson et al (1999) developed a measure of work-life culture based on their definition of work-life culture as “the shared assumptions, beliefs and values 29

regarding the extent to which an organisation supports and values the integration of employees’ work and family lives”. They examined the relationship between work-life culture and use of work-family initiatives, organisational attachment and work-family conflict amongst 276 managers and professionals. Perceptions of a supportive work-family culture were statistically related to the use of work-family initiatives, reduced work-family conflict and positive organisational commitment. They identified three aspects of workplace culture that affected the use of workfamily initiatives: managerial support, career consequences and organisational time expectations. . Kirby and Krone (2002) examined the effect of workplace conversations on the use of work-family initiatives. Kirby and Krone found that workplace discussions around work-family policies revolved around perceived equity and preferential treatment. These findings have implications on how to best alter workplace culture dynamics; just adding work-family policies to an existing workplace culture may result in under-utilisation. Recommendations follow those found elsewhere: integrate policies into the whole organisation, generate senior management support, provide training for managers on the benefits of policies and how to implement them, communicate success stories of using the policies, and communicate the wider benefits beyond women or employees with children. In New Zealand the EEO Trust 2006 Work-Life Survey found that the uptake of work-life initiatives related to actually putting work-life policies into practice rather than to the mere existence of a policy and a range of initiatives. The use of family-friendly initiatives was found to be significantly related to employees’ perceptions of family-oriented workplace support and men reported higher work-family conflict than women, it appears that men experience less workplace support to use family-friendly initiatives than women as explained in more detail on the following page.

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McDonald, Brown and Bradley (2005) found that the gap between work-life policies and initiatives and their use, particularly by men and career-oriented employees, was due to five factors: • • • • • Lack of managerial support for work-life balance Perceptions of negative career consequences Organisational time expectations Gendered nature of policy utilisation Perceptions of unfairness by other employees (ie. those without family responsibilities)

Relationship between work-life balance, workplace culture, discretionary effort and productivity

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Increased Productivity

Positive work-life culture People-centric culture and other factors Trust Reciprocation Manager characteristics and flexibility Communication Commitment to diversity Integrity Innovation Work linked to organisational strategy

Work-life balance initiatives

Positive work-life culture

Increased discretionary effort

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Background: Understanding the drivers for work-life balance

In essence work-life balance can be defined as employers and employees embracing a “work to live” rather than “live to work” approach. A commonly applied definition is:Work-life balance is about people having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved when an individual's right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society. 1 Work/life balance has evolved over time. Historically people worked close to or at their place of work, so work and life were inherently integrated. Life activities like community involvement, childcare, and elder care happened within and alongside the work environment. The separation between work and life became more clearly defined during the industrial revolution of the 18th century. In recent times, it is clear the workplace and,indeed, the worker have changed, as has the composition of households. Without someone attending to “life” issues full-time, workers now have to find time to take care of responsibilities like childcare, or caring for an elder parent in addition to their paid work. Hence, for many people, 21st century life involves less work-life balance and more of a balancing act as they juggle responsibilities which are often viewed as 33

competing.The digital revolution has further merged work-life environments in many employment sectors.There are as many women as men in our workforce and we have an ageing population. These demographics suggest that work-life balance is going to become an increasingly important issue as people continue to demand that their employers enable them to achieve a better work-life balance.What types of work/life programs are there? When people think of company work/life benefits, they often think of childcare. However, most work/life programs entail much more. Work-life balance is not just for people who want to reduce their working hours, it is about responding to individual circumstances to help individuals fulfill their responsibilities and aspirations. Some organisations around the world are gaining competitive advantage in the recruitment market by offering work-life balance and career progression to talented individuals. A survey by global human resources consultancy Towers Perrin in the US identified more than 100 varieties of work/life programs that fall into the following six categories: 1. Time Include flexible work arrangements such as flexitime, telecommuting, job sharing and part time work, term time working 2. Leave Paid and unpaid leaves for childbirth, the care of young or sick children, sporting, or other personal or family matters. 3.Dependent Resource and referral services to help employees find childcare or care elder care, childcare programs that are on-site or nearby, and employee discounts or vouchers to help pay for the cost of care. 4.Counseling Employee seminars about balancing work and family life, peer and wellness support groups, and training for supervisors to be more attuned to employee family problems caused by overwork. 5. Benefits Cafeteria-style plans, non-taxed flexible spending accounts, sponsored health insurance schemes or insurance to pay for the long-term care of oneself, elderly parents, or a spouse

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6.Personal Concierge services, lactation rooms, nap rooms, and food convenience shopping and dinner preparation services. Those employers who have introduced these types of employee benefits report correlated business benefits including:• Increased productivity • Improved recruitment and retention: Employee costs can be 50 percent of a company’s expenditure, with replacement costing considerably more than the advertising and direct recruitment fee so it pays to retain experienced employee. • Lower rates of absenteeism • Reduced overheads • A more motivated, satisfied and equitable workforce

Work Life Balance: Ways to restore harmony and reduce stress
Finding work-life balance in today's frenetically paced world is no simple task. Spend more time at work than at home, and you miss out on a rewarding personal life. Then again, when you face challenges in your personal life, such as caring for an aging parent or coping with marital problems, concentrating on your job can be difficult. Whether the problem is too much focus on work or too little, when your work life and your personal life feel out of balance, stress — along with its harmful effects — is the result. The good news is that you can take control of your work-life balance — and give yourself the time to do the things that are most important to you. The first step is to recognize how the world of work has changed. Then you can evaluate your relationship to work and apply some specific strategies for striking a healthier balance.

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How work invades your personal life
There was a time when employees showed up for work Monday through Friday and worked eight- to nine-hour days. The boundaries between work and home were fairly clear then. But the world has changed and, unfortunately, the boundaries have blurred for many workers. Here's why:

Global economy. As more skilled workers enter the global labor market and companies outsource or move more jobs to reduce labor costs, people feel pressured to work longer and produce more just to protect their jobs.

International business. Work continues around the world 24 hours a day for some people. If you work in an international organization, you might be on call around the clock for troubleshooting or consulting.

Advanced communication technology. Many people now have the ability to work anywhere — from their home, from their car and even on vacation. And some managers expect this.

Longer hours. Employers commonly ask employees to work longer hours than they're scheduled. Often, overtime is mandatory. If you hope to move up the career ladder, you may find yourself regularly working more than 40 hours a week to achieve and exceed expectations.

Changes in family roles. Today's married worker is typically part of a dual-career couple, which makes it difficult to find time to meet commitments to family, friends and community.

Married

to

your

work

It can be tempting to rack up the hours at work — especially if you're trying to earn a promotion or some extra money for a child's education or a dream

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vacation. For others, working more hours feels necessary in order to manage the workload. But if you're spending most of your time at work, your home life will likely pay the price. Consider the pros and cons of working extra hours on your work-life balance:

Fatigue. Your ability to think and your eye-hand coordination decrease when you're tired. This means you're less productive and may make more mistakes. These mistakes can lead to injury or rework and negatively impact your professional reputation.

Family. You may miss out on important events, such as your child's first bike ride, your father's 60th birthday or your high-school reunion. Missing out on important milestones may harm relationships with your loved ones.

Friends. Trusted friends are a key part of your support system. But if you're spending time at the office instead of with them, you'll find it difficult to nurture those friendships.

Expectations. If you regularly work extra hours, you may be given more responsibility. This could create a never-ending and increasing cycle, causing more concerns and challenges.

Sometimes working overtime is important. If you work for a company that requires mandatory overtime, you won't be able to avoid it, but you can learn to manage it. Most importantly, say no when you're too tired, when it's affecting your health or when you have crucial family obligations.

Striking the best work-life balance

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For most people, juggling the demands of career and personal life is an ongoing challenge. With so many demands on your time — from overtime to family obligations — it can feel difficult to strike this balance. The goal is to make time for the activities that are the most important to you. Here are some ideas to help you find the balance that's best for you:

Keep a log. Track everything you do for one week. Include work-related and non-work-related activities. Decide what's necessary and what satisfies you the most. Cut or delegate activities you don't enjoy and don't have time for. If you don't have the authority to make certain decisions, talk to your supervisor.

Take advantage of your options. Find out if your employer offers flex hours, a compressed workweek, job-sharing or telecommuting for your role. The flexibility may alleviate some of your stress and free up some time.

Learn to say no. Whether it's a co-worker asking you to spearhead an extra project or your child's teacher asking you to manage the class play, remember that it's OK to respectfully say no. When you quit doing the things you only do out of guilt or a false sense of obligation, you'll make more room in your life for the activities that are meaningful to you and bring you joy.

Leave work at work. With today's global business mentality and the technology to connect to anyone at any time from virtually anywhere, there's no boundary between work and home — unless you create it. Make a conscious decision to separate work time from personal time. When with your family, for instance, turn off your cell phone and put away your laptop computer.

Manage your time. Organize household tasks efficiently. Doing one or two loads of laundry every day, rather than saving it all for your day off, and running errands in batches are good places to begin. A weekly family calendar of important dates and a daily list of to-dos will help you 38

avoid deadline panic. If your employer offers a course in time management, sign up for it.

Rethink your cleaning standards. An unmade bed or sink of dirty dishes won't impact the quality of your life. Do what needs to be done and let the rest go. If you can afford it, pay someone else to clean your house.

Communicate clearly. Limit time-consuming misunderstandings by communicating clearly and listening carefully. Take notes if necessary. Fight the guilt. Remember, having a family and a job is OK — for both men and women. Nurture yourself. Set aside time each day for an activity that you enjoy, such as walking, working out or listening to music. Unwind after a hectic workday by reading, practicing yoga, or taking a bath or shower.

Set aside one night each week for recreation. Take the phone off the hook, power down the computer and turn off the TV. Discover activities you can do with your partner, family or friends, such as playing golf, fishing or canoeing. Making time for activities you enjoy will rejuvenate you.

Protect your day off. Try to schedule some of your routine chores on workdays so that your days off are more relaxing. Get enough sleep. There's nothing as stressful and potentially dangerous as working when you're sleep-deprived. Not only is your productivity affected, but also you can make costly mistakes. You may then have to work even more hours to make up for these mistakes.

Bolster your support system. Give yourself the gift of a trusted friend or co-worker to talk with during times of stress or hardship. Ensure you have trusted friends and relatives who can assist you when you need to work overtime or travel for your job.

Seek professional help. Everyone needs help from time to time. If your life feels too chaotic to manage and you're spinning your wheels worrying about it, talk with a professional, such as your doctor, a

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psychologist or a counselor recommended by your employee assistance program (EAP). Services provided by your EAP are usually free of charge and confidential. This means no one but you will know what you discuss. And if you're experiencing high levels of stress because of marital, financial, chemical dependency or legal problems, an EAP counselor can link you to helpful services in your community. Remember, striking a work-life balance isn't a one-shot deal. Creating balance in your life is a continuous process. Demands on your time change as your family, interests and work life change. Assess your situation every few months to make sure you're keeping on track. Balance doesn't mean doing everything. Examine your priorities and set boundaries. Be firm in what you can and cannot do. Only you can restore harmony to your lifestyle

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Research Methodology
Research methodology is the backbone of any research work undertaken. The whole study was basically based on collection of data from primary source but secondary source were also used. Research methodology deals with the efficient plan and decisions on sources of gathering the needed on data. Research instrument to be used Research design. Contact method analysis and interpretation. Methodology has been extensively discoursed under the heading given below on the following:  Research Design  Collection of Data  Research instrument and contact method sampling plan  Field work Research design:

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Research design is the overall description of all the steps thought which the project has preceded from the setting of objectives to the writing of the project report. Below is given the various steps in brief of the research design for the project.

Title of the study: “Analysis of Work Life Balance in Banking sector”

Research Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to: •To know how the work pressure and unhappiness can effect family life • To know the results of work life imbalance on efficiency, health and personal as well as professional life of employees of banks. • • To study how the nature of family structure influences work related stress To know the marital status of the individuals affect their live • Ascertain the demand for work-life balance practices.

Data collection:
Data Sources: Data was gathered through primary and secondary data.

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Primary data: - It consists of original information gathered for the specific purpose the data is generally collected by survey. Primary sources were preferred because of its relevance to the issue to have a focused approach due emphasis was given to obtain accurate information from the respondent. Secondary data: - It consists of information that already exists having been collected for another purpose. secondary data is collected from various magazines newspapers and trade journals market patterns websites of co. & through net surfing

For conducting the study various tools are used to collect data. The major emphasis was given to the questionnaire method. Questionnaire is the Source of gathering the information required for reaching the objectives of this project.The respondents were all the employees working in Rajasthan bank.The questionnaire deals with all types of questions necessary together information required for the project information gathered from the employees was the entirely primary data. For collection of secondary data various journals, internet & articles were used. Both primary and secondary data were used for tabulation and analysis of the information to obtain results. The collected primary data was completely tabulated with the help of tables and percentage were calculated . From the table information was analyzed and relevant inferences were drawn and wherever necessary graphs were made for the presentation of data. .

Research Instrument and Contact Method

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Survey method was used to collect the primary data on various parameters by way of personal interview supported by a well-structured questionnaire. Questionnaire is enclosed in last.

Sampling plan: This calls for 2 decisions: Sampling unit: - It covers the employees of The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd., Udaipur City. Sampling size: - 30 Employees

Scope of the study
The scope of the project is of great importance as a perfectly balanced life for an employee need a careful synchronization of family , health, wealth, career, social obligations intelligence, spirituality etc. So the study covers the important factors of managing family, work life & stress. This study found important because it tries to know how the work life and family life interface results into stress. This study also throws light on the suggestions to overcome imbalance in work and family life in order to keep profile of the executives high and also keep their family life happy wich in the long run benefits the organization in achieving its long term goals. This study has a very wide aspects because of its multi, complex and unique variables for future researchers.

Limitations of the study:

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1. Sample size is too short. 2. Study is limited to udaipur city and to The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. Only.

Facts & findings: 1. Majority of the executives belong to nuclear family and thereby the level of stress is more as compared to those employees who belong to joint family. 2. For married employees it is more difficult to concentrate on their personal life because of their work pressure and therefore more work load in banks resulted in poor family relation. 3. Long working hour culture directly affects the level of efficiency of employees thereby causing stress at work resulting into hypertension and other diseases. 4. One positive finding is here that resulting less stress. family members response are cooperative towards most of the employees on overstaying in the office

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“Data Analysis & Interpretation”

Data Analysis

Monthly Income ( in Rs.) : a) 5000-10,000 b) 10,000-15,000 c)15,000-20,000 d) above 20,000 2 4 6 18

Q.1) Normal working hours per day : a) Less than 8 hrs. b) 8-10 hrs. c) 10-12 hrs. d) More than 12 hrs. 7 21 2 0

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Q.2) How frequent you overstay in the office to finish your work : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 3 3 9 13 2

Q.3)Response of the family members on overstaying in the office a) Resentment b) Irritation c) co-operative d) Ignorant e) Feel Neglected 5 4 21 0 0

Q.4) Do you think long working hours undermine your family life : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 3 18 2 2 5

Q.5) Are you able to attend social gatherings : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 7 15 4 3 1

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Q.6) Do you spare time for your hobbies and personal interest : a) Yes b) No 12 18

Q.7) Do you take your children to their schools : a) Most of the times b) Some time c) Seldom d) Always e) Never f) Not applicable Q.8) Priorities the following ( 1) a) Career b) Health c) Family d) Wealth e) Hobbies 8 8 13 1 0 0 6 1 0 19 4

Q.9) Do you carry your office work at home : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 0 7 3 0 20

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Q.10) How frequently you take your family out on vacation : a) Twice in a year b) Once in a year c) Once in three years d) Once in five years e) Never 6 18 2 3 1

Q.11) Does long working hours affect your efficiency : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 3 18 3 2 4

Q.12) Does peer pressure compels you to stay late in the office : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 2 11 4 1 12

Q.13) Does long working hours cause stress at work : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never 5 14 2 3 6

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Q.14) Do you agree “YOUR HEALTH IS SUFFERING BECAUSE OF YOUR WORK” a) strongly agree b) agree c) partially agree d) disagree e) Strongly disagree 3 12 8 6 1

Q.15) Do you suffer from Hypertention : a) Yes b) No 18 12

Q.16) Do you suffer from Insomnia : a) Yes b) No 9 21

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Interpretation
1. Working hours per day:

7%

0%

23% Less than 8 hrs 8 - 10 hrs 10 - 12 hrs More than 12 hrs

70%

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By concluding the survey we know that 70% employees are working for 8 – 10 hrs and 23% employees are working for less than 8 hrs & about 7% employees for 10 – 12 hrs. Not a single employee is working for more than 12 hrs.

2. Overstaying in the office for finish work :

10% 7%

10% 43%

30%

Some times Most of the times seldom Always Never

By concluding the survey we know that 43% employees sometimes overstaying in the office for finish the work & 30% employees are overstaying most of the times for finish the work. About 7% seldom, 10% always &10% employees are never overstaying in the office for finish work.

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3. Response of the family on overstaying :

0%

17% 13%

70%

Resentment Irritation Co-Operative Ignorant Feel Neglected

By concluding the survey we know that 70% employee Families response Co53

operatively on overstaying in the office & 17% employee families show Resentment & 13% families show Irritation on overstaying of employees in the office.

4. Long working hours undermine your family life :

17% 7% 7% 10%

59%

Some times Most of the times seldom Always Never

By concluding the survey we know that 9% employees Sometimes undermine their family life due to long working hours & 10% most of the times, 7% seldom,

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7% always & about 17% employees Never undermine their family life due to long working hours.

5. Are you able to attend social gatherings :

Some times 10% 13% 51% 23% 3% Most of the times seldom Always Never

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By concluding the survey we know that 51% employees are able to attend social gatherings sometimes only & 23% are able most of the times, 13% seldom, 3% Never & 10% are able to attend social gatherings always.

6. You spare time for your hobbies

40% Yes No

60%

By concluding the survey we know that only 40% employees spare time for their hobbies & about 60% people don’t get time for their hobbies.

7. Do you take your children to school :

56

13%

20% 0% 3% 0%

64%

Some times Most of the times seldom Always Never Not applicable

By concluding the survey we know that 64% employees Never take their children to school, 20% take Sometimes. 13% of the respondents are not applicable for this question.

8. Priorities :

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3% 0%

27%

43% 27%

Career Health Family Wealth Hobbies

By concluding the survey we know that 43% employees give first priority to their family, 27% give to their Career, 27% give to their Health & 3% to their Wealth. Not a single respondent give priority to their Hobbies.

9. Do you carry your office work at home

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23% 0% 67% 10% 0%

Some times Most of the times seldom Always Never

By concluding the survey we know that 67% employees Never carry their office work at home, 23% carry Sometimes, 10% seldom carry their office work at home.

10. How frequently you carry your family out on vacation :

59

Twice in a year 10% 3% 20% Once in a year Once in three years Once in five years Never

7%

60%

By concluding the survey we know that 60% employees carry their family out on vacation only Once in a year, 20% carry twice in a year, 7% carry once in three years, 10% carry once in five years & 3% employees Never carry their families out on vacation.

11. Does long working hours affect your efficiency :

60

7% 10% 10%

13%

60%

Some times Most of the times seldom Always Never

By concluding the survey we know that 60% employee’s efficiency sometimes affected due to long working hours, 10% employee’s efficiency most of the time affected due to long working hours, 13% employee’s efficiency Never, 10% seldom & 7% employee’s efficiency Always affected due to long working hours.

12. Does peer pressure compels you to stay late in the office:

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40%

37%

3%

13%

7%

Some times Most of the times seldom Always Never

By concluding survey we know that Peer pressure Never compels 40% employees for stay late in the office, 37% employees affected by peer pressure most of the times,13% are seldom affected, 7% are most of the times & 3% employees are compelled to stay late in the office due to peer pressure.

13. Does long working hours cause stress at work:

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Some times 20% 46% 10% 7% Most of the times seldom Always Never

17%

By concluding survey we know that long working hours cause stress at work sometimes for 46% of the respondents, 20% respondents are Never get stress due to long working hours, 17% are in stress most of the times, 10% respondents get Always stress at work & 7% get stress seldom at work due to long working hours.

14. Do you agree “YOUR HEALTH IS SUFFERING BECAUSE OF YOUR WORK” :

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Strongly agree 20% 3% 10% Agree Partially agree 27% 40% Disagree Strongly disagree

By concluding the survey we know that 10% respondents are strongly agree with the statement, 40% are agree, 27% are partially agree,20% are disagree & 3% respondents are strongly disagree with the particular statement.

15. Do you suffer from Hypertention :

64

40% Yes No

60%

By concluding the survey we know that 60% respondents are suffering from Hypertention.

14. Do you suffer from Insomnia :
65

30% Yes No 70%

By concluding the survey we know that 70% respondents are not suffering from Insomnia

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Conclusions
. A strategy to encourage work-life balance or a series of work-life initiatives is not sufficient to increase discretionary effort and employee engagement. Work-life balance must be supported and encouraged at all levels of the organisation, including senior management, line managers and all staff. Building an organisational culture which supports work-life balance is a long-term process for large organisations. It involves changing the way people think and talk about their work and about work-life balance so that using flexible working options and other work-life initiatives becomes accepted and normal for everyone regardless of their gender, seniority within the organisation or personal commitments.

1. The family and work life are both important to employees in any service sector & if these two are not maintained properly it creates stress and strain and results into various diseases. 2. The organizations which encourage work life balance in principle and in practice will reap the benefits of increased employee engagement, discretionary effort and therefore productivity. 3. Building an organisational culture which supports work-life balance is a long-term process for large organisations. 4. Work-life balance must be supported and encouraged at all levels of the organisation, including senior management, line managers and all staff.

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Suggestions:
For Bank : 1. Banks are suggested to conduct picnic programmes for the executives and their families. 2. Banks should accept the facts that employees work best when they can balance their work and other aspects of their lives. 3. Family friendly must be introduced to improve employee commitment and motivation as well as recruitmen and retention. 4. Banks should also try to implement certain ‘ Time away from work policies’ such as holiday banking, buying & selling of holidays, special leaves, compassionate leave, maternity, paternity and adoption leave, study leave, short term & long term career breaks etc..

For Employees

We all have so many commitments these days that we can feel at times we're getting ripped in a million different directions. What to do? Take control now by achieving balance between your work and personal lives. Here are some tips from the experts.

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Identify Priorities Consider what you want to get out of your work and your personal life, and eliminate the things that don't help you achieve those goals. Do you want to get a promotion at work and also attend your kids' sporting events? Make those things your top priorities, and do what it takes to make them happen. Be Sure to Ask Sometimes all you have to do is ask for flexible hours or the option to telecommute- at least for a period of time. You never know what you can get unless you ask. Set a Time Frame Don't expect to achieve this balance overnight. Lay out your responsibilities and set small goals for when you will likely incorporate different elements of balance into your life. Find a Balance Mentor Identify someone who is really good at achieving work-life balance, and ask for any tips. Telecommute Work from home when it's realistic and possible. Not commuting or getting dressed and ready for the office saves chunks of time. You may find you get more done on days you work from home, since there won't be all that office chit-chat and those time-wasting meetings. You'll be able to focus on work for long stretches and to use the extra hours in the day to meet personal responsibilities.

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Use Technology to Your Advantage Technology should help you achieve work-life balance, not rule your life. Make certain times, like dinner, are technology-free for you and your family. Set an example by adhering to the rules you lay down. Communicate Establish clear communication with your colleagues and your boss. If you won't be available for certain hours during the day or weekend because you're dealing with family problems, make sure your manager is aware and agrees. Have a Support System Things will come up, and you'll need help. Identify people who can pitch in at times, such as family members, neighbors, friends and colleagues. Learn Your Employer's Policies Your company may have set policies on flexibility. People often don't know there are options about commuting and the work day that can make their lives easier. Edit Yourself Personally and Professionally Let go of the things that are not mission-critical. Take yourself off committees and out of obligations that you can't give your all to, leaving yourself free for the most important ones.

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Appendix
Questionnaire
WORK LIFE BALANCE SURVEY
Name : …………………. ……………….. Age : ……...............

Designation :

Gender : Male / Female Family structure : Nuclear / Joint

Marital status : Single / married Educational Qualification : ……………………..

Occupation of your spouse : ……………………………… Monthly Income ( in Rs.) : a) 5000-10,000 c)15,000-20,000 Q.1) Normal working hours per day : a) Less than 8 hrs. c) 10-12 hrs. b) 10,000-15,000 d) above 20,000 b) 8-10 hrs. d) More than 12 hrs.

Q.2) How frequent you overstay in the office to finish your work : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never Q.3)Response of the family members on overstaying in the office a) Resentment b) Irritation c) co-operative d) Ignorant

e) Feel Neglected

Q.4) Do you thinklong working hours undermine your family life : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always e) Never Q.5) Are you able to attend social gatherings : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always Q.6) Do you spare time for your hobbies and personal interest : a) Yes b) No

e) Never

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Q.7) Do you take your children to their schools : a) Most of the times b) Some time c) Seldom d) Always Q.8) Priorities the following ( 1-5) a) Career ( ) c) Family ( )

e) Never

b) Health ( ) d) Wealth ( )

e) Hobbies ( )

Q.9) Do you carry your office work at home : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always Q.10) How frequently you take your family out on vacation : a) Twice in a year b) Once in a year c) Once in three years d) Once in five years Q.11) Does long working hours affect your efficiency : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always Q.12) Does peer pressure compels you to stay late in the office : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always Q.13) Does long working hours cause stress at work : a) Most of the times b) Some times c) Seldom d) Always

e) Never

e) Never

e) Never

e) Never

e) Never

Q.14) Do you agree “YOUR HEALTH IS SUFFERING BECAUSE OF YOUR WORK” a) strongly agree b) agree c) partially agree d) disagree e) Strongly disagree Q.15) Do you suffer from Hypertention : a) Yes Q.16) Do you suffer from Insomnia : a) Yes

b) No

b) No

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Bibliography

THANKS

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