# INST 231 (PLC Programming), section 1 Lab PLC-based motor control system: Question 91 and 92, completed objectives

due by the end of day 2, section 2 Exam Day 3 of next section – only a simple calculator may be used! Speciﬁc objectives for the “mastery” exam: • Program a start/stop function in a PLC and wire it to control an electromechanical relay (question 93) • Sketch proper wire connections for sourcing or sinking PLC I/O points • Determine status of PLC discrete output given discrete input states and a simple RLL program listing • Calculate either the full-load current or the horsepower of an electric motor (either single- or three-phase) given the line voltage and one of the other parameters • Solve for a speciﬁed variable in an algebraic formula • Determine the possibility of suggested faults in a simple PLC circuit given a wiring diagram, RLL program listing, and reported symptoms • INST240 Review: Calculate ranges for hydrostatic (DP) level-measuring instruments given physical dimensions and ﬂuid densities • INST250 Review: Convert between diﬀerent pressure units (PSI, ”W.C., bar, etc.) • INST262 Review: Identify speciﬁc instrument calibration errors (zero, span, linearity, hysteresis) from data in an “As-Found” table Recommended daily schedule Day 1 Theory session topic: Introduction to PLCs Questions 1 through 20; answer questions 1-10 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice) Day 2 Theory session topic: Contact and coil programming Questions 21 through 40; answer questions 21-30 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice) Day 3 Theory session topic: Counter instructions Questions 41 through 60; answer questions 41-53 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice) Day 4 Theory session topic: Timer instructions Questions 61 through 80; answer questions 61-70 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice) Feedback questions (81 through 90) are optional and may be submitted for review at the end of the day

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Course Syllabus INSTRUCTOR CONTACT INFORMATION: Tony Kuphaldt (360)-752-8477 [oﬃce phone] (360)-752-7277 [fax] tony.kuphaldt@btc.ctc.edu DEPT/COURSE #: INST 231 CREDITS: 3 Lecture Hours: 10 Lab Hours: 50 Work-based Hours: 0

COURSE TITLE: PLC Programming COURSE DESCRIPTION: In this course you will learn how to wire, program, and conﬁgure programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to perform discrete control functions including combinational logic, counters, timers, and sequencers. Pre/Corequisite course: INST 230 (Motor Controls) Prerequisite course: MATH&141 (Precalculus 1) COURSE OUTCOMES: Construct, program, and eﬃciently diagnose control systems incorporating programmable logic controllers (PLCs). COURSE OUTCOME ASSESSMENT: PLC wiring, programming, and conﬁguration outcomes are ensured by measuring student performance against mastery standards, as documented in the Student Performance Objectives. Failure to meet all mastery standards by the next scheduled exam day will result in a failing grade for the course.

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STUDENT PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: • Without references or notes, within a limited time (3 hours total for each exam session), independently perform the following tasks. Multiple re-tries are allowed on mastery (100% accuracy) objectives, each with a diﬀerent set of problems: → Program and connect a PLC to control an electromagnetic relay with 100% accuracy (mastery) → Sketch proper wire connections for sourcing or sinking PLC I/O points given schematic or pictorial diagrams of the components, with 100% accuracy (mastery) → Determine status of a PLC discrete output given input states and a simple RLL program, with 100% accuracy (mastery) → Calculate either the full-load current or the horsepower of an electric motor (either single- or threephase) given the line voltage and one of the other parameters → Solve for speciﬁed variables in algebraic formulae, with 100% accuracy (mastery) → Determine the possibility of suggested faults in a simple PLC circuit given measured values (voltage, current), a schematic diagram, and reported symptoms, with 100% accuracy (mastery) → Program a PLC to fulﬁll a speciﬁed control system function • In a team environment and with full access to references, notes, and instructor assistance, perform the following tasks: → Demonstrate proper use of safety equipment and application of safe procedures while using power tools, and working on live systems → Communicate eﬀectively with teammates to plan work, arrange for absences, and share responsibilities in completing all labwork → Construct and commission a motor start/stop system using a PLC as the control element → Generate an accurate wiring diagram compliant with industry standards documenting your team’s motor control system • Independently perform the following tasks on a functioning PLC motor control system with 100% accuracy (mastery). Multiple re-tries are allowed with diﬀerent speciﬁcations/conditions each time): → Diagnose a random fault placed in another team’s PLC motor control system by the instructor within a limited time using no test equipment except a multimeter and ladder logic editing software, logically justifying your steps in the instructor’s direct presence COURSE OUTLINE: A course calendar in electronic format (Excel spreadsheet) resides on the Y: network drive, and also in printed paper format in classroom DMC130, for convenient student access. This calendar is updated to reﬂect schedule changes resulting from employer recruiting visits, interviews, and other impromptu events. Course worksheets provide comprehensive lists of all course assignments and activities, with the ﬁrst page outlining the schedule and sequencing of topics and assignment due dates. These worksheets are available in PDF format at http://openbookproject.net/books/socratic/sinst • INST231 Section 1 (PLC contact, coil, and counter programming): 4 days theory and labwork • INST231 Section 2 (PLC timer and sequence programming): 4 days theory and labwork + 1 day for mastery/proportional Exams

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and hands-on demonstrations/experiments review and illuminate concepts covered in the preparatory questions. Special projects oﬀ-campus or in diﬀerent areas of campus (e. BTC’s Fish Hatchery) are encouraged.g. STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS/REQUIREMENTS: All assignments for this course are thoroughly documented in the following course worksheets located at: http://openbookproject.html • INST231 sec1. Their purpose is to provide you and your instructor with direct feedback on what you have learned. • Classroom sessions: a combination of Socratic discussion. The purpose of this is to develop problem-solving skills. These are optional assignments. continually placing the student in an active rather than a passive role. counting neither for nor against your grade. • Lab activities: an emphasis on constructing and documenting working projects (real instrumentation and control systems) to illuminate theoretical knowledge with practical contexts.pdf • INST231 sec2. • Independent study: daily worksheet questions specify reading assignments. and practice both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques. Hands-on troubleshooting exercises build diagnostic skills. and also to foster the independent research ability necessary for self-directed learning in your career. problems to solve. strengthen conceptual understanding. • Feedback questions: sets of practice problems at the end of each course section challenge your knowledge and problem-solving ability in current as as well as ﬁrst year (Electronics) subjects. • Hands-on PLC programming challenges: daily worksheet questions specify realistic scenarios requiring students to develop real PLC programs on their PLC trainers to implement the desired control function(s). The purpose of this is to convey information and basic concepts.pdf 4 .METHODS OF INSTRUCTION: Course structure and methods are intentionally designed to develop critical-thinking and life-long learning abilities. small-group problem-solving.net/books/socratic/sinst/index. and experiments to perform in preparation (before) classroom theory sessions. Open-note quizzes and work inspections ensure accountability for this essential preparatory work. short lectures. so valuable class time isn’t wasted transmitting bare facts.

5 cr Process Science ENGT 122 -.1 wk Intro.5 cr Final Control Elements Spring quarter INST 260 -.1 cr Job Prep I No INST 206 -.5 cr Analytical Measurement INST 252 -.4 cr Loop Tuning INST 263 -.5 cr Control Strategies PTEC 107 -.4 cr Data Acquisition Systems INST 231 -.5 cr DCS and Fieldbus INST 232 -.5 cr PID Control INST 262 -./Flow Measurement INST 251 -.Sequence of second-year Instrumentation courses Core Electronics -. Winter.6 cr Pressure/Level Measurement Winter quarter INST 250 -.6 cr Temp. and INST26x courses INST 200 -. and Spring quarters Summer quarter INST 230 -. and Spring quarters 8 .6 cr CAD 1: Basics Prerequisite for INST206 All courses completed? INST 205 -.3 qtrs including MATH 141 (Precalculus 1) (Only if 4th quarter was Summer: INST23x) Prerequisite for all INST24x. to Instrumentation Offered 1st week of Fall. INST25x.1 cr Job Prep II Yes Graduate!!! Offered 1st week of Fall. Winter.3 cr Motor Controls Fall quarter INST 240 -.3 cr PLC Programming INST 241 -.3 cr PLC Systems INST 242 -.

4 cr Data Acquisition Systems Summer quarter INST 230 -.5 cr Dec.6 cr Pressure/Level Measurement Spring quarter INST 205 -.5 cr PID Control INST 263 -. PLC Systems INST 241 -. Analytical Measurement INST 252 -.6 cr June CAD 1: Basics INST 232 -. Winter quarter INST 200 -.6 cr Temp. Winter.1 wk Intro.1 cr Job Prep I INST 250 -. Process Science Graduation! Graduation! Graduation! Graduation! ﬁle sequence 9 .3 cr PLC Programming INST 241 -. Sept./Flow Measurement INST 242 -. while others are oﬀered three out of the four quarters and must be taken in sequence. April Process Science INST 262 -.5 cr Mar.5 cr Final Control Elements PTEC 107 -.5 cr DCS and Fieldbus INST 231 -.6 cr Temp. Jan.1 cr Job Prep I INST 260 -.1 cr Job Prep II INST 260 -.1 cr Job Prep I INST 240 -. and Spring quarters).6 cr June July CAD 1: Basics INST 251 -.6 cr Pressure/Level Measurement Spring quarter INST 206 -.4 cr Data Acquisition Systems ENGT 122 -. Sept.5 cr Dec. Jan.5 cr DCS and Fieldbus INST 232 -.4 cr Loop Tuning INST 263 -. PLC Systems INST 242 -.1 wk Intro.4 cr Loop Tuning INST 241 -./Flow Measurement PTEC 107 -.5 cr Control Strategies INST 231 -.6 cr Temp.6 cr June July CAD 1: Basics INST 240 -.5 cr PID Control INST 231 -. Some second-year courses are only oﬀered in particular quarters with those quarters not having to be in sequence. the particular course sequence for any student will likely be diﬀerent from the course sequence of classmates.1 cr Job Prep I INST 250 -. Since students enter the second year of Instrumentation at four diﬀerent times (beginnings of Summer.1 cr Job Prep II INST 250 -. PLC Systems Winter quarter INST 206 -.3 cr Motor Controls INST 241 -.5 cr DCS and Fieldbus INST 251 -. Sept.3 cr PLC Programming Winter quarter INST 205 -. April Process Science INST 263 -.5 cr Control Strategies INST 232 -.5 cr Dec.3 cr Aug.6 cr Pressure/Level Measurement INST 250 -.5 cr DCS and Fieldbus Fall quarter INST 200 -.6 cr June July CAD 1: Basics Fall quarter INST 206 -.5 cr Dec.1 cr Job Prep II INST 260 -./Flow Measurement INST 252 -. Fall quarter INST 200 -. to Instrumentation INST 242 -. The following layout shows four typical course sequences for second-year Instrumentation students. to Instrumentation INST 231 -.4 cr Loop Tuning INST 262 -.6 cr Temp.3 cr Motor Controls INST 262 -.4 cr Loop Tuning ENGT 122 -.3 cr Motor Controls Beginning in Fall Sept.5 cr PID Control Summer quarter INST 230 -.4 cr Data Acquisition Systems INST 232 -. Jan.5 cr Final Control Elements INST 260 -.3 cr Aug.3 cr Motor Controls INST 252 -.5 cr PID Control INST 262 -.5 cr Mar.5 cr Mar.5 cr Control Strategies Fall quarter INST 205 -. to Instrumentation Beginning in Spring April Spring quarter INST 200 -.1 cr Job Prep II INST 240 -.6 cr Pressure/Level Measurement Summer quarter INST 230 -. Analytical Measurement INST 251 -.5 cr Final Control Elements INST 252 -. Analytical Measurement PTEC 107 -. April Process Science ENGT 122 -. depending on when they ﬁrst enter the second year of the program: Possible course schedules depending on date of entry into 2nd year Beginning in Summer July Summer quarter INST 230 -.1 wk Intro. PLC Systems PTEC 107 -. to Instrumentation Beginning in Winter Jan.4 cr Data Acquisition Systems INST 263 -.The particular sequence of courses you take during the second year depends on when you complete all ﬁrst-year courses and enter the second year.5 cr Final Control Elements ENGT 122 -.5 cr Control Strategies Winter quarter INST 205 -. Fall.1 wk Intro.3 cr PLC Programming INST 242 -.3 cr Aug.5 cr Mar. Analytical Measurement Spring quarter INST 206 -.3 cr Aug./Flow Measurement INST 251 -.3 cr PLC Programming INST 240 -.

the preferred ranking of hand tools to use (from ﬁrst to last) is box-end wrench or socket. etc.g. Thomas & Betts “Sta-Kon” part number 14RB-10F. #10 stud size) Safety • Safety glasses or goggles (available at BTC bookstore) • Earplugs (available at BTC bookstore) Miscellaneous • Simple scientiﬁc calculator (non-programmable. and 5/8”. metric – 1. nut.g. 14 to 18 AWG wire size. Sears “Craftsman” brand. Required for some exams! • Teﬂon pipe tape • Utility knife • Optional: Flashlight An inexpensive source of high-quality tools is your local pawn shop. get these immediately! • Adjustable wrench. #1 and #2 • Jeweler’s screwdriver set • Optional: Magnetic multi-bit screwdriver (e.g. open-end wrench. fractional – 1/16” to 3/8” • Optional: Hex wrench (“Allen” wrench) set. or tube ﬁtting with a hexagonal body. Look for name-brand tools with unlimited lifetime guarantees (e. TI-30Xa or TI-30XIIS recommended. Fluke model 87-IV or better • Wire strippers/terminal crimpers with a range including 10 AWG to 18 AWG wire • Soldering iron. Some local tool suppliers give BTC student discounts as well! ﬁle tools 12 .). and ﬁnally adjustable wrench. 9/16”. 6” handle (sometimes called “Crescent” wrench) • Hex wrench (“Allen” wrench) set. no numeration system conversions). non-graphing. 3/32” to 1/4” (sometimes called an “ignition wrench” set) Note: when turning a bolt.General tool and supply list Wrenches • Combination (box. Pliers should never be used to turn the head of a ﬁtting or fastener unless it is absolutely unavoidable! Pliers • Needle-nose pliers • Tongue-and-groove pliers (sometimes called “Channel-lock” pliers) • Diagonal wire cutters (sometimes called “dikes”) Screwdrivers • Slotted. Snap-On. 10 to 25 watt • Rosin-core solder • Package of compression-style fork terminals (e. 12 feet minimum • Optional: Vernier calipers • Optional: Bubble level Electrical • Multimeter. Klein Tools model 70035) Measurement tools • Tape measure. no unit conversions.5 mm to 10 mm • Optional: Miniature combination wrench set.and open-end) wrench set. 1/8” and 1/4” shaft • Phillips. 1/4” to 3/4” – the most important wrench sizes are 7/16”. 1/2”.

and experimental activities. This usually requires a fair amount of technical reading. and to approach the questions from multiple perspectives. it is more realistic and beneﬁcial to the type of work done in instrumentation. based on the test results. and independent learning are “must-have” skills. This means working through all the day’s assigned questions as completely as possible. problem-solving. To put it simply: fact-gathering happens outside of class and is the individual responsibility of each student. writing the test results on the board where all can see. Theory In the theory portion of each course. reﬂection. The express goal of this “inverted classroom” teaching methodology is to help each student cultivate critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. or may help tutor classmates who need extra help. The students then attempt to identify the nature and location of the fault. so that class time may be devoted to the more complex tasks of critical thinking and problem solving where the instructor’s attention is best applied. and to sharpen their abilities as independent learners. At the start of the classroom session. Students then spend the rest of the classroom time working in groups and directly with the instructor to thoroughly answer all questions assigned for that day.Methods of instruction This course develops self-instructional and diagnostic skills by placing students in situations where they are required to research and think independently. The curriculum may be roughly divided into two portions: theory and practical. Classroom theory sessions usually begin with either a brief Q&A discussion or with a “Virtual Troubleshooting” session where the instructor shows one of the day’s diagnostic question diagrams while students propose diagnostic tests and the instructor tells those students what the test results would be given some imagined (“virtual”) fault scenario. If a student ﬁnishes ahead of time. the goal is to avoid a passive learning environment. where critical thinking. and may also require setting up and running simple experiments. While this approach may be very new to you. students independently research subjects prior to entering the classroom for discussion. articulate problem-solving strategies. 13 . favoring instead active engagement of the learner through reading. problem-solving. the instructor will check each student’s preparation with a quiz. Each student is free to leave the classroom when they have completely worked through all problems and have answered a “summary” quiz designed to gauge their learning during the theory session. In all portions of the curriculum. they are free to leave.

Lab In the lab portion of each course. document. • Simply ﬁnding the fault is not good enough. making sure each team member has a clear idea of what they should accomplish (2) Teams work on lab unit completion according to recommended schedule: (First day) Select and bench-test instrument(s) (One day) Connect instrument(s) into a complete loop (One day) Each team member drafts their own loop documentation. with a eight-day period typically allotted for completion. Each student must consistently demonstrate sound reasoning while troubleshooting. up to last) Each team member troubleshoots the instrument loop (3) End of practical (lab) session: debrieﬁng where each team reports on their work to the whole class Troubleshooting assessments must meet the following guidelines: • Troubleshooting must be performed on a system the student did not build themselves. An ordinary lab session might look like this: (1) Start of practical (lab) session: announcements and planning (a) The instructor makes general announcements to all students (b) The instructor works with team to plan that day’s goals. conﬁgure. inspection done as a team (with instructor) (One or two days) Each team member calibrates/conﬁgures the instrument(s) (Remaining days. they must attempt (as many times as necessary) with diﬀerent scenarios until they do. • If a student fails to properly diagnose the system fault. Each lab exercise focuses on a diﬀerent type of instrument. This forces students to rely on another team’s documentation rather than their own memory of how the system was built. reviewing any mistakes with the instructor after each failed attempt. and troubleshoot working instrument loop systems. calibrate. ﬁle instructional 14 . students work in teams to install. • Each student must individually demonstrate proper troubleshooting technique.

Labwork is perhaps the most diﬃcult portion of the curriculum for a “distance” student to complete. For such “distance” students. “Distance” students must ﬁnd a way to complete the required lab activities. either by arranging time in the school lab facility and/or completing activities on equivalent equipment outside of school (e.or audio-recorded small-group sessions. Although the existence of alternative modes of student participation is a great beneﬁt for students with challenging schedules. “distance” students may switch back to conventional mode if and when their schedules permit.Distance delivery methods Sometimes the demands of life prevent students from attending college 6 hours per day. and ask that those questions be re-answered by the student to correct any misunderstandings before moving on. Participation via teleconferencing. students participating in an alternative fashion must do all the work themselves. at a “distance” from the college campus proper. The instructor will discuss any incomplete and/or incorrect worksheet answers with the student. and such is encouraged and supported. No student should consider the “distance” mode of learning a way to have more free time to themselves.g. though. exams. In lieu of small-group activities and class discussions. Likewise. This has proven to be a beneﬁt to students whose lives are disrupted by catastrophic events. the same worksheets. It exists merely for the sake of those who cannot attend during regular school hours. because they will actually spend more time engaged in the coursework than if they attend school on a regular schedule. Conventional students may opt to switch to “distance” mode at any time. it requires a greater investment of time and a greater level of self-discipline than the traditional mode where the student attends school for 6 hours every day. In such cases. lab activities. allowing students to complete coursework in non-traditional ways. as an alternative to course withdrawal. not just passing daily quizzes as is the standard for conventional students. There is no recording of hours attended or tardiness for students participating in this manner. Instead of working in small groups and in teams to complete theory and lab sections. Labwork completed outside of school must be validated by a supervisor and/or documented via photograph or videorecording. The pace of the course is likewise determined by the “distance” student. if applicable). Experience has shown that it is a beneﬁt for “distance” students to maintain the same pace as their on-campus classmates whenever possible. ﬁle distance 15 . there exist alternatives to the normal 8:00 AM to 3:00 PM class/lab schedule. comprehension of the theory portion of each course will be ensured by completing and submitting detailed answers for all worksheet questions. video. at their place of employment. since the equipment used in Instrumentation is typically too large and expensive to leave the school lab facility. and academic standards still apply.

15 Conversion equivalencies for distance 1 inch (in) = 2.67 K = o C + 273.32)(5/9) o R = o F + 459.540000 centimeter (cm) 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in) 1 yard (yd) = 3 feet (ft) 1 mile (mi) = 5280 feet (ft) 18 .Metric preﬁxes and conversion constants • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Metric preﬁxes Yotta = 1024 Symbol: Y Zeta = 1021 Symbol: Z Exa = 1018 Symbol: E Peta = 1015 Symbol: P Tera = 1012 Symbol: T Giga = 109 Symbol: G Mega = 106 Symbol: M Kilo = 103 Symbol: k Hecto = 102 Symbol: h Deca = 101 Symbol: da Deci = 10−1 Symbol: d Centi = 10−2 Symbol: c Milli = 10−3 Symbol: m Micro = 10−6 Symbol: µ Nano = 10−9 Symbol: n Pico = 10−12 Symbol: p Femto = 10−15 Symbol: f Atto = 10−18 Symbol: a Zepto = 10−21 Symbol: z Yocto = 10−24 Symbol: y METRIC PREFIX SCALE T tera 1012 G M giga mega 109 106 k kilo 103 (none) 100 m µ milli micro 10-3 10-6 n nano 10-9 p pico 10-12 102 101 10-1 10-2 hecto deca deci centi h da d c • • • • • Conversion formulae for temperature o F = (o C)(9/5) + 32 o C = (o F .

7 watts (W) = 2544.868976 knot (knot – international) Conversion equivalencies for mass 1 pound (lbm) = 0.325 kilo-pascals absolute (kPaA) = 1.44822 newton (N) Conversion equivalencies for area 1 acre = 43560 square feet (ft2 ) = 4840 square yards (yd2 ) = 4046.7 pounds per square inch absolute (PSIA) = 101.504 pounds per square inch (PSI) Conversion equivalencies for absolute pressure units (only) 1 atmosphere (Atm) = 14.894757 kilo-pascals (kPa) = 0.03602 inches of mercury (in.996 calories (cal – “International Table”) = 1055.46667 feet per second (ft/s) = 1.60934 kilometer per hour (km/h) = 0. Hg) = 27.86 square meters (m2 ) Conversion equivalencies for common pressure units (either all gauge or all absolute) 1 pound per square inch (PSI) = 2.06894757 bar 1 bar = 100 kilo-pascals (kPa) = 14.05506 x 1010 ergs (erg) = 778.44704 meter per second (m/s) = 0.) = 6.06 joules (J) = 1055.01325 bar (bar) = 760 millimeters of mercury absolute (mmHgA) = 760 torr (torr) Conversion equivalencies for energy or work 1 british thermal unit (Btu – “International Table”) = 251.293071 watt-hour (W-hr) = 1.0760181 boiler horsepower (hp – boiler) Acceleration of gravity (free fall). W.7854 liters (l) 1 milliliter (ml) = 1 cubic centimeter (cm3 ) Conversion equivalencies for velocity 1 mile per hour (mi/h) = 88 feet per minute (ft/m) = 1.169 foot-pound-force (ft-lbf) Conversion equivalencies for power 1 horsepower (hp – 550 ft-lbf/s) = 745. oz.45359 kilogram (kg) = 0.C.06 watt-seconds (W-s) = 0.806650 meters per second per second (m/s2 ) = 32.0 cubic inches (in3 ) = 4 quarts (qt) = 8 pints (pt) = 128 ﬂuid ounces (ﬂ.031081 slugs Conversion equivalencies for force 1 pound-force (lbf) = 4. Earth standard 9.6799 inches of water (in.Conversion equivalencies for volume 1 gallon (gal) = 231.1740 feet per second per second (ft/s2 ) 19 .43 british thermal units per hour (Btu/hr) = 0.) = 3.

204 kg/m3 = 0.94 slugs/ft3 Speciﬁc heat of water at 14o C = 1.67 × 10−8 Watts per square meter-Kelvin4 (W/m2 ·K4 ) Molar gas constant (R) = 8.075 lb/ft3 = 0.281 miles per second (mi/s) Avogadro’s number (NA ) = 6.018 centipoise (cp) = 1.05 dynes/cm pH of pure water at 25o C = 7.1869 Joules/g·o C Speciﬁc heat of ice ≈ 0.0 (pH scale = 0 to 14) Properties of Dry Air at sea level Density of dry air at 20o C and 760 torr = 1.204 mg/cm3 = 1.48 calories/g·o C Absolute viscosity of water at 20o C = 1.5 calories/g·o C Speciﬁc heat of steam ≈ 0.00002 calories/g·o C = 1 BTU/lb·o F = 4.0019 centipoise (cp) = 0.314 Joules per mole-Kelvin (J/mol-K) Properties of Water Freezing point at sea level = 32o F = 0o C Boiling point at sea level = 212o F = 100o C Density of water at 4o C = 1000 kg/m3 = 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/liter = 62.428 lb/ft3 = 1.0010019 Pascal-seconds (Pa·s) Surface tension of water (in contact with air) at 18o C = 73.9979 × 108 meters per second (m/s) = 186.602 × 10−19 Coulomb (C) Boltzmann’s constant (k ) = 1.8 × 10−5 Pascalseconds (Pa·s) ﬁle conversion constants 20 .38 × 10−23 Joules per Kelvin (J/K) Stefan-Boltzmann constant (σ ) = 5.Physical constants Speed of light in a vacuum (c) = 2.022 × 1023 per mole (mol−1 ) Electronic charge (e) = 1.00235 slugs/ft3 Absolute viscosity of dry air at 20o C and 760 torr = 0.

line of Allen-Bradley PLCs program so similarly to the MicroLogix line. Based on the wiring and program you see for this PLC. Be sure to activate the color highlighting feature of your programming editor so you may see the “live” status of the program’s virtual contacts and coil! 25 . This example shows an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 series PLC (model 1761-L10BWA) wired to two toggle switches and one LED indicator lamp. identify the switch state combinations resulting in an energized lamp. so the focus is solely on the I/O wiring: Toggle switch 24V DC OUT DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM I/4 I/5 Allen-Bradley Power Run Fault Force MicroLogix 1000 85-264 VAC L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 LED (with dropping resistor) Ladder-Diagram program written to PLC: I:0 0 I:0 1 O:0 0 END Note how Allen-Bradley I/O is labeled in the program: input bits designated by the letter I and output bits designated by the letter O. complete with a demonstration program. Note that line power (120 VAC) wire connections to power the PLC have been omitted. Try duplicating this program in your own PLC (even if it is a diﬀerent brand or model) and see how it functions.

2 1.1 .3 0.3 .4 .0 Q0.1 END Note how Siemens I/O is labeled in the program: input bits designated by the letter I and output bits designated by the letter Q. Based on the wiring and program you see for this PLC.0 0.7 I0 I1 .6 .4 1. Be sure to activate the color highlighting feature of your programming editor so you may see the “live” status of the program’s virtual contacts and coil! 26 .1 0.1 0.2 .7 Q1 .5 .1 .1 1.5 0.2 0. identify the switch state combinations resulting in an energized lamp.5 M L+ Ladder-Diagram program written to PLC: I0. Try duplicating this program in your own PLC (even if it is a diﬀerent brand or model) and see how it functions.4 .0 .3 .5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.2 .0 1.0 0.0 I0.2 .This example shows a Siemens S7-200 series PLC (model 224XP) wired to two toggle switches and one LED indicator lamp.4 .0 1.7 1.5 0.4 2M 2L+ 0.0 .3 .3 0.1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .7 2M 1.1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP .2 0.6 .4 0.3 1.6 0.6 0.1 .0 .5 . complete with a demonstration program: 24 VDC LED (with dropping resistor) Toggle switch SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0.0 .

identify the switch state combinations resulting in an energized lamp. complete with a demonstration program: CLICK Koyo C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 +V AD1V AD1I AD2V AD2I ACOM DA1V DA1I LG DA2V DA2I PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3 LED (with dropping resistor) Toggle switch 0 24V 24 VDC Ladder-Diagram program written to PLC: X1 X2 Y1 X2 X1 END Note how Koyo I/O is labeled in the program: input bits designated by the letter X and output bits designated by the letter Y. Be sure to activate the color highlighting feature of your programming editor so you may see the “live” status of the program’s virtual contacts and coil! ﬁle i04513 27 . Try duplicating this program in your own PLC (even if it is a diﬀerent brand or model) and see how it functions. Based on the wiring and program you see for this PLC.This example shows a Koyo “CLICK” PLC (model C0-02DD1-D) wired to two toggle switches and one LED indicator lamp.

equations. Feel free to use this practice worksheet to supplement your studies on this critically important topic! ﬁle i04516 31 . tables. Note the page numbers where important illustrations. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading. For this reason. The fundamental concept of relating I/O status to program elements is not necessarily easy to grasp. photographs.Question 8 Read and outline the “Relating I/O Status to Virtual Elements” subsection of the “Logic Programming” section of the “Programmable Logic Controllers” chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. a “Process Switches and PLC Circuits” worksheet has been placed in the Socratic Instrumentation practice worksheet collection. and other relevant details are found.

switches. ﬁle i02359 32 . Note carefully the diﬀerent variations: Discrete input module X0 Discrete input module Com X0 X1 X1 X2 X2 X3 Com X3 Discrete output module Com Y0 Discrete output module Y0 Y1 Y1 Y2 Y2 Y3 Com Y3 Determine for each of these input and output module types. Explain how both of these technologies work. AC input circuitry usually consists of an optocoupler (LED) with rectiﬁcation and a large dropping resistor to allow 120 volt AC operation. solenoid coils) would need to be connected to the I/O terminals of these modules.g. DC I/O for a PLC generally consists of optocoupled LEDs for inputs and bipolar transistors for outputs. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Determine how real input and output devices (e.Question 9 Discrete (on/oﬀ) I/O for PLCs often works on AC (alternating current) power. AC output circuitry usually consists of TRIACs. whether they would be properly designated sourcing or sinking. Some examples are shown in the following schematics.

etc. hot-key. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • How are discrete input and output points associated with contacts and coils in the ladder-logic program? • How do you draw vertical connecting lines in the ladder-logic program? • How do you assign “alias” names to inputs and outputs for easier program readability? For example. how do you assign an English name to the input I:2/4 (Input channel 4 on card 2) on an Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLC so that it reads as “Input switch 4” in the program instead of “I:2/4” in the programming software’s display? • Where is the software function (pull-down menu option. button.) located that allows you to turn on contact status highlighting in the PLC programming software? ﬁle i03667 34 .Question 11 Write a PLC program that accepts two discrete input signals (from two switches). and outputs the following four discrete outputs: • Output channel #1: The status of input switch #1 (simply repeating input #1) • Output channel #2: The Boolean complement (opposite) of input switch #1 • Output channel #3: The AND function of switches #1 and #2 • Output channel #4: The OR function of switches #1 and #2 Shown here is a generic RLL listing of such a program: Input_switch_1 Output_1 Input_switch_1 Output_2 Input_switch_1 Input_switch_2 Output_3 Input_switch_1 Output_4 Input_switch_2 Turn on status highlighting within the programming software environment so that you may see the virtual “power” ﬂow through the “conductive” contacts as you test the program.

and I:0/2 when switch A is unpressed (released). switch B is unpressed (released). and switch C is pressed. ﬁle i01865 35 .Question 12 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 PLC connected to three momentary-contact pushbutton switches as shown in this illustration: A 24V DC OUT DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM I/4 I/5 B Power Run Fault C 85-264 VAC Force L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 Determine the bit statuses of I:0/0. I:0/1.

2 1.2 .1 when the temperature switch senses 194 o F and the ﬂow switches senses 19 GPM.5 M L+ 130 oF 12 GPM Determine the bit statuses of I0.0 1.2 .4 .6 .5 0.0 .6 0.5 .Question 13 Suppose we have a Siemens S7-200 PLC connected to two process switches as shown in this illustration: 24 VDC SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0.7 Q1 .1 .5 .3 0.2 0.3 0.0 .1 0.7 2M 1.3 .4 .4 .4 2M 2L+ 0.1 .0 .0 0.1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .1 1.1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP .0 1.2 0.1 0.2 . ﬁle i01871 36 .4 1.7 I0 I1 .5 0.3 1.1 .6 .5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.2 and I1.4 0.0 .7 1.3 .6 0.3 .0 0.

Question 14 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLC connected to two process switches as shown in this illustration: Slot 0 (processor) Slot 1 Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slot 2 Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slot 3 Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (discrete input) (discrete input) (discrete output) Power supply Processor IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN6 IN7 COM COM VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 120 VAC power L1 L2/N Gnd IN6 IN7 COM COM 3 feet 37 PSI 88 oF Determine the process conditions necessary to generate the following input bit statuses in the PLC’s memory: • I:1/3 = 1 • I:1/5 = 0 ﬁle i01872 37 .

6 = ??? ﬁle i01873 38 . and from this determine all bit statuses represented by the color highlighting in this ladder logic program: I1.1 I0.5 = ??? • I1.1 = ??? • Q0.6 • I0.1 = ??? • Q0.5 Q0.1 I0.1 Q0.Question 15 Examine this “live” display of a Siemens S7-300 PLC’s program.2 = ??? • I0.2 I1.

ﬁle i01874 39 . determine the status of the lamp connected to the PLC’s Y1 output. pressed versus released) given the “live” display of the ladder logic program shown here: X1 X2 X3 Y1 Also.e.Question 16 Suppose we have a Koyo “CLICK” PLC connected to three momentary-contact pushbutton switches as shown in this illustration: CLICK Koyo C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 A B C PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3 X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 +V AD1V AD1I AD2V AD2I ACOM DA1V DA1I LG DA2V DA2I 0 24V 24 VDC Determine the switch actuation statuses (i.

showing how it must be set up so that the transistor functions as intended. there is something wrong with the circuit. ﬁle i01001 40 . because the motor does not turn on no matter what is done with the switch: This circuit does not work! Mtr Correct the error(s) in this circuit. tracing the directions of all currents when the switch closes: ﬁle i01000 Question 18 A student attempts to build a circuit that will turn a DC motor on and oﬀ with a very delicate (low current rating) pushbutton switch.Question 17 Explain the function of this light-switching circuit. Unfortunately.

turn on the load when the switch closes) and which of these circuits are mis-wired: Circuit 1 Circuit 2 Load Load Circuit 3 Circuit 4 Load Load ﬁle i01002 41 .Question 19 Some of the following transistor switch circuits are properly conﬁgured. and some are not.e. Identify which of these circuits will function properly (i.

Question 20 Some of the following transistor switch circuits are properly conﬁgured. Identify which of these circuits will function properly (i. turn on the load when the switch closes) and which of these circuits are mis-wired: Circuit 1 Circuit 2 Load Load Circuit 3 Circuit 4 Load Load ﬁle i01003 42 . and some are not.e.

Mr. What do you suppose “X” signiﬁes? What do you suppose “Y” signiﬁes? ﬁle i04688 44 . he teaches students to think of a “normally-closed” instruction as a command to “Go look for a 0”. Explain what Mr. Conversely. also determining the status of output bit Y1: X1 X2 X3 Y1 X2 X1 Suggestions for Socratic discussion • PLC training expert Ron Beaufort teaches students to think of a “normally-open” PLC program contact instruction as a command to the PLC’s processor to “Go look for a 1”. and how this wisdom relates to this particular problem.Question 22 Suppose a Siemens 545 PLC has the following input bit states: • X1 = 0 • X2 = 1 • X3 = 0 Sketch color highlighting for the contacts and coils in the PLC’s program given these bit statuses. Beaufort’s excellent instructional videos (available freely on YouTube) are quite valuable to watch! • Identify the signiﬁcance of the labels “X” and “Y” for this PLC’s bits. Beaufort means by these phrases. Incidentally.

7 Q0.Question 23 Examine this “live” display of a Siemens S7-300 PLC’s program. Explain what Mr. and from this determine all bit statuses represented by the color highlighting in this ladder logic program: I1.1 I0. Incidentally. What do you suppose “I” signiﬁes? What do you suppose “Q” signiﬁes? ﬁle i04689 45 .3 = ??? Suggestions for Socratic discussion • PLC training expert Ron Beaufort teaches students to think of a “normally-open” PLC program contact instruction as a command to the PLC’s processor to “Go look for a 1”.1 I0. Mr.1 = ??? • Q0.7 = ??? • I1. Conversely. and how this wisdom relates to this particular problem. Beaufort’s excellent instructional videos (available freely on YouTube) are quite valuable to watch! • Identify the signiﬁcance of the labels “I” and “Q” for this PLC’s bits.7 I1.3 • I0. he teaches students to think of a “normally-closed” instruction as a command to “Go look for a 0”.1 Q0. Beaufort means by these phrases.1 = ??? • Q0.

for example).Question 24 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley model “SLC 500” PLC connected to a pair of momentary-contact pushbutton switches and light bulbs as shown in this illustration: Slot 0 (processor) Slot 1 (discrete input) Slot 2 (unused) Slot 3 (discrete output) Power supply Processor Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 120 VAC power L1 L2/N Gnd IN6 IN7 COM COM Switch A Lamp Y Switch B Lamp Z Examine the following relay ladder logic (RLL) program for this Allen-Bradley PLC. the numbers “1” and “2” in the bit address I:1/2. What pattern do you see as you compare the I/O connections with the respective contact instructions in the PLC program? ﬁle i04628 46 . determining the statuses of the two lamps provided neither switch A nor switch B is pressed by a human operator: I:1 I:1 O:3 2 6 0 I:1 I:1 O:3 2 6 4 Finally.g. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Identify the signiﬁcance of the labels “I” and “O” for this PLC’s bits. • Identify the signiﬁcance of the ﬁrst and second numbers in each bit label (e. draw color highlighting showing how these “contact” instructions will appear in an online editor program given the stated input conditions.

5 0.3 .0 0.4 .1 .0 .6 0.0 .2 Q0.3 0.7 1.7 I0 I1 .5 .3 . draw color highlighting showing how these “contact” instructions will appear in an online editor program given the stated input conditions.3 0.7 2M 1.0 .2 0.0 .5 .6 . determining the statuses of the two lamps provided both switches are simultaneously pressed by a human operator: I1.7 I1.4 0.1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP . ﬁle i04664 47 .2 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.Question 25 Suppose we have a Siemens S7-200 PLC connected to a pair of momentary-contact pushbutton switches and light bulbs as shown in this illustration: 24 VDC SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0.1 I0.5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.2 0.4 .2 .1 .2 .5 M L+ Lamp Y Switch A Lamp Z Switch B Examine the following relay ladder logic (RLL) program for this Siemens PLC.2 .4 .1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .0 0.3 1.4 2M 2L+ 0.1 1.1 .6 0.7 Q1 .5 0.4 1.1 0.2 I0.7 Q0.3 .6 .3 Finally.

pressed versus unpressed) to turn the lamp on given the following program running in the PLC: X1 X3 Y1 X2 Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Identify the signiﬁcance of the labels “X” and “Y” for this PLC’s bits. What do you suppose “X” signiﬁes? What do you suppose “Y” signiﬁes? ﬁle i04638 48 .Question 26 Suppose we have a Koyo “CLICK” PLC connected to three momentary-contact pushbutton switches as shown in this illustration: CLICK Koyo C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 A B C PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3 X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 +V AD1V AD1I AD2V AD2I ACOM DA1V DA1I LG DA2V DA2I 0 24V 24 VDC Determine the necessary switch actuation statuses (i.e.

Examine the “live” display of the ladder logic program inside this Allen-Bradley PLC to determine what the problem is. • A helpful problem-solving tip is to annotate each contact in the PLC program to show what its realworld function is. though: the motor refuses to start when the “Start” pushbutton is pressed. explaining why it is often referred to as a seal-in contact.Question 27 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 controller connected to a pair of momentary-contact pushbutton switches and contactor controlling power to an electric motor as shown in this illustration: "Start" switch 24V DC OUT DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM I/4 I/5 "Stop" switch Power Run Fault OL contact 85-264 VAC Force L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 Contactor coil This motor control system has a problem. 49 . For example. assuming an operator is continuously pressing the “Start” pushbutton as you examine the program: I:0/3 I:0/2 I:0/0 O:0/2 O:0/2 Identify at least two causes that could account for all you see here. Annotate all contacts in this program and explain how this annotation is helpful in analyzing the program. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Identify what your next troubleshooting step would be if you were tasked with solving this problem. • Describe the purpose of the contact labeled O:0/2 in this program. contact I:0/3 may be labeled “OL” because that is the real-world switch status it senses.

What do the LED states tell you in this particular example? ﬁle i04069 50 . though: the motor refuses to start when the “Start” pushbutton is pressed.ﬁle i04662 Question 28 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley SLC 500 controller connected to a pair of momentary-contact pushbutton switches and contactor controlling power to an electric motor as shown in this illustration: 480 VAC 1 2 3 4 Power supply Processor Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Input Analog IN 0+ IN 0ANL COM Start IN0 IN1 X2 X1 VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 IN2 F6 H4 H2 H3 H1 F7 L1 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN6 IN7 COM COM IN 1+ IN 1ANL COM IN 2+ IN 2ANL COM Stop F5 L2/N IN 3+ IN 3ANL COM F1 F2 F3 Gnd F4 5 6 7 8 Contactor T3 T2 T1 Overload block Reset Motor This motor control system has a problem. then identify at least two faults that could account for the motor’s refusal to start. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • A helpful problem-solving tip is to note the PLC’s I/O states by examining the LED indicators on each input and output card on the PLC rack. Closely examine the pictorial diagram.

0 1.7 1.2 0.6 .0 Explain how both of these PLC programs function properly to control the starting and stopping of the electric motor. • A common misconception of students ﬁrst learning PLC programming is to think that the type of contact instruction used in the PLC program must match the type of switch contact connected to that input (e. Jill and Bob.4 Q0.0 R Q0.1 I0.4 . Explain why this is. Explain why this is incorrect.0 .1 0.1 . “A N. as shown: 480 VAC 3-θ supply 120 VAC supply SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L 1L+ 0.7 2M 1. With Jill’s retentive coil program.1 1. switch”).1 0.6 . work on programming Siemens S7-200 PLCs to control the starting and stopping of electric motors.6 0. PLC instruction must go with a N.2 .6 0.4 2M 0.0 0.5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.3 .0 0.4 . the two technicians’ PLC programs are quite diﬀerent.4 Q0.3 .0 .4 0.2 1.0 Bob’s PLC program I0.1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC AC/DC/Relay . Jill’s program uses retentive coil instructions (“Set” and “Reset” coils) while Bob’s uses a “seal-in” contact instruction to perform the function of latching the motor on and oﬀ: Jill’s PLC program I0.4 1.5 0.0 0.3 0.5 2L+ 0.5 .0 S I0.1 0.1 .O.2 .2 0. this is not only permissible but in fact necessary for its proper operation.1 1.5 .7 3L 1.3 0.1 Q0.3 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.g.0 .7 Q1 .0 .0 1.5 M L+ Start Stop However.6 0. Both PLCs are wired identically.7 I0 I1 . ﬁle i03674 51 . however.4 2L 0.1 .2 .1 N M L+ L1 AC DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP .O.0 0. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • It is ordinarily a bad thing to assign identical bit addresses to multiple coil instructions in a PLC program.3 . despite being wired identically.Question 29 Two technicians.4 .

capture a screen-shot of it as it appears on your computer. explore diﬀerent programming techniques. and gain experience interpreting PLC programs others have written. This control system will use a “Start” pushbutton. When your program is complete and tested. and an emergency shut-down pull-cable allowing anyone along the conveyor’s length to stop the belt simply by tugging on a steel cable (this is akin to the “stop” cable used on public buses for passengers to signal to the driver their intent to get oﬀ at the next stop). When presenting your program (either individually or as a team). Inputs • Start pushbutton (momentary NO) – pushing this button closes the switch to energize the PLC input • Stop pushbutton (momentary NC) – pushing this button opens the switch to de-energize the PLC input • Emergency stop cable (latching NC) – tugging on the cable opens the switch to de-energize the PLC input Outputs • Motor contactor – energizing this PLC output starts the conveyor belt motor Work individually or in teams to write a PLC program performing this function. or implementing this function using retentive coils (“set” and “reset”.Question 30 Programming Challenge and Comparison – Conveyor start/stop control with safety switch Suppose we wish to control the starting and stopping of a large conveyor belt at a factory using a PLC. simulating the system in action • Identify any special or otherwise non-standard instructions used in your program. a “Stop” pushbutton. and prepare to present your program solution to the class in a review session for everyone to see and critique. to help explain how and why it works • How you designed the program (i. or “latch” and “unlatch”)? ﬁle i02340 52 . prepare to discuss the following points: • Identify the “tag names” or “nicknames” used within your program to label I/O and other bits in memory • Follow the sequence of operation in your program.e. The purpose of this review session is to see multiple solutions to one problem. and demonstrate its operation using switches connected to its inputs to simulate the discrete inputs in a real application. what steps you took to go from a concept to a working program) Suggestions for Socratic discussion • How do you keep the motor “latched” on when the momentary “Start” switch is released? • Which is simpler: implementing this function using normal program coils. and explain why you decided to take that approach • Show the comments placed in your program.

and switch C is pressed. and I:0/3 when switch A is pressed. switch B is unpressed (released). ﬁle i04685 53 .Question 31 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 PLC connected to three momentary-contact pushbutton switches as shown in this illustration: A 24V DC OUT DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM I/4 I/5 B Power Run Fault C 85-264 VAC Force L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 Determine the bit statuses of I:0/0. I:0/1.

0 .2 .0 1.0 0.1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .3 0.1 .4 .Question 32 Suppose we have a Siemens S7-200 PLC connected to two process switches as shown in this illustration: 24 VDC SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0.2 1.5 0.2 0.4 1.6 0.0 1. ﬁle i04686 54 .5 0.5 .1 .4 2M 2L+ 0.3 .7 1.1 .3 1.4 .7 2M 1.5 M L+ 130 oF 12 GPM Determine the bit statuses of I0.6 .1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP .4 0.4 .6 .2 0.7 I0 I1 .1 1.2 .6 0.5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.0 .7 Q1 .1 0.3 .3 .2 and I1.2 .0 0.5 .1 when the temperature switch senses 122 o F and the ﬂow switches senses 15 GPM.0 .3 0.0 .1 0.

Question 33 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLC connected to two process switches as shown in this illustration: Slot 0 (processor) Slot 1 Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slot 2 Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slot 3 Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (discrete input) (discrete input) (discrete output) Power supply Processor IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN6 IN7 COM COM VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 120 VAC power L1 L2/N Gnd IN6 IN7 COM COM 2 feet 37 PSI Determine the bit statuses of I:1/3 and I:1/5 when the level switch senses 3 feet and the pressure switch senses 14 PSI. ﬁle i04687 55 .

or an open alarm switch contact? ﬁle i02342 56 .g. The light turns oﬀ as soon as the alarm signal goes back to its “safe” state. assigning appropriate addresses to all instructions. high temperature alarm) ﬁrst causes a warning light to blink and a siren to audibly pulse until a human operator presses an acknowledge pushbutton. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Does the PLC program (as written) “expect” a closed alarm switch contact to trigger the alarm. and demonstrating its operation. the light will remain on (steady) instead of blink and the siren will go silent. A timing diagram shows how this should work: Alarm switch Warning light Warning siren Acknowledge pushbutton Alarm_input Blink Light Latch Blink Latch Siren Acknowledge_input Alarm_input Latch Latch Take this “generic” PLC program and enter it into your own PLC. where a discrete input signal from an alarm switch (e.Question 34 The following PLC program preforms the function of an alarm annunciator. If the alarm switch signal is still activated.

Question 35 Some of the following transistor switch circuits are properly conﬁgured.e. Identify which of these circuits will function properly (i. and some are not. turn on the load when the switch closes) and which of these circuits are mis-wired: Circuit 1 Circuit 2 Circuit 3 Circuit 4 Circuit 5 Circuit 6 ﬁle i01004 57 .

the light bulb will energize when the pushbutton switch is actuated. ﬁle i01005 58 . Identify the faulty circuits.Question 36 In each of the following circuits. Some of them will function perfectly. Assume that the supply voltage in each case is somewhere between 5 and 30 volts DC (with lamps and resistors appropriately sized): Circuit 1 Circuit 2 Circuit 3 Circuit 4 Circuit 5 Circuit 6 However. and explain why they are ﬂawed. not all of these circuits are properly designed. but others will function only once or twice before their transistors fail.

Question 37 Draw the necessary wire connections so that bridging the two contact points with your ﬁnger (creating a high-resistance connection between those points) will turn the light bulb on: Contact points ﬁle i01006 Question 38 Choose the right type of bipolar junction transistor for each of these switching applications. drawing the correct transistor symbol inside each circle: +V +V +V Load Switch sourcing current to transistor Transistor sourcing current to load Switch sinking current from transistor Transistor sinking current from load Load ﬁle i01007 59 .

ﬁle i01008 Question 40 60 . drawing the correct transistor symbol inside each circle: +V +V Load Switch sinking current from transistor +V Transistor sourcing current to load Switch sourcing current to transistor Transistor sinking current from load Load Also. explain why resistors are necessary in both these circuits for the transistors to function without being damaged.Question 39 Choose the right type of bipolar junction transistor for each of these switching applications.

7 I0 I1 .1 I0.1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .2 I0.7 Q1 .1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP .7 2M 1.5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.6 0.0 .2 1.0 . determine whether the inputs and outputs of this particular PLC (as shown) are sourcing or sinking.5 0.1 1.3 0.7 1.3 . ﬁle i04170 61 .1 .5 .2 0.2 .0 0.2 Q0.4 1.4 2M 2L+ 0.0 1.3 Furthermore.Question 41 Suppose we have a Siemens S7-200 PLC connected to a pair of momentary-contact pushbutton switches and light bulbs as shown in this illustration: 24 VDC SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0.4 0.6 .5 M L+ Lamp Y Switch A Lamp Z Switch B Examine the following relay ladder logic (RLL) program for this Siemens PLC.1 0.3 0.2 .3 1.7 Q0.6 .2 0. determining the statuses of the two lamps provided switch A is pressed by a human operator and switch B is unpressed: I1.3 .5 0.4 .7 I1.6 0.1 .0 .0 .2 .0 1.4 .0 0.1 .1 0.4 .3 .5 .

Question 42 Suppose we have a Koyo “CLICK” PLC connected to three process switches as shown in this illustration:

CLICK
Koyo

C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2

30 PSI

150 oF

PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3

4 inches

0

24V

24 VDC
Determine the switch stimuli (i.e. required pressure, temperature, and level) given the “live” display of the ladder logic program shown here:

X1

X2

X3

Y1

Also, determine the status of the lamp connected to the PLC’s Y1 output. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Identify how you could force the lamp to energize, if your only tool at hand was a screwdriver. ﬁle i04667

62

Question 43 This Koyo “CLICK” PLC has been programmed to control the starting and stopping of an electric motor, including a counter instruction to prevent the motor from being started up more than a speciﬁed number of times:
CLICK
Koyo C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3 LG X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 +V AD1V AD1I AD2V AD2I ACOM DA1V DA1I DA2V DA2I Reset 0 24V

Start Stop Reset

Program (inside PLC) X1 X2 CT1 Y1

Y1

M1

Contactor relay coil

Y1
Up

Counter SetPoint Current

CT1 8 CTD1
Complete

CT1

X3

24 VDC

Identify the counter instruction in the program shown, its input “connections”, and also how the result of the counter reaching its pre-set limit forces the motor to stop. Also, determine the maximum number of times the motor may be started up, assuming the counter’s current value goes to zero when the Reset button is pressed. Finally, determine how to modify this PLC program so that the counter may be manually reset by the operator without requiring a separate pushbutton labeled “Reset”. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • If an operator presses the “Start” button multiple times while the motor is already running, do these button-presses get counted by the counter instruction, or do only the real motor start-up events get counted? • What do you suppose the label “CTD1” represents inside the counter instruction? • Note the number of times the bit Y1 is referenced inside this PLC program: once in a coil instruction and twice in contact instructions. Is there any limit to how many times a bit address may be used in a PLC program? • Describe the purpose of the ﬁrst contact instruction labeled Y1 in this program, explaining why it is often referred to as a seal-in contact. ﬁle i03589

63

64

0 1.7 1.5 M L+ Drive-over pressure switch Key Reset switch Unfortunately.3 0.4 1. The parking attendant is able to reset the count to 0 at the end of his shift.5 .7 2M 1.1 .0 1.0 . and (3) the network cable and computer in the main oﬃce.Question 46 This Siemens S7-200 PLC is supposed to count the number of cars entering a parking garage.1 . using a pressure-sensitive switch that the cars drive over when entering the garage.2 .1 1.1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP . Suggestions for Socratic discussion • A useful troubleshooting strategy is to mentally divide this system into three major portions.0 .4 2M 2L+ 0.4 .1 0.2 .4 .4 .0 0.0 .2 . (2) the PLC itself.5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.1 ..0 . there is something wrong with this system. today the counter’s current value as displayed on the main oﬃce computer seems to be stuck at 574 no matter how many more cars drive over the pressure switch and enter the garage.3 .7 Q1 ..4 0.2 0. using a key-switch: Network cable to main office display . The car-count value is sent to a computer in the main oﬃce via a network cable plugged into the PLC.5 0. SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0. and try to determine which portion the problem lies within: (1) the switches and wiring connected to the PLC.3 .3 1. Explain how you would go about diagnosing the problem in this system.3 .6 .2 0.7 I0 I1 .6 0. justifying each step you would take.5 .1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .0 0.1 0. Although it worked just ﬁne yesterday.6 .2 1. • How important is the fact that this system worked ﬁne yesterday? Does this knowledge help you in your troubleshooting? • Are there any LED indicators on the face of the PLC that might be helpful in providing diagnostic data for you to pinpoint the location of the problem? ﬁle i03683 66 .6 0.3 0.5 0.

6 0.4 2M 2L+ 0.4 0.0 1.0 .2 1.1 .2 . • How are transition (edge-detecting) instructions implemented in Allen-Bradley PLCs? ﬁle i00185 67 .1 M L+ DC Q0 SF/DIAG RUN STOP .5 0.5 .3 0.6 .0 I1.3 .6 0.3 P I1. by incrementing a counter every time a person enters through the doorway.1 .7 1.0 P CU CTUD CD QU R QD LD PV CV Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Explain how a timing diagram of the switch states would be helpful in analyzing the operation of this PLC program.3 1.5 .2 . Their horizontal separation is just a couple of inches – much less than the girth of a person’s torso.2 . The operating status of each switch is that it energizes the PLC input when the light beam is broken: Light sources Entering Photo-switches PLC SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 1M 1L+ 0.1 0.3 .4 .1 0.0 .6 .2 0.5 1M Port 1 Port 0 0.1 .0 .0 . and decrementing that same counter whenever someone exits through the same doorway.1 1.7 I0 I1 .3 0.3 .3 I1.1 CPU 224XP DC/DC/DC .4 .5 0.7 2M 1.Question 47 This Siemens S7-200 PLC has been programmed to count the number of people in a room. The two optical switches activate whenever their respective light beams are broken by someone passing through.2 0.4 1.0 0. and determine how it is able to diﬀerentiate between a person entering the room and a person leaving the room: I1.7 Q1 .0 1.0 0.4 .5 M L+ Examine the program in this PLC for counting people.

g. as a prelude to identifying speciﬁc diagnostic steps. • Are there any ways you could diagnose this problem without the use of test equipment (e. An optical proximity switch detects the passage of each can. justifying each step you would take. multimeter)? • Explain the signiﬁcance of the “sourcing” and “sinking” labels on the I/O cards as well as the proximity switch. Identify what you would do to begin diagnosing this problem. The PLC then counts the number of pulses to determine the number of cans that have passed by: Power supply 24 VDC Processor Input DC sourcing IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Input DC sinking IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN6 IN7 COM COM 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Output DC sinking VDC OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 COM 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 L1 120 VAC IN6 IN7 COM COM L2/N Gnd TB-23 1 2 3 4 Grn Red Blu Org TB-20 1 2 3 4 Cable 45 Counter reset TB-31 1 2 3 4 Wht Blk Red One day the canning line operator tells you the PLC has stopped counting even though cans continue to run past the proximity switch as the conveyor belt moves.Question 48 A PLC is used to count the number of cans traveling by on a conveyor belt in a ﬁsh canning factory. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Identify diﬀerent areas or components within this system that could possibly be at fault. ﬁle i02428 DC sinking 68 . sending a discrete (on/oﬀ) signal to one of the PLC’s input channels.

For quite a while. and then one day management decides to scrap a run of product mid-shift and start over.Question 49 The manufacturing company you work for installs a PLC control system on its assembly line. ﬁle i00182 69 . the system works without any problems whatsoever. This is when they discover the system integrator they contracted to build and program the PLC system provided no way to reset the shift production counter except to wait until the shift is over. counting the number of components produced every shift. An operations manager summons you to reset the counter for them. as quickly as possible. Identify at least two diﬀerent ways you could reset the counter to meet their needs.

Question 50 A PLC is being used to monitor the oil pressure for a steam turbine driving an electrical generator. and as such cannot generate any oil pressure until the turbine begins to spin. supplying itself with pressurized lubricating oil to keep all the turbine bearings properly lubricated and cooled: Start PLC Stop PSL S 20 PSI air supply (vent) Oil pump Turbine Generator ATO Steam supply Another technician programmed the PLC for the start/stop function. shutting steam oﬀ to the turbine if ever the oil pressure drops below a 10 PSI limit. but this program has a problem: Real-world I/O wiring "Start" pushbutton Discrete input card IN_switch_Start Discrete output card Solenoid coil OUT_valve "Stop" pushbutton IN_switch_Stop Low oil pressure IN_oil_press PLC program IN_switch_Start IN_switch_Stop IN_oil_press OUT_valve OUT_valve Identify what this problem is. ﬁle i00189 70 . The turbine’s lubrication oil pump is driven by the turbine shaft itself. and ﬁx it! Hint: the oil pump is driven by the turbine.

and so an Allen-Bradley PLC was programmed to produce a slower blink using this program: I:3/2 CTU Count Up Counter Preset Accum C5:0 32767 0 O:1/5 CU DN C5:0. Thus. the shaft turns much too fast to directly drive the indicator with the proximity switch signal. There is no way to attach a speed switch to the pump shaft (that would be too easy!). Instead.Question 51 An important pump in a chemical process is turned by an electric motor. converting the high-speed pulse signal of the proximity switch into a low-speed blink for the operator light. and operators want to have visual indication in the control room that the pump is indeed turning. ﬁle i03838 71 .ACC/13 C5:0/DN C5:0 RES Explain how this program works to fulﬁll the function of a frequency divider. The problem is. for an indication of shaft motion. someone has installed a proximity switch near the pump shaft. situated to pick up the passing of a keyway in the shaft with each rotation. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Explain how a frequency divider circuit built out of J-K ﬂip-ﬂop integrated circuits functions. and then describe how this PLC program is similar in principle. the proximity switch will output a “pulse” signal when the pump shaft is spinning: Motor Pump Proximity switch Signal cable to PLC input I:3/2 Pulse signal (when pump is running) Operators wanted the indicator light in the control room to blink when the pump is running.

1 M0.7 M0. Examine these two Allen-Bradley PLC programs. and explain why the left-hand program is “wasteful” while the right-hand program makes more eﬃcient use of available bits: Wasteful I:0/4 I:0/7 Allen-Bradley MicroLogix/SLC Efficient O:2/0 I:0/4 I:0/7 B3:0/0 O:2/0 O:2/1 B3:0/0 O:2/1 Examine these two Siemens S7 PLC programs. .Question 52 A NAND logic function may be built up from a regular AND function plus an inverter function (a NOT gate) on the output: AND NOT .0 Q2. . by combining a normally-closed contact instruction with two contacts in series.1 Note: many novice PLC programmers commit this error of “wasting” valuable I/O as they write their programs! ﬁle i04092 72 . and explain why the left-hand program is “wasteful” while the right-hand program makes more eﬃcient use of available bits in the same ways the Allen-Bradley example programs were wasteful/eﬃcient: Siemens Step 7 (S7) Wasteful I0.0 I0.0 Q2.4 Efficient I0. .7 Q2. is equivalent to .0 Q2.4 I0. NAND The same strategy of “building” a NAND gate may be done in PLC ladder-diagram programming. .

e. temperature. ﬁle i02144 74 . and pressure values) given the “live” display of the ladder logic program shown here: X1 X2 X3 Y1 Also.Question 54 Suppose we have a Koyo “CLICK” PLC connected to three process switches as shown in this illustration: CLICK Koyo C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 +V AD1V AD1I AD2V AD2I ACOM DA1V DA1I LG DA2V DA2I Trip = 135 oF PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3 Trip = 23 inches Trip = 17 PSI 0 24V 24 VDC Determine the process conditions (i. level. determine the status of the lamp connected to the PLC’s Y1 output.

and pressure values) given the “oﬄine” display of the ladder logic program shown here.e.Question 55 Suppose we have a Koyo “CLICK” PLC connected to three process switches as shown in this illustration: CLICK Koyo C0-02DD1-D C1 X1 X2 X3 X4 RUN STOP C2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 +V AD1V AD1I AD2V AD2I ACOM DA1V DA1I LG DA2V DA2I Trip = 32 PSI PWR RUN ERR PORT 1 TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 PORT 2 PORT 3 RS-485 TX3 RX3 Trip = 10 inches Trip = 99 oF 0 24V 24 VDC Determine the process conditions (i. knowing that the lamp happens to be energized at the present time: X1 X2 Y1 X3 X2 ﬁle i02145 75 . level. temperature.

Suggestions for Socratic discussion • What is the address of the special contact in your PLC for the 1 Hz clock pulse? • How do you make three counters count in the correct sequence. ﬁle i03691 76 . Among these “special contacts” is typically one that cycles on and oﬀ at a rate of once per second. and the next hours? PLC comparison: • Allen-Bradley SLC 500: status bit S:4/0 is a free-running clock pulse with a period of 20 milliseconds. one to count minutes (0 to 59). Research the special contact for this function in your PLC. then write a PLC program for an Hour/Minute/Second timer using three counter instructions: one to count seconds (0 to 59).5 is a free-running clock pulse with a period of 1 second. so that one represents seconds. • Koyo (Automation Direct) DirectLogic: Special relay SP4 is a free-running clock pulse with a period of 1 second.Question 56 Programming Challenge – Hour/Minute/Second timer Many PLCs provide a range of special contacts to the programmer. which may be used to clock a counter instruction up to 50 to make a 1-second pulse (because 50 times 20 ms = 1000 ms = 1 second). and one to count hours. • Siemens S7-200: Special Memory bit SM0. like a 1 Hz clock pulse. the next minutes.

Suggestions for Socratic discussion • What type of switches would you recommend to detect cars driving into the parking garage? • How are you able to view the counter instruction’s current count value as the program runs? • Is there any way to “fool” this system so that it does not hold an accurate count of cars inside the garage? PLC comparison: • Allen-Bradley Logix 5000: CTUD count-up/down instruction • Allen-Bradley SLC 500: CTU and CTD instructions. by incrementing a counter each time a car enters the garage through the entry lane. Write a PLC program to perform this function.Question 57 Programming Challenge – Parking garage counter Suppose we wish to count the number of cars inside a parking garage at any given time. and demonstrate its operation using switches connected to its inputs to simulate the discrete inputs in a real application. • Siemens S7-200: CTUD count-up/down instruction • Koyo (Automation Direct) DirectLogic: UDC counter instruction ﬁle i03684 77 . and decrementing the same counter each time a car leaves the garage through the exit lane. The PLC must be equipped with a way to for the garage attendant to manually reset the counter to zero. and another discrete input of the PLC will connect to a switch detecting cars passing out the garage exit. One discrete input of the PLC will connect to a switch detecting the passing of each car through the garage entry.

determining the statuses of the two lamps provided switch A is pressed by a human operator and switch B is unpressed: I:1 I:1 O:3 2 6 0 I:1 I:1 O:3 2 ﬁle i03760 6 4 78 .Question 58 Question 59 Question 60 Question 61 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley model “SLC 500” PLC connected to a pair of momentary-contact pushbutton switches and light bulbs as shown in this illustration: Slot 0 (processor) Slot 1 (discrete input) Slot 2 (unused) Slot 3 (discrete output) Power supply Processor Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 120 VAC power L1 L2/N Gnd IN6 IN7 COM COM Switch A Lamp Y Switch B Lamp Z Examine the following relay ladder logic (RLL) program for this Allen-Bradley PLC.

determine the status of each pushbutton switch: whether or not each one is being pressed.Question 62 Suppose we have a PLC connected to two pushbutton switches (momentary NO) as shown in this illustration: 120 VAC "line" power L1 L2 X1 X2 X3 (NO contacts) L1 L2 Y1 Y2 Y3 X4 X5 X6 Common PLC Y4 Y5 Y6 (NO contacts) Programming port Source Personal computer display (Ladder Diagram program) X3 X3 Y1 X5 X3 X5 Y2 Based on the highlighting you see in the “live” PLC program display. ﬁle i01879 79 .

and a motor contactor (for a pump) as shown in this illustration: Slot 0 Slot 1 Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slot 2 (unused) Slot 3 (discrete input) (processor) (discrete output) Power supply Processor Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2 IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN6 IN7 COM COM 120 VAC power L1 L2/N Gnd OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 5 feet Contactor Left Right Explain what conditions must be met for the pump to turn on. based on an analysis of the program running in the PLC: I:3/4 TON Timer On Delay Timer Time Base Preset Accum T4:3 0. a selector switch.1 250 0 O:1/0 EN DN I:3/2 T4:3/DN ﬁle i04634 82 .Question 65 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley model “SLC 500” PLC connected to a liquid level switch.

Question 66 A gravel-crushing operation uses three long conveyor belts to move rock from the quarry to the crusher. The belts must be started up in a particular sequence to avoid overloading the electric motors driving them: Conveyor A Conveyor B Conveyor C Rock from quarry Rock to crusher M M M PLC Start pushbutton Stop pushbutton First. determine a start-up sequence that makes sense: which conveyor belt should start ﬁrst. next. and last? What might happen if the sequence were reversed? Why not simply start all conveyor motors simultaneously? 83 .

0 Run M0. determine where you might add a contact instruction for an emergency shutoﬀ safety switch. Analyze this program and explain how it accomplishes the task of starting up the three conveyors in sequence: Start I0. so that all three conveyors stop simultaneously if ever the safety switch is actuated.0 Lastly.0 Run M0. sounding for a full 15 seconds before the ﬁrst conveyor belt starts.1 T3 Conv_A_motor Q0.0 PT PT T2 TON 100 ms T3 TON 100 ms Conv_C_motor Q0. How would you modify the PLC program to include this additional functionality? ﬁle i04428 84 . Suggestions for Socratic discussion • How long is the time delay between conveyor start-ups? How might this time delay be altered if needed? • Suppose a warning siren were added to the system.2 T2 Conv_B_motor Q0.0 Run M0.This operation uses a Siemens S7 series PLC to control the three conveyor belts.1 Stop I0.0 IN +85 T2 IN +85 Run M0.

Question 67 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley model “SLC 500” PLC connected to switches and a pump contactor as shown in this illustration:
Slot 0 Slot 1 Output
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Slot 2
(unused)

Slot 3
(discrete input)

(processor) (discrete output)

Power supply

Processor

Input
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

VAC 1 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 VAC 2

IN0 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 IN5 IN6 IN7 COM COM

120 VAC power

L1 L2/N Gnd

OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7

3 feet

Contactor

Left

Right

20 PSI

Identify the necessary conditions for the pump to turn on, based on this program running in the PLC:
I:3 TON Timer On Delay Timer Time Base Preset Accum I:3 T4:3 T4:3 1.0 17 0 O:1

EN DN

1

2 I:3

DN I:3

0 T4:3
RES

0

4

ﬁle i04635

85

Question 68 An Allen-Bradley Logix5000 PLC is used to control the starting and stopping of an air compressor based on momentary-contact pushbutton switch inputs as well as high and low pressure switches (PSH and PSL, respectively). Analyze this program and explain how it is supposed to work:

in_start_switch

in_stop_switch

run_enable

run_enable

in_psl

in_psh

run_enable

out_comp_motor

out_comp_motor

out_comp_motor

RTO Retentive Timer On Timer Time Base Preset Accum (continued on next page)
run_time 0.001 3600000 0

EN DN

86

(continued from previous page) run_time.dn CTU Count Up Counter Preset Accum hours.dn
hours 250 0

CU DN

out_warning_light

in_reset_switch

hours
RES

run_time.dn

run_time
RES

in_reset_switch

In particular, answer these following questions: • Determine the “normal” electrical statuses of all switches (e.g. NO or NC) connected to the inputs of this PLC, based on an examination of the respective contact instructions within the PLC program. • Why is is important that a retentive timer instruction be used for the calculation of total run-time? • What is the signiﬁcance of the maintenance warning light controlled by this PLC?

Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Note how all instructions in this Logix5000 PLC program are addressed by tagname rather than by hardware addresses (e.g. I:2/6, O:3/1). How do you suppose the PLC “knows” which real I/O points to associate with which instructions in the program? ﬁle i02346

87

The PLC’s discrete output is a dry contact type. internally “pulled up” with resistors so that the only thing needed to activate each input is to form a connection between the respective input and the common (“Com”) terminal on the drive. 88 . to tell the motor to either turn on or turn oﬀ. and the wiring between the motor and the drive is known to be good. the motor does not start when the PLC tells it to. Now. the motor itself is brand-new. meaning it is nothing more than an electromechanical relay contact inside the output card. telling the drive when to start the motor: Power supply Processor Digital inputs Digital outputs 0 1 2 3 Digital outputs 0 1 2 3 3-phase AC power lines L1 L2/N Gnd Com Com L1 L2 L3 DI0 DI1 DI2 Com T1 T2 T3 To 3-phase motor The problem is. DI1. A power check at the PLC and drive power terminals shows 117 volts AC between L1 and L2/N (on the PLC) and 482 volts between each of the three phases (L1.Question 69 A technician is troubleshooting a problem with a newly-installed PLC and variable-speed motor drive. and DI2) are logic gate inputs. The discrete inputs on the drive (DI0. and L3) on the motor drive. L2. The dry contact for PLC output 0 on the right-most output card is supposed to do just that. One of the discrete (on/oﬀ) outputs of the PLC is connected to a discrete input on the drive. The LED indicator for output 0 on the PLC card is lit.

Both the PLC and the motor drive are complex. or PLC program. telling her whether the PLC or the drive is at fault. The technician knows she could spend quite a bit of time diagnosing either of these devices trying to ﬁnd a problem. it would be very helpful to know which of these devices is at fault so as to not waste troubleshooting time. motor. and not with the power sources. motor wiring. This data suggests (but does not guarantee) that the problem lies either with the PLC hardware or the drive. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Is the PLC output card sourcing curren to or sinking current from the VFD in this system? • If the problem lies within the PLC. a software problem. where exactly do you think it might be found within the PLC? Do you think it could be a hardware problem. and be sure to explain your reasoning. Thus. or either? ﬁle i02451 89 .revealing that the PLC program at least is trying to activate the motor drive. Devise a simple test for the technician to perform that will neatly divide the problem in half. programmable devices. PLC inputs.

This is because the fan blades have a lot of inertia. an on-delay or an oﬀ-delay timer? ﬁle i02347 91 . to provide warmth in the process equipment area to help guard against liquid-ﬁlled pipes and tubes freezing: Radiator core Forward blows air up Reverse blows air down Fan blade Motor Fan blade 3-phase 480 VAC Fwd Rvs Reset A reversing start/stop PLC program is easy enough to write. depending on which way operations personnel wish to blow the warm air. and take about 30 seconds to coast to a stop. Write a PLC program to provide this forward/reverse/restart lockout functionality. This restart lockout timer will prevent someone from trying to reverse the motor’s direction before the fan has had a chance to fully stop. Assume the use of normally-open (NO) pushbutton switches for all pushbutton inputs. one for Reverse) and one momentary “Stop” pushbutton. the preferred direction is down. the preferred direction is up. During warm weather.Question 71 Programming Challenge – Reversing motor restart delay A three-phase electric motor drives an air heat exchanger (radiative cooler) in either direction (forward or reverse). with two momentary-contact “Start” pushbuttons (one for Forward. During cold weather. Suggestions for Socratic discussion • What type of timer instruction is best suited for this application. to direct hot air away from process equipment. but what we need here is a reversing program that prevents an immediate re-start of the motor in the opposite direction following a stop command.

and then the PLC will measure how long it takes for the person to react to the light and ﬂip the switch. The PLC should energize a light (or simply one of the discrete output indicating LEDs) telling the user when to ﬂip an input switch.Question 72 Programming Challenge – Reaction time measurement Program your PLC to measure a person’s reaction time in ﬂipping a switch. a retentive or a non-retentive timer? ﬁle i02266 92 . Suggestions for Socratic discussion • How can you program the PLC to turn on the signaling light in a way that the person being tested cannot anticipate it? • How must you conﬁgure the reaction time timer to count in units appropriate for this very quick time delay? • What type of timer instruction is best suited for the reaction time timer.

Question 73 Programming Challenge – Alarm event latch and history timers A normally-closed (NC) high-pressure sensing switch monitors ﬂuid pressure in a chemical reactor vessel. they want to know how long the high-pressure condition lasted and also how long it’s been since the reactor pressure returned to normal. This is so the operators will know a high-pressure event occurred even if they were not in the control room to see it when it happened. • What type of timer instruction is best suited for the event duration timer. a retentive or a non-retentive timer? • How could a counter instruction be added to this PLC program to provide useful functionality? ﬁle i02265 93 . opening its contacts if the pressure exceeds the trip point. even if the high-pressure condition “clears” and goes back to normal. Add instructions to this PLC program to provide the desired timing functionality. A PLC implements this latching function using retentive (“set” and “reset”) coils: Pressure_switch_high Alarm_output S Reset_switch Alarm_output R The system works well. This triggers an alarm lamp to energize in the control room. but the operators want more. and how this information alone would be enough for us to determine that the high-pressure switch itself had NC contacts. If they arrive at the control room to see the alarm light on (latched). Suggestions for Socratic discussion • Explain why the PLC program contact for the high-pressure switch is normally-closed. and this lamp will latch in the “on” state until an operator resets it.

Question 74 Question 75 Question 76 Question 77 Question 78 Question 79 Question 80 94 .

Question 81 Suppose we have an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 PLC connected to a temperature switch and a ﬂow switch: Trip = 15 GPM 24V DC OUT DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM I/4 I/5 Trip = 200 oF Power Run Fault Force 85-264 VAC L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 120 VAC We wish for the lamp to come on when the temperature is below 200 degrees F and when the ﬂow rate is below 15 GPM. Write a RLL program for the PLC (complete with correct address labels for each of the virtual contacts) to fulﬁll this function: O:0 0 ﬁle i02375 95 .

Question 82 Analyze this Allen-Bradley PLC program and explain what it is supposed to do: Motor O:1 0 CTU Count Up Counter Preset Accum C5:2 17 0 CU DN Start I:0 0 Motor O:1 0 Reset I:0 2 Stop I:0 1 C5:2 DN Motor O:1 0 C5:2 RES ﬁle i02377 96 .

.... determine the status of the Pump run output channel given the following bit states: • • • • • Timer 01 = 1 Level low = 1 Switch hand = 0 OL contact = 0 Sump wet = 0 . Pump_run ﬁle i02376 97 . OL_contact Sump_wet . Next. it is considered bad practice to have multiple instances of an identical (standard) “relay” coil in a program: Timer_01 Level_low Pump_run Switch_hand Identical coils! Explain why this is considered poor practice in PLC programming.Question 83 In relay ladder logic (RLL) programming.

normally-open contacts on both) and wire the relay coils so the PLC sources current to them (O/0 and O/1): Com NC NO 24V DC OUT DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM I/4 I/5 PSH Power Run Fault Force Com NC NO 85-264 VAC L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 PSL ﬁle i02379 98 . with 6 discrete DC inputs either sourcing or sinking.Question 84 Sketch the wires necessary to connect two pressure switches and two relay coils to the following AllenBradley MicroLogix 1000 PLC (model 1761-L10BWA. and 4 discrete relay contact outputs). Be sure to wire the two switches so they source current to the PLC’s inputs (the low-pressure switch to I/2 and the high-pressure switch to I/5.

ﬁle i02255 99 .4 Stop I0.2 Low speed Q0.2 IN +50 Start I0.1 Include an explanation of the motor contactor wiring.Question 85 Analyze this Siemens S7-200 PLC program (for controlling a motor) and explain what it is supposed to do: M0. based on an analysis of the PLC program.2 M0.2 T6 High speed Q0.0 M0.2 T6 M0.5 PT T6 TON 100 ms M0.

and total power in this balanced Y-Y system: Source 580 Ω Load 7 27 V • Eline = • Iline = • Ephase(source) = • Iphase(source) = • Ephase(load) = • Iphase(load) = • Ptotal = ﬁle i02421 100 .Question 86 Calculate all voltages. currents.

Question 87 The following circuit senses temperature using a thermistor with a positive temperature coeﬃcient (i.e. resistance increases as temperature increases):

A 1k B
+To

D Cable 1 E Cable 2

G 10 VDC
(80 mA current-limited)

+ −

H

Voltmeter

1k
(at room temp)

C

F

J

First, determine the voltage we should read at the voltmeter with the thermistor at or near room temperature. Next, identify the likelihood of each speciﬁed fault for this circuit, supposing the voltmeter registers 0 volts with the thermistor at room temperature, and a voltage measurement taken between terminals D and F registers 10 volts. Consider each fault one at a time (i.e. no multiple faults), determining whether or not each fault could independently account for all measurements and symptoms in this circuit. Fault Thermistor failed open Fixed resistor failed open Wire A-D failed open Wire F-J failed open Wire E-H failed open Thermistor failed shorted Fixed resistor failed shorted Short between terminals G-H Short between terminals E-F Short between terminals D-E Possible Impossible

ﬁle i02924 101

Question 88 Identify each of the speciﬁed voltages in the following circuit, with reference to ground. The subscripts refer to the speciﬁc test points (where the red test lead of the voltmeter touches the circuit):

A

B

3 kΩ 18 V C 5 kΩ D

E

1 kΩ

For example, VB means the voltage indicated by a voltmeter with the red test lead touching point B and the black test lead touching ground. • VA = • VB = • VC = • VD = • VE =

ﬁle i02525 102

Question 89 Suppose a single-phase AC load draws a current of 16.5 amps at 237 volts (RMS). If the measured power factor of this load is 0.85, calculate the true power (P ) dissipated by the load as well as its apparent power (S ). Be sure to include the proper unit of measurement (e.g. VA, VAR, or W) with each answer! P =

S=

ﬁle i02422 103

To 3-φ . you measure 476 volts AC between L1 and L2. which receives 120 volts AC from a step-down transformer to energize the contactor’s magnetic coil. and 475 volts AC between L1 and L3. either one of which could account for the problem and all measured values. and the types of failures they would be (either open or shorted). besides the 480 volt AC source which is obviously operational. The contactor itself is controlled by a smaller switch. identify the following: • Two components or wires in the circuit that you know cannot be failed either open or shorted. You also measure 477 volts between transformer terminals H1 and H4. From this information. a three-pole relay (typically called a contactor) is used to switch power on and oﬀ to the motor. • Two diﬀerent component or wire failures in the circuit.Question 90 In this 480 volt AC induction motor control circuit (sometimes referred to as a “bucket”). you measure 0. With the switch in the “on” position. motor Switch ﬁle i03174 104 .5 volts AC between terminals X1 and X2 on the transformer. 477 volts AC between L2 and L3. 480 volt power source L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 Schematic diagram Fuses Transformer H4 Transformer X2 H2 Contactor H1 H3 H2 H4 H3 Contactor A1 A2 A2 A1 X1 X2 H1 X1 Switch Motor T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 Using your AC voltmeter. Although this motor control circuit used to work just ﬁne. today the motor refuses to start.

as well as internal variables if possible. momentary NO contacts Red pushbutton. terminal OUT0 I/O type 24 VDC discrete input 24 VDC discrete input 24 VDC discrete input 4-20 mA analog input 120 VAC discrete output Tagname START PB STOP PB E STOP MTR TEMP CONTACTOR Notes Black pushbutton. your team will be required to develop a complete list of all input and output points on your proposed system along with any tagnames (also known as “symbols” or “nicknames”) identifying the function of each. latching NC contacts Current signal scaled 0 to 150 deg F To terminal A1 107 . terminal IN1 Card 1. you can enter all the tagnames and deﬁne the I/O points as your very ﬁrst programming step. Here is a sample I/O list for a motor control PLC program: Hardware I/O terminal Card 1. terminal IN0 Card 3. terminal IN0 Card 1. before commencing on the development of the program itself. terminal IN2 Card 2. momentary NC contacts Red pushbutton. Once this list is complete and you are ready to begin developing the PLC program. With this data in place.Lab Exercise – developing an I/O list It is a good idea when programming any computer system to ﬁrst identify all the input and output signals to the system. In order to reinforce this practice. the writing of your program will be made easier because each I/O tag you reference will already be deﬁned and labeled. reminding you of their functions within the system.

It is important that the whole team learns all aspects of their system! Building a functioning system should take no more than one full lab session (3 hours) if all components are readily available and the team is working eﬃciently! 108 . All I/O wiring should be neatly loomed together and/or run through wire duct (“Panduit”). Your team’s PLC must be installed in a suitable electrical enclosure. and “racks” set up with 2-inch vertical pipes for mounting instruments. The only wires you should need to install to build a working system are those connecting the ﬁeld instrument to the nearest junction box. Common mistakes: • Neglecting to consult the manufacturer’s documentation for ﬁeld instruments (e. with over a dozen junction boxes. • Students working on portions of the system in isolation. how to wire them. and ﬁrmly grounded (the ground conductor of the power cord securely fastened to the metal frame of the enclosure and the PLC chassis). • Proceeding with wiring before creating an initial sketch of the circuitry and checking that sketch for errors. • Mounting the ﬁeld instrument(s) in awkward positions. Power to I/O cards must be routed through their own fuses so that I/O power may be disconnected independently of power to the PLC processor and rack. making it diﬃcult to reach connection terminals or to remove covers when installed. with AC power fed to it through a fuse or circuit breaker (on the “hot” conductor only).Lab Exercise – wiring the system The Instrumentation lab is set up to facilitate the construction of working systems.g. not sharing with their teammates what they did and how. • Failing to tug on each and every wire where it terminates to ensure a mechanically sound connection. how to calibrate them). and then small “jumper” cables connecting diﬀerent pre-installed cables together within intermediate junction boxes. pre-pulled signal cables.

every terminal block. Forgetting to put your name on the wiring diagram! Basing your diagram oﬀ of a team-mate’s diagram. The principle to keep in mind here is to make the wiring diagram so complete and unambiguous that anyone can follow it to see what connects to what. Forgetting to label all ﬁeld instruments with their own tag names (e. missing labels. call the instructor to do an inspection of the system. following industry-standard conventions. improperly crimped terminals. this is where you will go to ﬁnd a wiring diagram for that system! Common mistakes: • • • • • Forgetting to label all signal wires (see example wiring diagrams). identifying problems such as frayed wires. with the other students checking their diagrams for errors and omissions along the way. When it comes time to troubleshoot another team’s system.g. every cable. control systems are often constructed by contract personnel with limited understanding of how the system is supposed to function. The team must correct all identiﬁed errors in order to receive credit for their system. lack of wire duct covers. each team member needs to place their wiring diagram in the diagram holder located in the middle of the lab behind the main control panel. etc. When your entire team is ﬁnished drafting your individual wiring diagrams. rather than closely inspecting the system for yourself. Here.Lab Exercise – documenting the system Each student must sketch their own wiring diagram for their team’s system. In industry. During this time the instructor will also inspect the quality of the installation. Forgetting to note all wire colors. Creating and inspecting accurate wiring diagrams should take no more than one full lab session (3 hours) if the team is working eﬃciently! 110 . the instructor will have students take turns going through the entire system. The associated diagrams they follow must be so complete that they will be able to connect everything properly without necessarily understanding how it is supposed to work. PSL-83). After successfully passing the inspection. even someone unfamiliar with industrial instrumentation. These wiring diagrams must be comprehensive and detailed. poor cable routing. Sample diagrams for input and output wiring are shown in the next question in this worksheet. etc. showing every connection.

ask the instructor how the system responds if test points are jumpered) while the instructor replies according to how the system would behave if it were faulted.g.Lab questions – (reviewed between instructor and student team in a private session) • • • • • • • Selection and Initial Testing Explain what is meant by the term “sinking” with regard to a PLC input card (DC) Explain what is meant by the term “sourcing” with regard to a PLC input card (DC) Explain what is meant by the term “sinking” with regard to a PLC output card (DC) Explain what is meant by the term “sourcing” with regard to a PLC output card (DC) Explain what a “TRIAC” PLC output card is. tag-out) and also how to safely verify the energy has been isolated prior to commencing work on the system • Demonstrate how to insert text comments for a rung in a PLC program • Demonstrate how to insert text comments for a single bit (contact or coil) in a PLC program • Demonstrate how to switch between online and oﬄine modes in the PLC programming software • Demonstrate how to transfer a program from the PLC to the programming computer (PC) • Demonstrate how to transfer a program from the programming computer (PC) to the PLC • • • • • • Mental math (no calculator allowed!) Convert a binary number into decimal Convert a binary number into hexadecimal Convert a decimal number into binary Convert a hexadecimal number into binary Convert a hexadecimal number into decimal • Diagnostics • “Virtual Troubleshooting” – referencing their system’s diagram(s).g. switch) by examining the status of its corresponding contact instruction in the PLC program (colored versus uncolored) 111 . and how it diﬀers from DC output cards Explain what a “relay” PLC output card is. Students try to determine the nature and location of the fault based on the results of their own diagnostic tests. assuming that card is not hot-swappable • Identify status of a discrete input ﬁeld device (e. ask the instructor what a meter would measure when connected between speciﬁed points. students propose diagnostic tests (e. • Demonstrate how to verify a sinking discrete input’s status using a voltmeter • Demonstrate how to verify a sourcing discrete input’s status using a voltmeter • Demonstrate how to verify a sinking discrete output’s status using a voltmeter • Demonstrate how to verify a sourcing discrete output’s status using a voltmeter • Describe how to replace a failed I/O card in a PLC. and how it diﬀers from sourcing or sinking DC output cards • Commissioning and Documentation • Demonstrate how to isolate potentially hazardous energy in your system (lock-out. assuming that card is hot-swappable • Describe how to replace a failed I/O card in a PLC.

as applicable. I/O type. All terminal blocks properly labeled. All I/O cards and points fully labeled (complete with program addresses).” etc.” “Valve #7”) ﬁle i03655 Question 92 Wiring diagram requirements Perhaps the most important rule to follow when drafting a wiring diagram is your diagram should be complete and detailed enough that even someone who is not a technician could understand where every wire should connect in the system! • Field device symbols • Proper electrical symbols and designations used for all ﬁeld devices. • Optional: Trip settings written next to each process switch.g.” “Valve #7”) 112 . All wires are numbered. • Cables and tubes • Multi-pair cables or pneumatic tube bundles going between junction boxes and/or panels need to have unique numbers (e. “Cable 10”) as well as numbers for each pair (e. “Breaker #5. • Energy sources • All power source intensities labeled (e. All wire colors shown next to each terminal.” “120 VAC. • • • • • • • Connection points All terminals properly labeled.” “480 VAC 3-phase”) • All shutoﬀ points labeled (e. • Model number.” “120 VAC.g. All wire colors shown next to each terminal. “Breaker #5. All control panels shown as distinct sections of the loop diagram.).” “20 PSI”) • All shutoﬀ points labeled (e.Wiring diagram requirements • Wiring diagram • Proper symbols and designations used for all components.g. All electrically-common points in the circuit shall bear the same wire number. • Calibration (input and output ranges) given for each instrument. • • • • • • • Connection points All terminal blocks properly labeled. • Energy sources • All power source intensities labeled (e. “Pair 1. and properly labeled. and properly labeled. and PLC slot number should be shown for each and every card. even if unused in your system. All terminals shown in proper order on diagram.g. All junction (“ﬁeld”) boxes shown as distinct sections of the loop diagram.g. etc. “24 VDC. • PLC I/O cards • All terminals labeled. • Text descriptions • Each instrument documented below (tag number.).g. All terminals on devices labeled as they appear on the device (so that anyone reading the diagram will know which device terminal each wire goes to). • Relay coil and contacts properly named.” “Pair 2. “24 VDC. description.

Field PLC cabinet TB-7 Grn Blu Blu Blu IN2 Blu Blu IN3 IN1 Field junction box JB-28 Cable PSH-10 NC Red Red PSH-10 TB-43 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cable PB-5 Blu Red Blu IN4 Trips @ 35 PSI rising 1 2 Blu IN0 1746-IB8 Discrete input 24VDC sinking Slot 4 Sample Input Wiring Diagram COM Blk Blk PB-5 Reset NO Red 11 12 Gry Org 8 IN5 C Blk Blk 113 IN6 IN7 COM Blk COM Fuse block (1 amp each) Gry Red 1 2 3 24VDC Red Red Red L1 Power supply L2 120 VAC Bkr #3 4 .

Field Trip solenoid PY-3 Cable PY-3 Red Red Blk Blu VAC1 Blu Blu Blu OUT1 OUT0 Field junction box JB-28 TB-44 TB-11 Blk Sample Output Wiring Diagram ﬁle i01880 PLC cabinet 5 1 2 3 Wht Blk Blk 6 4 Blk 1746-OA8 Discrete output 100-240 VAC TRIAC Slot 1 OUT2 OUT3 PAH-20 Alarm lamp Cable PAH-20 Red Red Blk 7 8 Wht VAC2 114 Blk Blk OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 Fuse block (1 amp each) Blk 1 2 3 Wht Blk Blk Blk Blk 120 VAC Bkr #1 Wht .

Note that incorrectly connecting this diode will present a short-circuit to the PLC. properly polarize a commutating diode to prevent inductive kickback from damaging the PLC output. It also tests your ability to program motor start/stop logic using either a seal-in contact or latching (retentive) coil instructions.” which may otherwise damage the transistor output on a PLC. 1N400X rectifying diodes .Question 93 Connect an “ice cube” relay to one of the outputs on a PLC. crimp splices. You will be expected to supply your own screwdrivers and multimeter for assembling and testing the circuit at your desk. you will be asked to sketch a correct ladder-diagram PLC program on paper to implement this function prior to using a computer. You must connect a “commutating” diode in parallel with the relay’s coil to prevent the phenomenon known as “inductive kickback. lengths of hook-up wire. so that the PLC can control the energization of the relay. properly wire a PLC output channel to control a relay’s coil. In order to ensure your program has not been pre-written in your computer prior to this assessment. All electrical connections must be made using a terminal strip (no twisted wires. spring clips. and use a terminal strip to organize all electrical connections. or “alligator” clips permitted). “Start” switch to input: PLC program (instructor chooses): “Stop” switch to input: Seal-in contact Relay to output: Retentive coils ﬁle i00127 115 . Program this PLC to implement a motor start/stop (latching) control function. PLC 24V DC OUT Relay socket I/4 I/5 DC COM I/0 I/1 I/2 I/3 DC COM Terminal strip Relay Power Run Fault Force Diode VAC VDC O/1 VAC VDC O/2 VAC VDC O/3 85-264 VAC L1 L2/N VAC VDC O/0 The following components and materials will be available to you during the exam: assorted “ice cube” relays with DC-rated coils and matching sockets . terminal strips . so you must get it right! This exercise tests your ability to properly interpret the “pinout” of an electromechanical relay. wire nuts.

the contact un-colors and so does the output coil O:0/1.Answer 10 Demonstration program showing some basic bit instructions in an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix PLC: When the switch connected to input 0 is turned on. That color is sent to the coil instruction. the input bit I:0/0 goes from 0 to 1. the input bit I:0/0 goes from 0 to 1. When I turn off input switch 0. O:0/3 turns on only if switch 4 is on and switch 5 is off. This makes the output bit O:0/2 turn off. I:0/0 O:0/1 When the same switch on input 0 is turned on. I:0/4 I:0/5 O:0/3 117 . This program rung makes output O:0/1 be the same state as input I:0/0. energizing the light bulb wired to that output. and this contact becomes un-colored. I:0/0 O:0/2 Placing these two contact instruction in "series" with each other makes it so the coil only gets colored if both of the contacts become colored. where it turns on output bit O:0/1. and this contact becomes colored on my laptop PC’s screen. This makes output channel 1 turn on. so that O:0/2 is always the opposite state of I:0/0.

the "Done" bit (DN) activates.Demonstration program showing an “up” counter instruction in an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix PLC: The CTU instruction is a counter that counts in the "up" direction when its input is toggled. which then resets the CTU instruction’s "Accumulated" value back to zero. When the "Preset" count value reached. passing color to the coil O:0/0 to turn on a light bulb connected to output 0. the contact C5:0/DN becomes colored. Activating the I:0/1 input causes the RES coil to become colored. in this case a special coil instruction sharing the same address as the counter instruction (C5:0). I:0/1 C5:0 RES 118 . I:0/0 CTU Count Up Counter Preset Accum C5:0 12 5 CU DN When the counter C5:0 reaches the "done" condition. C5:0/DN O:0/0 Allen-Bradley counter instructions can only be reset by external commands.

3... the DN coil becomes colored. the contact T4:0/DN becomes colored.2 = 1 • I1. T4:0/DN O:0/0 Answer 11 Answer 12 Bit statuses: • I:0/0 = 1 • I:0/1 = 0 • I:0/2 = 1 Answer 13 Bit statuses: • I0.0 seconds’ worth of time. and T < 88o F 119 . passing color to the coil O:0/0 to turn on a light bulb connected to output 0.2..Demonstration program showing an on-delay timer instruction in an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix PLC: The TON instruction is a timer. If I make the "Time Base" something different.0 means that each count of the "Accum" is 1. The "Time Base" value of 1... When the "Accum" value reaches 5.) whenever the input contact is colored.4. I:0/0 TON Timer On Delay Timer Time Base Preset Accum T4:0 1. the timer will count faster.1 = 0 Answer 14 L > 3 feet..0 5 EN DN When the timer T4:0 reaches the "done" condition.. P > 37 PSI.. Its "Accum" value starts at 0 and counts up (1.

2 I0. Answer 17 All currents shown using conventional flow notation Answer 18 Mtr 120 .1 Q0.6 = = = = = 0 1 0 1 0 Answer 16 Switch statuses: • Switch A = released • Switch B = pressed • Switch C = released The lamp will be energized.Answer 15 • • • • • I0.5 I1.1 Q0.

the contact un-colors and so does the output coil O:0/1. I:0/0 O:0/1 When the same switch on input 0 is turned on. This program rung makes output O:0/1 be the same state as input I:0/0. and this contact becomes colored on my laptop PC’s screen. so that O:0/2 is always the opposite state of I:0/0. That color is sent to the coil instruction. and this contact becomes un-colored. This makes the output bit O:0/2 turn off. I:0/4 I:0/5 O:0/3 Note: your own demonstration program should contain some retentive coil instruction as well.Answer 21 Demonstration program showing some basic bit instructions in an Allen-Bradley MicroLogix PLC: When the switch connected to input 0 is turned on. where it turns on output bit O:0/1. When I turn off input switch 0. the input bit I:0/0 goes from 0 to 1. the input bit I:0/0 goes from 0 to 1. O:0/3 turns on only if switch 4 is on and switch 5 is off. in order for you to be able to observe what these instructions do and how their operation diﬀers from that of “regular” coil instructions! Answer 22 X1 X2 X3 Y1 X2 X1 • Y1 = 1 123 . I:0/0 O:0/2 Placing these two contact instruction in "series" with each other makes it so the coil only gets colored if both of the contacts become colored. energizing the light bulb wired to that output. This makes output channel 1 turn on.

and 6 are ﬂawed. Answer 36 Circuits 3. While the other bad circuits’ lamps do not energize at all. Circuit 1 This circuit will work! Circuit 2 This circuit is bad Circuit 3 This circuit is bad Circuit 4 This circuit is bad Circuit 5 This circuit will work! Circuit 6 This circuit is bad Circuit #3 is diﬀerent from the other “bad” circuits.Answer 34 Answer 35 Remember that a bipolar transistor requires current through the base-emitter junction in order to turn on. 5. Hint: draw the respective paths of switch and lamp current for each circuit! 125 . the lamp in circuit #3 energizes weakly when the pushbutton switch is open (not actuated). because the emitter-base junctions of their transistors are overpowered every time the switch closes. This is due to the fact that lamp current will naturally pass through the base-collector PN junction as though it were a simple diode. regardless of the switch’s state. and thereby let load current pass between collector and emitter.

Answer 37 Contact points 126 .

When the pushbutton switch is actuated.Answer 38 +V +V +V Load NPN Switch sourcing current to transistor Transistor sourcing current to load Switch sinking current from transistor Transistor sinking current from load PNP Load Follow-up question: explain why neither of the following transistor circuits will work. the load remains de-energized: +V +V +V Load Load 127 .