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Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

Corso di Sistemi integrati di Produzione A.A.2004-05
Prof. G. A. Berti
Product cycle revised with CAD/CAM overlaid
Product
concept
Customer
Quality
control
Production
Design
Production
scheduling
Process
planning
Engineering
Computer-aided
quality control
Computer-
aided process
planning
Computer-aided
engineering
Computer-aided
design
Computer-aided
manufacturing
Role of Product Geometry (Geometric Model)
in Integrated Manufacturing
GEOMETRIC
MODEL
CAE
Quality
control
DFMA
Design
CAM
Rapid
Prototyping
Management
databases
(PDM, BOM)
Classification of Geometric Models
Graphical models
2D drafting (1960s)
3D wireframe (1970s)
Surface models (late 1970s)
bicubic
ruled
Bzier
B-splines
NURBS (non uniform rational B-splines)
Solid models (early 1980s)
Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
Boundary representation (B-rep)
(Solid) Parametric/variational/feature-based models (1990s)
Graphical Models
first implementation of a CAD system
CAD was indicating Computer-Aided Drafting (not
design), in early years (1970)
graphical models are based on graphical primitives (line,
arc, cubic, curve, text, symbol)
wireframe representation
3D wireframe is limited
hidden line removal
no interference check
difficult interpretation
Limitations of wireframe representation
Parametric forms for curve/surface models
non parametric or analytical mathematical representations
f(x,y,z)=0 z= f(x,y)
dependent on choice of coordinate system, geometric transformation are
complex, inconvenient representation for computing
curves/surfaces are inherently unbounded and additional constraints are
required
parametric form is used in CAD systems
x=f(u) y=f(u) z= f(u)
separate equation for each coordinate
u is the parametric variable, typically in [0, 1]
Surface (and curve) representations:
bicubic (cubic)
ruled surfaces
Bzier
B-splines
NURBS - non uniform rational B-splines
Ruled surfaces (Info)
generalisation of cylinder
straight lines between two parametric curves, at points
with same parameter value
Bzier curves (Info)
developed by French automotive companies, for
intuitive interactive modelling
approximated curve, defined by control points
tangent at start/end point
( ) ( )

=
=
n
i
n
i i
t B t
0
p x
( ) ( )
i n
i n
i
t t
i
n
t B

= 1
Bzier curves (Info)
Bzier surfaces (Info)
PROBLEM: local modification have global effect
( ) ( ) ( )

= =
=
n
i
m
j
m
j
n
i j i
t B s B t s
0 0
,
, P x
B-splines (Info)
generalisation of Bzier representation
differences:
local modification is possible, without global effect
degree is largerly independentof the number of control points
limit of Bzier and B-splines :
representation of implicit forms (conics, circles...) is not precise
complex alghorithms are required for intersectin of implicit and
parametric forms
rational representation
NURBS (non-uniform rational B-splines) are now very popular
Limits of surface modelling
non-sense design is still possible
no mass and volume properties
no model closure
poor quality of data exchange
problems for CAM & RP
Solid Models
Boundary representation
(B-rep)
Constructive solid
geometry (CSG)
Solid Models
Boundary representation
(B-rep)
Constructive solid
geometry (CSG)
Modelling operations
Parametric/variational modelling
1. topology is defined by solid modelling operations
2. geometric properties and relations to other parts are
defined by geometric constraints
3. automatic generation of a general solution
4. detailed definition of values
Feature-based models
geometric models are a limited represenation of
reality
features
nominal geometry
tolerance geometric features
assembly
mating conditions, relative position and orientation, fits
kinematic relations
funcional
material
material composition, treatments, etc.
Common elements of a solid parametric
1. Sketching Environment
2. Features
Extrusion
Revolution
Sweep
Blend (or loft)
Round (or Fillet)
Chamfer
Hole
3. Model Tree
4. Intelligent Features (Parameters)
5. Ease of Modification
6. Integration/Associativity
8. Datum/Reference Planes
improved visualisation
reduced need for physical prototyping
virtual prototyping is possible
existing designs can be modified and re-used
automatic generation of detailed drafting, assembly
drawing, bill of material, NC part program, etc.
Pro/Engineer ON-LINE
Fondamenti di modellazione solida
www.eng.fiu.edu/cyberlearning/onlinetut/Proetut20/contents.html
N. 15 esercizi di modellazione + assembly
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Example: CNC programming of milling operations,
import CAD model of final part in CAM environment
define initial workpiece geometry
define Machine Tool geometry and coord. system
define tool geometry
define machining strategy and parameters
calculate tool path
simulate machining operations
generate part program