Shame Through Sex Scandals In Politics Fırat Sönmez İ.D. Bilkent University

Although the content of shame changes from culture to culture. the wrong things. not to disclose delicate secrets at the bottom of other souls. the right things. shame automatically progresses as a primary device for keeping the individuals in the borders of moral values. shame appears in the process of socialization. 1943). not to touch sensitive spots. every individual creates “inner” and “outer” identities that stand for self and social identities. As Confucious teaches: “Lead the people with administrative injunctions and put them in their place with penal law. this “cover” process is related to being kept in the borders of moral values. and they will avoid punishments but will be without a sense of shame. Accepting “man” as a social animal or considering the social people. Kurt Riezler tells us: “Sociability presupposes some feeling for the ways of others-the will not to hurt. norms. they will order themselves harmoniously” (Quotes). As individuals get use living in the society. traditional rules and etc. In this process. Each individual becomes part of each other by constructing limits. moral values.” (Riezler. and in addition to developing a sense of shame. not to disparage the things others venerate. Shame appears to cover that inner identity.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 2 SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS Introduction Appearance of Shame in Self-Government In the autonomy of societies. the feeling of shame has a remarkable effect in selfgovernment process through providing or supporting auto-control mechanism for individuals. cultural rules and . Shame appears as the inner life is unconsciously seen by the others. Therefore. the necessities for being social occur for every individual. shame functions in the same way for every society that feels the shame in the same way. As an emotion. Lead them with excellence and put them in their place through roles and ritual practices. they accept norms. In this context.

2013). Karima El Mahroug. shame has a function in self-government in a way to cover “self” and it can be seen in many parts of the society. Silvio Berlusconi: Prostution and Abusing Political Power Shame in the administration of societies controls both the administration itself and the public. The sex scandals also increased the reputation of his name in the world politics. Prostitution. As an administration. shame functioned as to control both Berlusconi and the public. Though he struggled to cover up the sex scandals. He was known as the richest person of Italy and media boss. and public. The sex scandals in politics can be the most common factor in the appearance of shame. he was accused of paying 18 year old nightclub dancer. Adapting to the rules of society provides individuals to cover their inner identity and reveals their social identity to benefit from being social.2 billion dollars and the source is media and self-made (The World's Billionaires. such as administration. In 2011. Therefore.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 3 etc. he earned lots of money from the media and the public opinion is controlled through moral conduct with the feeling of shame. for sex and abusing his political powers to cover up the situation (Hooper. His power is not the only thing that attracted the attention of world public. The last sex scandal was about abusing human rights of a young girl. . Forbes Magazine revealed his wealth as 6. His unpleasant relationships with women were continuously on the agenda of the media. Silvio Berlusconi was one of the political names that are involved in these sex scandals. children abuse or deceptions are some of the sex scandals that are most common in media. 2011). religion.

his name was on the world media and the individuals who are hearing about his actions can just comment or even ashamed. but not physically. . At the same time. In other words. the scandals could be created consciously. because his struggles were just a “cover” process. so that his and the public’s selfgovernment process is supported. which is directly related to shame. as a leader or as a head of administration. his actions can also support the auto-control mechanism of the society. it is a truth that he earned lots of money from these kinds of news.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 4 Shame Through Sex Scandals Autonomy of Berlusconi and Public Berlusconi expectedly denied all the accusations and made fun of the scandal news about this event. Especially. the supporters of Berlusconi could be ashamed of his actions. His appearance in politics is highly damaged with this scandal. His shame was also about his personal appearance. At this point. the sex scandals could have affected his power in a positive way. he was ashamed of his situation and the opinions on him. so that the individuals are still attached to the moral values. Some of the news announcing or covering his sex scandals are the parts of powerful media organizations that are owned by him. Prostitution with underage girl and abusing political powers are directly related to the violation of moral values of at least Italian public. therefore. Either the accusations were right or wrong. so that apart from their feelings about Berlusconi they are more loyal to the social rules. so that his shame was processed as to cover or protect his appearance. the accusation itself was the main reason for Berlusconi’s shame. In this perspective. His shame was both in moral conduct and personal appearance. As the prime minister. On the other hand. his appearance or the public opinion about his appearance was affected. It is seen that in both negative and positive way. Despite the way his name was known. his appearance refers to his stance in politics and in the eyes of Italian public. Berlusconi’s sex scandals made his and public’s shame appeared.

Charles Darwin’s observations will be helpful to analyze the body response. In his situation. which prepares a ground for appearance of shame.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 5 Shame Through Moral Conduct: Prostitution and Exploitation Prostitution is a violation of moral values. In this view. The commodification of women is a violating act. It can be defined as nonreproductive sexual relationship with payment. if the prostitution includes a known person like a role model for society or a part of administration. the public response increases even more. because the personalities that have power to control public opinion can directly change public opinion in this type of situations. because they cannot have sexual relationship with many men without marriage and this relationship is nonreproductive. He . from a desire to raise biological children). because the situation will also implicate a higher degree violating act called as child abuse. Scientifically. the person conceals his/her inner identity from the gaze of other people. marriage is commonly a moral value. In many societies. the public response could be at its peak. Korn and Edlund stated that “A central feature of our argument is that prostitution compromises female marriage market prospects. and therefore prostitution is the violating act against this value. women are seen as the carriers of men’s children. In this point of view. Hence. the first thing against this kind of accusation would expectedly be denial. Berlusconi’s situation can be highly regarded as public violating act that has enough power to take very large number of people’s attention. but he was affected in a way that his name was known as child abuser. because the spiritual value of woman is significant in public opinion. prostitution and marriage are largely incompatible for a woman” (Korn & Edlund. When prostitution occurs with underage girls. It rests on the assumption that men prefer their wives to be faithful (for instance. The accusation can be wrong itself. because social identities of these people are Therefore. shame appears automatically to cover or to preserve his identity against the accusation. 2002). the women cannot work as prostitutes. Further. At this point.

The thing that concerns Berlusconi is the public opinion. Any effect to this structure will make shame appear. Moral conduct acts as auto-control mechanism for preserving the structure of public opinion. even joking about how unlikely it is that a man his age would be capable of the sexual feats some have claimed. not his own moral understanding. According to CNN news. As a prime minister. Appearance of shame through moral conduct leads to self attention and thinking what others think causes people to be ashamed. “Berlusconi has repeatedly denied all of the allegations.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 6 asserts that “Under a keen sense of shame there is a strong desire for concealment. which is prostitution with underage girl. so public opinion triggers Berlusconi’s shame to control his actions and Berlusconi’s actions triggers public’s shame to keep public in the borders of moral values. 2011). . he needs to preserve moral values and act in this way to preserve his identity. the person conceals that violating act and his appearance showing shame. This is because that if person cannot hide that he/she is hiding something. His endeavors like joking and repeatedly denials in hiding something take the public attention to the content.” (Darwin.” (Messia. Thus. the content of what is hidden will take attention. 1969).” and “As there generally exists at the same time a strong wish to avoid the appearance of shame.

which is a violating act against the moral value. Therefore. the administration should be away from the prostitution. covering up the inner identity. The woman’s place in the societies in the men’s view prevents women to work as prostitutes and therefore prostitution is against the public opinion.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 7 Conclusion To conclude. In the context of prostitution. . public and the administration act against moral value and they are ashamed in a way that they both maintain their autonomy. As a representation of public. The sex scandals in politics can be a way for shame to appear. shame directly affects the auto-control mechanism of both sides. His struggle is the representation of shame. Silvio Berlusconi’s name is involved in prostitution and he struggled to cover up this accusation and to preserve his identity. because of this situation public’s opinion about Berlusconi changes. appearance of shame in politics affects both the administration and the public in a way to maintain self-government by referring to the definition of shame. This appearance is for both the administration and the public. However. so public is also ashamed for having this administration.

sex. (1969). html adresinden alınmıştır Quotes. 5 2. (2011. 8 25). 2013 tarihinde alındı Korn.Modesty: Blushing..Shyness. American Journal of Sociology. Guardian. L. The Berlusconi sex scandal explained. Messia. (2011. C. 3). 185-186. CNN: http://edition. (2013.cnn. 2). s.SHAME THROUGH SEX SCANDALS IN POLITICS 8 References Darwin. C.goodreads. 2 15). Good Reads: http://www. The Expression of The Emotions In Man and Animals (s.explained/index. 5 adresinden alındı . Chicago Journals. 320-321). (2002. Self Attention. & Edlund. 2013 tarihinde Forbes: adresinden alınmıştır Riezler. H. J. Darwin içinde. 457465. E. (1943). K. A Theory of Prostitution.Shame.forbes.scandal. (tarih yok). Comment on the Social Psychology of Shame. Iowa: Courtesy of the Meredith. The World's Billionaires.