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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

Overview
This scheme of work provides ideas about how to construct and deliver a course. The 2013 syllabus has been broken down into teaching units with suggested teaching activities and learning resources to use in the classroom. Recommended prior learning Candidates beginning this course are not expected to have studied Computer Studies or ICT previously. Outline Syllabus ref Section 1.1 Unit 1 Unit title The range and scope of computer applications Outline of unit Develop knowledge and understanding of a wide variety of computer applications, including communication and information systems, online services, remote databases, commercial and general data processing, industrial, technical and scientific uses, monitoring and control systems, automation and robotics, expert systems, education and training, entertainment and uses of the internet. Consider a standard list of relevant aspects for each computer application studied, in order to be able to comment sensibly on any suggested application and make use of specific relevant examples for illustration. Section 1.2 2 The social and economic implications of the use of computers Review the applications studied in Unit 1 to gain a broad knowledge of the economic reasons for, consequences of, and health and safety aspects of the use of computerised systems; changes in employment and re-training; privacy and integrity of data; data protection legislation; hacking and other computer crime; computer viruses; internet security and usage; security and reliability, including consequences of system failure. Develop critical abilities in balancing the benefits and drawbacks of a computerised system to formulate a reasoned view of the potential effects of any suggested application or development.

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Syllabus ref Section 2

Unit 3

Unit title System life cycle

Outline of unit Principles of the system life cycle, including aspects of analysis (including fact finding methods and feasibility study), design, implementation (building), testing, documentation, methods of changeover, evaluation and maintenance, including the use of system flowcharts and dataflow diagrams to describe existing and proposed systems. This is achieved partly through the study of computer applications, in particular the methods by which a problem has been analysed to lead to a successful solution for the user, and partly through practical work.

Section 3.1

Algorithm design and testing

Defining the scope of separate modules, designing algorithms that relate clearly to the requirements of the system and identifying hardware needs arising from the required output. The use of structure diagrams for top-down design, program flowcharts and libraries of subroutines. Using dry runs and trace tables to work out the purpose of an algorithm, suggesting and using suitable test data and identifying and correcting errors in algorithms. Study of these topics can be illustrated by case studies of existing solutions to problems and reinforced through practical work.

Section 3.2

Programming concepts

The concepts of sequence, selection and repetition. Input, output, totalling and counting in pseudocode and structured pseudocode for iteration (repetition) and selection. Writing an algorithm in pseudocode and identifying and correcting errors in pseudocode. Low-level languages, reasons for their use and their need to be translated by an assembler. High-level languages, reasons for their use and their need to be translated by a compiler or interpreter.

Section 3.3 Section 4.1

6 7

Logic gates and circuits Generic software

Truth tables and symbols for two-input NOT, AND, OR, NAND and NOR logic gates. Truth tables for given logic circuits with a maximum of 3 inputs and 6 gates. Production of a simple logic circuit from a written design brief. Typical features of, and uses for, generic application software for word processing, database management, spreadsheets, graphics, communications, multimedia, data-logging, CAD, programming, desktop publishing and web design. Customisation of generic application software by the use of macros. The advantages and disadvantages of generic application software compared with bespoke software.

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Syllabus ref Section 4.2

Unit 8

Unit title Organisation of data

Outline of unit The relationship between information and data; methods of data collection, encoding and preparation; appropriate methods of ensuring the correctness of data (including validation and verification); the presentation of useful information from processed data; methods of automatic data capture; analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue conversion. File organisation: different forms of organisation and storage medium, depending on the data stored and the requirements for processing; sequential file processing and processing individual records by means of record keys; sorting and merging; methods of processing and file maintenance. Data types: numbers, characters, strings, arrays and the need for different data types and structures to represent the data for a particular application.

Section 5.1

Hardware

The main hardware components of a computer. Different types of computer and classes of processor power. The characteristics and uses of different types of input and output device. Different types of internal memory and backing storage and their uses. The capabilities of modern mobile phones.

Section 5.2

10

Operating systems

The nature of batch, online, multi-access, real-time transaction processing, multitasking, network and process-control operating systems. Types of interface between the operating system and the user. How folders are structured and how folders and files can be managed. Peripheral control, including the use of buffers, interrupts and priorities, polling, handshaking and checksums. Different types of system: batch processing, interactive, network, control, automated and multimedia. Requirements to support various types of computer system. The most suitable type of computer system for a given application. Problems in the management of the various types of computer system, such as conflicting access to common data or critical timing considerations.

Section 5.3

11

Types of system

Pages 67 and 3240. Pages 78 and Section 6

12

either Coursework (Paper 2) or Alternative to Coursework (Paper 3)

A single piece of coursework of a complex nature, involving the use of a computer to solve a specific problem, to be carried out over an extended period. Enables candidates to use their skills and experience gained during the course to analyse, design, implement, test, document and evaluate the solution to the problem. A written paper containing short-answer and structured questions that refer to a given scenario describing a manual (usually paper-based) system and its proposed replacement by a computer-based system. There is no choice of questions. The topics covered are similar to the skills required for Paper 2.

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Teaching order Unit 1 should be taught before Unit 2. Unit 3 should be taught before Unit 4. Units 3 and 4 should be taught before Unit 5. Units 1 and 10 should be taught before Unit 11. Units 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 should be taught before Unit 12 or alongside appropriate sections of it. With these provisos, the 12 units could be taught in any order, and taught sequentially or concurrently, depending on the resources available and the preferences of the teachers involved. Teacher support The up-to-date resource list for this syllabus can be found on the University of Cambridge International Examinations website www.cie.org.uk. In addition, the password-protected Teacher Support website at http://teachers.cie.org.uk provides access to specimen and past question papers, mark schemes and other support materials. We offer online and face-to-face training; details of forthcoming training opportunities are posted on the website. Resources Leadbetter C, Wainwright S, Stinchcombe A. Cambridge IGCSE Computer Studies Coursebook with CD-ROM Cambridge University Press, UK 2011 ISBN 9780521170635 (referred to as LWS coursebook in the scheme of work learning resource column). The following are reliable websites. Specific sections of some of these have been cited in the schemes of work for individual units. Please be aware that: terminology is not necessarily uniform between different resources, especially if a resource was originally written for an ICT syllabus, or a syllabus with a different exam board; a link that was valid at the time of writing can easily become invalid. URL http://apps.dataharvest.co.uk/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=2_21_8&products_id=9 Notes A demonstration version of control software that can be used with both graphical simulations (Animated Control Environments) and real control applications with the addition of suitable control interfaces. Simple JavaScript simulation of a washing machine. Open Office, open source productivity suite, similar to Microsoft Office, available for multiple platforms. Recorded macros are quite hard to modify.

http://atomicinternet.homeip.net/xtra/washer/ http://download.openoffice.org/

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URL http://education.mit.edu/starlogo/

Notes StarLogo, MITs free, agent-based simulation language. Has a 2-D version, OpenStarLogo and a 3-D version, StarLogo TNG. Free, editable encyclopaedia. Often a good source of up-todate information, although the quality of the articles is variable. Links to notes for GCSE Computing (OCR syllabus). Blog offering commentary on the Cambridge IGSCE Computer Studies syllabus and coursebook published by Cambridge University Press, including analyses of Paper 1 and 3 past papers by topic. Scratch, a free programming language that lets you create your own interactive stories, animations, games, music, and art. Open Workbench, free project management program for Windows. Enables students to get a feel for producing project management diagrams such as Gantt charts and PERT charts using software. RAPTOR, free program flowchart interpreter software that allows students to draw a flowchart and check its functioning by executing it. Sketchup, free CAD program. Cambridge online forum for teachers to discuss teaching and administration for this syllabus. Account needed to access see next item.

http://en.wikipedia.org/

http://gcsecomputing.org.uk/ http://igcsecs.blogspot.com/

http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Scratch_1.4_Download

http://open-workbench.en.softonic.com/

http://raptor.martincarlisle.com/

http://sketchup.google.com/ http://teachers.cie.org.uk/community/forum/forums/show/610.page

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URL http://teachers.cie.org.uk/qualifications/academic/middlesec/igcse/subject?assdef_id=844

Notes Cambridge Teacher Support website for this syllabus containing more than the public website: a wider selection of syllabus materials, including past exam papers and mark schemes; teaching materials, including the teachers forum, this scheme of work and support booklets; the resource list. You need an account to access the Cambridge Teacher Support website. If you do not have an account, see http://teachers.cie.org.uk/help_faqs/faqs/pre_login/#answer0. Support booklets (one per section of the syllabus) containing notes on the content and practice problems, with answers in a separate booklet. Indonesian website reporting global computing news in English and Bahasa. Article that compares interrupts with polling. Activities, revision and tests for ICT. Revision and tests for Scottish Standard Grade Computing Studies. Snake Wrangling for Kids, a free, printable electronic book that covers the basics of programming in Python 3. Interactive tuition package for ICT with clear detailed pages. www.cedar.u-net.com/demo4/demox.htm has a link to the demo version www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm, which provides free access to 40% of the available material. Hint: search for terms in the singular. Website reporting computing news from North India. United Arab Emirates website reporting computing news from the Middle East. UK website reporting daily news from the computing industry.

http://teachers.cie.org.uk/qualifications/academic/middlesec/igcse/subject/?assdef_id=844&view= tmlst www.antaranews.com/en/science www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue149/60_Interrupts_made_easy.php www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/standard/computing/ www.briggs.net.nz/log/writing/snake-wrangling-for-kids/ www.cedar.u-net.com/

www.computernews.in/ www.computernewsme.com/ www.computerweekly.com/

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URL www.computingatschool.org.uk/

Notes UK-based organisation that promotes the teaching of Computing in schools worldwide, particularly those in the UK education system. As part of its support to teachers offering this syllabus as Cambridge Teachers, University of Cambridge International Examinations encourages teachers in the UK and overseas to apply for free membership, which gives access to a forum and a wiki for sharing enthusiasm, experience and ideas. Roller coaster applet. GIMP, open source graphics program for a variety of operating systems. It differs from many other programs in the way that a selected graphical object is moved and each text box is its own layer. Descriptions and demonstrations. Information about the UKs Data Protection Act for organisations that control other peoples personal data. Links to teaching topics and downloads for Computer Studies, IT & ICT, including a coursework guide for this syllabus. Applet simulating of manual control of nuclear power station. Links to illustrated notes and resources for Cambridge IGCSE ICT. Website reporting IT news from Africa. A demonstration expert system program written with a rule engine called Jess. This expert system plays a simple game called Sticks. A free version of the BASIC programming language. Help requires download in Windows Vista and 7 and does not include the tutorial mentioned in the Welcome screen.

www.funderstanding.com/coaster www.gimp.org/downloads/

www.howstuffworks.com/search.php www.ico.gov.uk/for_organisations/data_protection/the_guide.aspx www.ictgcse.net/

www.ida.liu.se/~her/npp/demo.html www.igcseict.info/ www.itedgenews.com/ www.jessrules.com/jessdemo/

www.justbasic.com/download.html

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URL www.kids-online.net/learn/c_n_l.html www.logiccircuit.org/ www.mathplayground.com/mathprogramming.html www.mstracey.btinternet.co.uk/pictutorial/picmain.htm

Notes The parts of a computer. Free program for drawing and simulating logic circuits. Applet for programming a turtle in Logo. Tutorial on programming a microcontroller, illustrating the suitability of assembly language for dealing with input and output devices. Demo version of a roller coaster design application and simulator. A free teachers course in the Python programming language. Prerequisite resources: www.pythonsummerschool.net/get_ready.php. Download a 30-day trial of music notation software. A tutorial on how to draw structure diagrams using SmartDraw, of which a free, trial version is available. Links to teaching and revision topics for GCSE Computing (OCR syllabus). Some GCSE, AS and A2 ICT parts of the same site also have useful material. Animated depiction of the control of oxygen level in a fish tank. Examples of an approach to pseudocode that is very close to plain English. A searchable UK IT news website. Flash simulation of the operation of a data logger. Website includes video on training workers to work in a hazardous environment. Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) 8

www.nolimitscoaster.com/Download/download.html www.pythonsummerschool.net/course.php

www.sibelius.com/cgi-bin/download/get.pl?com=sh&prod=first www.smartdraw.com/resources/tutorials/#/resources/tutorials/Entity-Structure-Diagrams www.teach-ict.com/gcse_computing.html

www.tes.co.uk/ResourceDetail.aspx?storyCode=6048963 www.unf.edu/~broggio/cop2221/2221pseu.htm www.v3.co.uk/search www.valiant-technology.com/archive/freebies/cdsamples/datalogger/logger.swf www.virtualrealitytrainingsystem.com/

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URL www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I8Raa9XH4Y www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3szimINR48 University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Notes Animation of a robot manipulator. A high-quality, animated, architectural fly through.

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 1: The range and scope of computer applications
Recommended prior knowledge Students can start this unit with little basic knowledge of computer systems. Often different students will have varying levels of knowledge; this unit starts with revision of basic ideas for some and an introduction to basics for others. Context This unit is preparation for Unit 2. For both of these units, Computer Studies Support Booklet - Part 1 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31796.pdf) provides notes on section 1 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet - Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Develop knowledge and understanding of a wide variety of computer applications, including communication and information systems, online services, remote databases, commercial and general data processing, industrial, technical and scientific uses, monitoring and control systems, automation and robotics, expert systems, education and training, entertainment and uses of the internet. Consider a standard list of relevant aspects for each computer application studied, in order to be able to comment sensibly on any suggested application and make use of specific relevant examples for illustration. Syllabus ref 1.1.1 Learning objectives An awareness of the range and nature of a variety of computing applications in the following areas: Suggested teaching activities Students need to consider the following list of relevant aspects for each computer application studied. For students who like tables, these could form column headings in landscape view. The purpose of the application The required outcome The overall system design, including both the computerised and the non-computerised parts of the application The necessary inputs to the system and the means by which any data is captured The overall organisation and processing of the data within the system The use and organisation of the major software and hardware components of the system The need for recovery in the event of a system failure The interface between the system and its users Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Learning resources LWS coursebook (see overview page for complete title) p. 150

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Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities The effectiveness of the system in practice The effects of the application on individuals and organisations If students have not already done so, they need to develop efficient internet research skills, including searching: for one or more short phrases by type of site, for example: .eg, .ac.uk, .edu within a single site, for example: search engine site:teach-ict.com/gcse by file type for text within a found resource, usually with Ctrl+F.

Learning resources

1.1.9

1.1.2

Communication and information systems, online services, remote databases

In considering these topics, select examples from: electronic mail (email) video-conferencing (e.g. the reasons for increased use in recent years, hardware and software requirements, positive environmental aspects of such systems) digital telephone facilities (e.g. internet access from mobile phones and non-internet information services via SMS and recorded voice messages) information retrieval and database systems (link this with practical work on section 4.1) office automation (e.g. use of word processors, electronic filing, databases, the need to learn new skills) library systems (e.g. files containing book details and borrowers details, automatic reminders, use of barcodes to track books and identify customers) multimedia (e.g. use of sound, animation and video to help in education/training, producing presentations) e-commerce (e.g. online banking, credit card purchases) wireless technology (e.g. security aspects, allows no trailing wires) broadband versus dial-up modems virtual reality applications (how to interface with VR, applications and advantages in design, education, games, simulations, etc). Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above.

Google Search: www.google.com/advanced_search www.google.com/advanced_image_search Google: More search help: www.google.com/support/websearch/bin/static.py?page=g uide.cs&guide=1221265&answer=136861 Google: Search results options: www.google.com/support/websearch/bin/static.py?page=g uide.cs&guide=1221265&answer=142143 LWS coursebook pp. 15060, 1636 and 1703 www.teachict.com/gcse_new/being_online/ecommerce/home_ecom merce.htm Posters, theory notes, activities and quizzes for ecommerce CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher has: simple example of video conferencing introduction a library system introduction to e-commerce introduction to virtual reality Search www.youtube.com/ for walk-through CAD or fly-through CAD For example: www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3szimINR48 A high-quality, animated, architectural fly through www.funderstanding.com/coaster Roller coaster applet www.nolimitscoaster.com/Download/download.html Demo version of a roller coaster design application and simulator

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Syllabus ref 1.1.3

Learning objectives Commercial and general data processing

Suggested teaching activities In considering these topics, select examples from: banking systems (e.g. cheque processing, updating of accounts, stages that occur when purchases are made using a bank account) hospitals (e.g. patient records, need to update records regularly, hospital administration) personnel records (e.g. what would be stored, use of databases, need to keep up-to-date, how these link into other areas such as payroll) automatic stock control (e.g. use of barcodes at POS in supermarket stock control) order processing (including manual versus automatic systems).

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 1612 and 16670 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher has an introduction to stock control and order processing www.teachict.com/gcse_new/organisations/banking/home_banking.h tm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for banking www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm Search for banking www.teachict.com/gcse_new/organisations/hospitals/home_hospitals .htm Theory notes and activities for hospitals www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/supermarkets/student/shome_superm arket.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for supermarkets LWS coursebook pp. 1739 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher has introductions to: weather forecasting CAD/CAM modelling www.teachict.com/gcse/software/cadcam/students/shome_cadcam.h tm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for CAD/CAM www.teach3

Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above.

1.1.4

Industrial, technical and scientific uses

In considering these topics, select examples from: weather forecasting (e.g. how data is gathered and processed, how information is conveyed, predictions based on new data and existing data) computer aided design (e.g. features of CAD, banks of parts, ability to do costings, applications such as electronic circuit design) simulation and modelling (e.g. how data is gathered for a model, how predictions are made, why modelling is done, use of the model in applying to real applications such as traffic lights, queues in supermarkets, chemical reactions) use of virtual reality (e.g. designing new chemical/nuclear plants, ability to see inside plants using special devices, safety applications) training (e.g. airline pilots advantages of doing this, what hardware is used, why training simulators are used).

Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above. v1 2Y05 Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources ict.com/gcse/software/simulation/student/shome_mod&si m.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for modelling and simulation LWS coursebook pp. 17984 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher has introductions to: monitoring of hospital patients process control www.tes.co.uk/ResourceDetail.aspx?storyCode=6048963 Animated depiction of the control of oxygen level in a fish tank www.ida.liu.se/~her/npp/demo.html Applet simulating of manual control of nuclear power station http://apps.dataharvest.co.uk/index.php?main_page=prod uct_info&cPath=2_21_8&products_id=9 Demonstration version of control software that can be used with both graphical simulations (Animated Control Environments) and real control applications with the addition of suitable control interfaces.

1.1.5

Monitoring and control systems

Introduce by explaining the distinction between: monitoring, in which system acquires data at intervals from sensors and, where necessary, analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs) and software processes the input data to provide the user with information for monitoring physical or chemical quantities (such as temperature, flow rate or oxygen concentration) and warning signals if stored limits are exceeded, and control, in which input data may also be used as feedback from a system being controlled so that software can compare feedback with stored set-points or upper and lower limits to decisions about the outputs required to, where necessary, digital-to-analogue converters (DACs) and actuators, such as heaters or motorised valves see also 5.3.4.

In considering these topics, select examples from: monitoring hospital patients (how equipment monitors vital signs, how the system knows when to notify doctors) chemical/nuclear plants (using sensors to monitor and control the plants, what is monitored, how plant status is relayed to operators, why plants are controlled by computers) traffic control (how models/simulators are used to set traffic light timings, types of sensors used to gather data, how system decides timing of lights).

1.1.6

Automation and robotics

Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above. Introduce by explaining the distinction between: a control system (as considered in 1.1.5) and an automated system dedicated to controlling an appliance, with limited analysis of data and user interaction see also 5.3.5. In considering these topics, select examples from: domestic equipment (e.g. use of microprocessors to control microwave ovens, intelligent cookers that use barcodes to automatically set cooking times/temperatures) navigation systems (e.g. satellite navigation used in ships, aeroplanes

LWS coursebook pp. 18594 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher has examples of embedded systems http://atomicinternet.homeip.net/xtra/washer/ Simple JavaScript simulation of a washing machine www.teach4

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Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities and cars using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), of which GPS is currently the best-known example, directions given by voice synthesis, benefits and drawbacks of these systems) industrial robots (e.g. in car manufacturing and other automated processes, advantages in terms of quality control and the environment, effects on workforce) use of CCTV (e.g. cameras used in surveillance, automatic warning of intruders, use of sensors to control camera).

Learning resources ict.com/gcse/software/robotics/students/shome_robotics.h tm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for robotics www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I8Raa9XH4Y Animation of a robot manipulator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_robot Very detailed site; good for extension work LWS coursebook pp. 1948 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes notes on an expert system in medical diagnosis www.jessrules.com/jessdemo/ A demonstration expert system program, which plays a simple game called Sticks, written with a rule engine called Jess

1.1.7

Expert systems

Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above. Introduce by explaining: the benefits of expert systems and the creation of each expert system from knowledge base, rule base, inference engine and human-machine interface.

In considering applications of expert systems, select examples from: mineral prospecting medical diagnosis diagnostics (e.g. car engines, electronic devices). Note that an expert system is not usually regarded as an instance of artificial intelligence unless it is capable of learning from its mistakes. Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above.

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AO 1.1.8

Learning objectives Education and training, entertainment

Suggested teaching activities In considering these topics, select examples from: computer-based learning (e.g. interactive learning and assessment) applications in music (e.g. how music is composed and generated using computers, teaching how to play musical instruments through computer systems/electronic interfaces) computer graphics in animation for TV and film (e.g. how cartoons/ animation is produced, special effects, synchronising speech with animation, superimposing humans into cartoons) virtual reality in training (e.g. use in dentistry, learning to operate chemical/nuclear plants). Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above.

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 198203 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes an example of CAL www.sibelius.com/cgibin/download/get.pl?com=sh&prod=first Download a 30-day trial of music notation software www.virtualrealitytrainingsystem.com/ Site includes video on training workers to work in a hazardous environment LWS coursebook pp. 20311 www.teachict.com/gcse_new/software/web_design/home_web_ design.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for web design www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/protectingdata/student/shome_pr otectdata.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for security www.teachict.com/gcse_new/internet/intranet_extranet/miniweb/ pg2.htm Theory note on intranets

1.1.9

Use of the internet

In considering applications of the internet, select examples from: designing internet sites (e.g. web page features customers expect to see when ordering online, obtaining information, online banking and ecommerce) use of search engines (e.g. how to refine your searches, features of search engines) see following 1.1.1 above security (e.g. how credit card protection features are built in (e.g. encryption, use of smart card slots in keyboards), peoples fear of the internet) society (e.g. affects on society of using internet-based shopping, information retrieval and education systems) other applications (e.g. ability to use live satellite maps, interactive maps that combine traditional maps with satellite images, other modern applications) use of intranets (e.g. many large companies adopt intranets as well as internet access, the differences between intranets and the internet). Consider the list of relevant aspects in 1.1.1 above.

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 2: The social and economic implications of the use of computers
Recommended prior knowledge Students need to have studied Unit 1 The range and scope of computer applications before beginning this unit. Context This unit builds on the work done in Unit 1 and looks at the effects of using a range of computer applications. The unit could be taught directly after Unit 1 or later in the course to review and extend the work. For both units, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 1 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31796.pdf) provides notes on section 1 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Review the applications studied in Unit 1 to gain a broad knowledge of the economic reasons for, consequences of, and health and safety aspects of the use of computerised systems; changes in employment and re-training; privacy and integrity of data; data protection legislation; hacking and other computer crime; computer viruses; internet security and usage; security and reliability, including consequences of system failure. Develop critical abilities in balancing the benefits and drawbacks of a computerised system to formulate a reasoned view of the potential effects of any suggested application or development. Syllabus ref 1.2.1 Learning objectives Social and economic effects on people and organisations associated directly with the application, on other individuals and organisations, and on society in general Suggested teaching activities Through case studies such as banking, shopping or manufacturing, drawn from the applications studied in Unit 1, students identify advantages and disadvantages of the use of those applications and their impact on society, including: de-skilling brought about through the replacement of skilled and semiskilled labour by microprocessor-controlled systems in manufacturing ability to site operations anywhere in the world, e.g. call centres, online retailing, design services benefits to unions and to management of new technology agreements leading to greater productivity and better working conditions economic reasons for using computerised systems changes to existing methods and services and the changes to the Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 21620 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes identification of advantages and disadvantages of a hospital control system www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/social/student/shome_society.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes for social effects www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/implications/2wor kpatternsrev3.shtml Better quality products 1

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Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities working environment because computerised systems are used health and safety aspects of using computers in the workplace.

Learning resources www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/implications/2wor kpatternsrev4.shtml Effects of e-commerce on businesses www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm Search for: banking and select an article on reasons for computerising it health safety LWS coursebook pp. 2179, 221 www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/implications/2wor kpatternsrev1.shtml Introduction to changes in work patterns CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes advantages of CAL LWS coursebook pp. 221223 www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/databases/6datas ecurityrev1.shtml Introduction to data security www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm Search for security CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes details of methods of system security www.teachict.com/news/news_stories/news_dataloss.htm News articles on data loss LWS coursebook pp. 2245 www.ico.gov.uk/for_organisations/data_protection/the_gui de.aspx Information about the UKs Data Protection Act written for 2

1.2.2

Changes in employment, retraining

Through case studies such as banking, handling and producing documents in offices, or manufacturing, drawn from the applications studied in Unit 1, students identify: re-training needs for staff as computerised systems are introduced and upgraded opportunities for, and benefits of, the use of multimedia training packages for individual use on CD-ROM or DVD. Students identify methods required to ensure data are protected from: hackers (e.g. by passwords, firewalls) and from corruption or loss.

1.2.3

Privacy and integrity of data

1.2.4

Data protection legislation

Students identify the features expected in a data protection act, such as data must be obtained lawfully, data must be accurate and data must be kept up-to-date. They can usefully compare these with the features of the data protection law in their own country.

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources organisations that control other peoples personal data (includes a link to a 92-page downloadable Guide to Data Protection, of which Part C is most useful) LWS coursebook pp. 2234 www.v3.co.uk/search Search this UK IT news website for articles on outage (system failure), air traffic control, power station, etc.

1.2.5

Security and reliability; the consequences of system failure

Introduce the varying requirements for security and reliability using contrasting examples. For example, a system failure during a batch update of a sequential master file is irritating and will cause delay, whereas a failure in an air traffic control system could well have catastrophic results. Other examples could be drawn from case studies, such as control of chemical/nuclear plant or monitoring of patients in a hospital. Introduce the idea of computer crime: includes activities such as the cracking of ineffective security systems in order to gain unauthorised access (commonly known as hacking) to commercially sensitive or confidential personal files and fraud through the improper transfer of funds from one account to another computer criminals may work within the organisation or may be outsiders measures taken to combat computer crime include physical security, development of complex security codes and systems, encryption of sensitive data, and monitoring of all attempts to access the system, whether successful or not security systems include the use of smart cards that are slotted into the side of a keyboard and prevent access unless the PIN typed in matches the one stored on the chip and other electronic devices (e.g. passports and security passes contain a chip and/or loop circuit recognised by an electronic reading device). Students identify: what is included in the term malware, of which virus is one type the effects of malware, including viruses, on a computer system how to guard against malware, including viruses (e.g. use of appropriate anti-virus software, firewalls).

1.2.6

Hacking and other computer crime

LWS coursebook pp. 2257 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes computer crime www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm Search for security measure

1.2.7

Computer viruses

LWS coursebook pp. 2279 www.howstuffworks.com/search.php Search for malware www.teach-ict.com/news/news_stories/news_virus.htm News articles on malware www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/virus/student/shome_virus.htm Viruses

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/topics/safety-and-privacy/safetyonline/ A collection of articles including guarding against malware LWS coursebook pp. 2306 www.teach-ict.com/gcse/theory/internet/miniweb/pg8.htm Issues with the internet www.howstuffworks.com/search.php Search for spam, spyware, cookies, phishing, wikis, social network, blog, media sharing, web browser, ISP, podcast, stream file

1.2.8

Internet security and usage

Students identify: potential problems with internet use, for example: malware, including viruses hacking spam spyware cookies phishing pharming developments in the use of the internet, for example: wikis social networking blogs digital media sharing websites web browsers ISPs tagging podcasts bit streaming

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 3: System life cycle
Recommended prior knowledge It would be helpful if students had studied Unit 1 before starting this unit. Context Students need to study this unit before Units 4 and 5 and relevant sections of it before or alongside the corresponding sections of Unit 12. For this unit, Computer Studies Support Booklet - Part 2 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31797.pdf) provides notes on section 2 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet - Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Principles of the system life cycle, including aspects of analysis (including fact finding methods and feasibility study), design, implementation (building), testing, documentation, methods of changeover, evaluation and maintenance, including the use of system flowcharts and dataflow diagrams to describe existing and proposed systems. This is achieved partly through the study of computer applications, in particular the methods by which a problem has been analysed to lead to a successful solution for the user, and partly through practical work. Syllabus ref 2 Learning objectives Introduction Suggested teaching activities Students need to examine a variety of problems and their solutions, in order to learn what is required at each stage of the system life cycle and the appropriate types of diagram. A relatively simple problem would enable students to focus on a feasibility study and analysis stage. For example, how to replace a paper-based record of pocket money and expenditure with a computerised solution, including: 1. Identifying and describing the problem (a spreadsheet to keep a check on students pocket money, expenditure and possible savings). 2. Stating objectives (computerised system that is given data on income and expenditure and automatically calculates the balance). 3. Identifying flows of data (with a dataflow diagram) and how data are entered into system and processed to produce output on paper (with a system flowchart). 4. Describing and evaluating the existing, paper-based solution (need to calculate manually or use a calculator, which makes it difficult to use Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 11725 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes a basic introduction to the Analysis stage www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/syslifecycle/student/shome_slc.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes the first four sections of the theory provide a more in-depth look

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities what if scenarios for predictions, but is cheap and simple to use). 5. Describing and evaluating alternative solutions (e.g. off-the-shelf, spreadsheet software to do the calculations automatically would this be an appropriate solution?). More complex examples from commerce and industry would enable students to progress to later stages. For example, how to replace a paper-based stock control system in a supermarket with an automatic system for calculating stock levels and automatically re-ordering, including: 1. Analysis of old, paper-based system, with appropriate diagrams. 2. Design choice of hardware for reading barcodes, numbers of checkouts required (using simulations of queues) and appropriate software and processing, with appropriate diagrams. 3. Testing (types of data required). 4. Documentation (contents of user guide and technical documentation). 5. Changeover (pilot changeover probably best in this case study). 6. Evaluation (what needs to be evaluated and when). 7. Maintenance (possible types required). Students need to identify the methods used in fact finding (and which method is appropriate for an application). Students need to identify what is involved in a feasibility study. Students need to identify what is involved in the analysis stage and learn to use appropriate diagrams, such as a dataflow diagram or system flowchart. Students need to: distinguish between design (detailed planning) and implementation (building) note that this distinction is blurred by the common practice of referring to programs for building or authoring websites as web design software learn that appropriate diagrams, such as a Gantt or PERT chart, dataflow diagram, system flowchart, structure diagram for top-down design or program flowchart form vital parts of solution planning and design.

Learning resources

Introduction (cont)

LWS coursebook pp. 11745 www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/syslifecycle/student/shome_slc.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes note that Development is used here to mean building and Implementation to mean changeover

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3

Fact finding Feasibility study Analysis

LWS coursebook pp. 11921 LWS coursebook pp. 1212 LWS coursebook pp. 1225

2.1.4

Design

LWS coursebook pp. 12234 http://open-workbench.en.softonic.com/ Open Workbench, free project management program for Windows, enables students to get a feel for producing project management diagrams such as Gantt charts and PERT charts using software http://igcsecs.blogspot.com/p/open-workbench_18.html Has a link to a tutorial guide to Open Workbench that should take you as far as you need for school projects http://raptor.martincarlisle.com/ Free program flowchart interpreter software that allows

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources students to draw a flowchart and check its functioning by executing it. LWS coursebook p. 135 LWS coursebook pp. 1356 LWS coursebook pp. 13640 CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher includes an introduction to the different types of documentation LWS coursebook pp. 1403 LWS coursebook pp. 1434 LWS coursebook pp. 1445

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3

Implementation Testing Documentation

2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6

Changeover Evaluation Maintenance

Students need to identify what is involved in developing solutions using off-the-shelf or bespoke software and appropriate hardware. Students need to identify testing strategies and appropriate choice of test data. Students could sort a list of contents headings to distinguish between: documentation that users require in a user guide or manual and technical documentation required by those responsible for improving and maintaining a solution in working order or for developing the solution to meet new needs. Students need to identify the available methods for changeover and their benefits and drawbacks. Students need to identify ways in which a system can be evaluated. Students need to identify ways in which a system can be maintained.

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 4: Algorithm design and testing
Recommended prior knowledge Students need to have studied Unit 3 before starting this unit. Context Students need to study this unit before Unit 5 and before or alongside Unit 12. For both Units 4 and 5, together with Unit 6, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 3 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31798.pdf) provides notes on section 3 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Defining the scope of separate modules, designing algorithms that relate clearly to the requirements of the system and identifying hardware needs arising from the required output. The use of structure diagrams for top-down design, program flowcharts and libraries of subroutines. Using dry runs and trace tables to work out the purpose of an algorithm, suggesting and using suitable test data and identifying and correcting errors in algorithms. Study of these topics can be illustrated by case studies of existing solutions to problems and reinforced through practical work. Syllabus ref 3.1 Learning objectives Introduction Suggested teaching activities Students could be introduced to the need for algorithms in developing software solutions as follows: 1. Ask for a volunteer. Write a small set of random numbers on a board and ask the volunteer to sort them into ascending numerical order. Explain that the volunteer is using an unseen strategy or algorithm. 2. Ask the volunteer to look away. Write a new small set of random numbers on the board and ask the volunteer to give you instructions for sorting them, asking necessary questions such as What is the first number? Once a volunteer has succeeded in this task, explain that the volunteer has revealed their algorithm. 3. Ask the successful volunteer to list the instructions for sorting a new small set of random numbers before you write the new set on the board. You can try to pick numbers that will not work with the volunteers instructions. Execute the list of instructions without any Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) 1 Learning resources

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities further intervention from the volunteer. If the instructions fail to achieve the sort, allow the volunteer or other students to amend the instructions and start the procedure from the beginning. Once the instructions are successful, explain that this is an algorithm. Students should perform practical exercises, using appropriate tools from 3.1.2 below, to: use top-down design to define the scope of separate modules within each solution design algorithms to meet the requirements of modules explain algorithms and how they relate to a solution explain how hardware needs arise from the input and output required for a solution. It may be useful to point out that: a computer must store input data prior to processing and (usually) the results of processing after processing in memory locations, or variables, which we label with identifiers even within structure diagrams and program flowcharts, we can use pseudocode as shorthand for the process of assignment x 3 means the value 3 is written as the new value stored in the memory location labelled x x y means the value stored in the memory location labelled y is copied to the memory location labelled x; in other words, the value stored in the memory location labelled y is read without altering that value and written as the new value stored in the memory location labelled x. Some possible examples to demonstrate solution design are: finding the average of a set of input numbers finding largest and smallest numbers in a set of input numbers calculating the frequency distribution of ranges of numbers in a set of input numbers (e.g. when a series of temperatures T are input, how many are in each of the ranges -20 T < 0, 0 T < 20 and 20 T < 40?) These could be followed by case studies such as an automatic supermarket stock control system for calculating stock levels and automatically re-ordering items.

Learning resources

3.1.1

Make an overall plan

LWS coursebook pp. 2402 http://raptor.martincarlisle.com/Introduction%20to%20Algo rithmic%20Thinking.doc An introduction to algorithmic thinking

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Syllabus ref 3.1.2

Learning objectives Algorithm tools

Suggested teaching activities Students need to become familiar with: top-down design using structure diagrams program flowcharts to represent algorithms system flowcharts to represent whole or partial solutions, including hardware the fact that algorithms can often be re-used as part of the solution of a different problem and that, similarly, libraries of procedure and subroutine program code can also be re-used.

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 2427 www.smartdraw.com/resources/tutorials/#/resources/tutori als/Entity-Structure-Diagrams A tutorial on how to draw structure diagrams using SmartDraw, of which a free, trial version is available http://raptor.martincarlisle.com/ RAPTOR, free program flowchart interpreter software that allows students to draw a flowchart and check its functioning by executing it LWS coursebook pp. 24751

3.1.3

Interpret and test algorithms

Students need to be able to: work out the purpose of an algorithm using dry runs choose and use suitable test data for testing: input validation or other conditional processing (three types: normal, boundary/extreme and abnormal/erroneous) correctness of a calculation use trace tables to find the value of variables at each stage in dry run identify errors in given algorithms and suggest ways of removing these errors.

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 5: Programming concepts
Recommended prior knowledge Students need to have studied Units 3 and 4 before starting this unit. Context Students need to study this unit before or alongside Unit 12. It progresses from representing algorithms as program flowcharts in Unit 4, to representing algorithms as pseudocode. For both Units 4 and 5, together with Unit 6, Computer Studies Support Booklet - Part 3 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31798.pdf) provides notes on section 3 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet - Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline The concepts of sequence, selection and repetition. Input, output, totalling and counting in pseudocode and structured pseudocode for iteration (repetition) and selection. Writing an algorithm in pseudocode and identifying and correcting errors in pseudocode. Low-level languages, reasons for their use and their need to be translated by an assembler. High-level languages, reasons for their use and their need to be translated by a compiler or interpreter.

Syllabus ref 3.2.1

Learning objectives The concept of a program

Suggested teaching activities Students need to understand: what a computer program is the main requirements of a programming language to allow: data input and output manipulation of data of various types and structures sequence, selection, repetition and subprogram intercommunication the concepts of totals and counting. Students should perform practical exercises to: write algorithms in pseudocode to solve a variety of problems identify errors and suggest corrections in a given piece of pseudocode. Introduce students to different types of programming languages by considering: Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 2556 and 26570

3.2.3

Low-level languages

LWS coursebook pp. 2567

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Suggested teaching activities historical origins of computer programming in machine-specific types of language (machine language and assembly language) the characteristics of these languages the need for an assembler translation program for assembly language why they are still used for certain applications.

Learning resources www.teachict.com/gcse/software/programming_languages/miniweb/p g3.htm Introduction to machine language www.teachict.com/gcse/software/programming_languages/miniweb/p g4.htm Introduction to assembly language www.teachict.com/gcse/software/programming_languages/miniweb/p g6.htm Introduction to translation programs for high-level language Extension work: www.mstracey.btinternet.co.uk/pictutorial/picmain.htm Tutorial on programming a microcontroller, illustrating the suitability of assembly language for dealing with input and output devices LWS coursebook pp. 257-9 www.teachict.com/gcse/software/programming_languages/miniweb/p g5.htm Introduction to high-level language www.teachict.com/gcse/software/programming_languages/miniweb/p g6.htm Introduction to translation programs for high-level language Extension work: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_writing History of compiler writing

3.2.2

High-level languages

Students need to identify: the characteristics of these languages the need for compiler and/or interpreter translation programs for these languages why they are preferred for many applications.

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Learning resources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortran First high-level language to have a complete compiler http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLOW-MATIC The first programming language to express operations using English-like statements LWS coursebook pp. 2605 www.unf.edu/~broggio/cop2221/2221pseu.htm Examples of an approach to pseudocode that is very close to plain English

3.2.4

Pseudocode structures

Students do not need to be able to write program code in any particular language for Papers 1 or 3, but should perform practical exercises to develop recognition, understanding and writing of the following pseudocode: processes: input (e.g. INPUT, READ, ENTER) output (e.g. OUTPUT, WRITE, PRINT) assignment (e.g. Count 1) totals (e.g. Sum Sum + Number) counting (e.g. Count Count + 1). structures: iteration (repetition): WHILEDOENDWHILE: WHILE xxx DO xxx ENDWHILE REPEATUNTIL: REPEAT xxx xxx UNTIL xxx FORTONEXT: FOR y xxx TO xxx xxx xxx NEXT

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Syllabus ref 3.2.4

Learning objectives Pseudocode structures (cont)

Suggested teaching activities selection: IFTHENELSEENDIF: IF xxx THEN xxx ELSE xxx ENDIF or nested: IF xxx THEN IF xxx THEN xxx ELSE xxx ENDIF ELSE IF xxx THEN xxx ELSE xxx ENDIF ENDIF

Learning resources

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Syllabus ref 3.2.4

Learning objectives Pseudocode structures (cont)

Suggested teaching activities CASE OFOTHERWISEENDCASE: CASE y OF n1: xxx xxx n2: xxx OTHERWISE xxx or multiple statements indented below ENDCASE

Learning resources

3.2.5

User guide, technical documentation

This should already have been adequately covered in Unit 3: 2.2.3.

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 6: Logic gates and circuits
Recommended prior knowledge None, although it may be helpful if students have studied Units 5 and 9 before starting this unit. Context This unit introduces logic gates, which are the building blocks for the relatively complex memory and processor circuits found in computers. At this level, to achieve a more concrete grasp of their fundamental properties, they are only treated as components in relatively simple, stand-alone logic circuits. For this unit, together with Units 4 and 5, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 3 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31798.pdf) provides notes on section 3 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Truth tables and symbols for two-input NOT, AND, OR, NAND and NOR logic gates. Truth tables for given logic circuits with a maximum of 3 inputs and 6 gates. Production of a simple logic circuit from a written design brief. WARNING: Practical work with logic gate chips can be relatively cheap to perform and very rewarding, but is hazardous if teachers and students are not properly aware of the risks from connecting modules or electronic components in ways for which they are not intended. For example, if a LED is connected directly across a power supply without a current-limiting series resistor, it is liable to explode in a way that could cause permanent damage to an unprotected eye. See, for example, www.youtube.com/watch?v=L85UNTW4lgU. Practical work can also be performed with free logic simulation software. Syllabus ref 3.3.1 Learning objectives Basic logic gates Suggested teaching activities Use appropriate hardware or simulation software to introduce students to the functions of the NOT and 2-input AND, OR, NAND and NOR logic gates. Students can observe the output produced from all possible combinations of inputs to construct each gates truth table. Extension work: Work out the simple logic circuits required to create NAND and NOR gates using AND, OR and NOT gates and test them. Students need to recognise two ways of representing the logic gates. Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 2747 www.logiccircuit.org/ Free program for drawing and simulating logic circuits

3.3.2

Logic gate symbols

LWS coursebook p. 2745

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities The distinctively-shaped symbols are preferred, but students may use the labelled, circular symbols. Students should perform graded practical exercises, using additional columns for intermediate outputs, to produce truth tables for given logic circuits (maximum of 3 inputs and 6 gates). Students should perform practical exercises to design, build and test a simple logic circuit from a given written statement (e.g. if A AND B are on AND if C is on, then the lights will be on). Design can proceed intuitively from the written statement of the problem, but some students may be able to work algebraically, as would be necessary for circuit simplification beyond the scope of this syllabus. Extension work: Work out how to create NOT, AND and OR gates using only NAND gates and test the solutions. Work out how to create NOT, AND and OR gates using only NOR gates and test the solutions.

Learning resources

3.3.3

3.3.4

Interpreting simple logic circuits Designing simple logic circuits

LWS coursebook pp. 2779

LWS coursebook pp. 279281

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 7: Generic software
Recommended prior knowledge None, although students will be able to draw on any previous experience of using generic application software. Context Practical experience of generic application software supports many other units and students need to study this unit before or alongside Unit 12, as one or more generic application programs may be needed to implement a solution to a coursework problem and document it. For this unit, together with Unit 8, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 4 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31799.pdf) provides notes on section 4 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Students need to gain a broad overview of generic application software through practical work. As a minimum, they need a general knowledge of the kinds of features typical of different types of generic application program, although each candidate needs to develop greater expertise in the use of those programs that they intend to use for coursework. Syllabus ref 4.1 Learning objectives Introduction to generic application software, datalogging and programming Suggested teaching activities If not already considered, it is helpful to distinguish between hardware and software and what is meant by the term package. It is helpful to consider the kinds of feature that many application programs have in common, especially import and export of data files and the use of a graphical user interface. Students need to start practical exercises with generic application software and one or more programming languages early in the course to allow time for skills to develop. Commonly-used (productivity) generic application programs studied should include: word processing, desktop publishing, spreadsheets and databases. Word processing and spreadsheets are good types of application program v1 2Y05 Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 24

Generic application software

LWS coursebook pp. 410 http://download.openoffice.org/ Open Office, open source productivity suite, similar to Microsoft Office, available for multiple platforms 1

Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities with which to start, as students may already have familiarity with them and students should use a word processing program to write up Paper 2 coursework. It may be helpful to explain to students the basic distinction between: a desktop publishing program, with which the user can create a sequence of pages into which they can place graphical objects including text boxes, and a word processing program, with which the user can create a sequence or string of text characters and formatting codes, into which they can insert graphics inline (by default), as if they were blocks of text. Use of spreadsheet programs to include: use of formulae text string entered is automatically interpreted as a type of data (text, number, date, etc.) sorting filtering what-if scenarios charts or graphs. Use of database programs to include: data types field length (for text string data type) sorting query search criteria features of relational databases.

Learning resources Recorded macros are quite hard to modify www.teach-ict.com/videohome.htm Links to video tutorials on Microsoft Office programs for desktop publishing, word processing, spreadsheets and databases www.teachict.com/gcse/software/word/student/shome_wp.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on word processing www.teachict.com/gcse/software/dtp/students/shome_dtp.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on desktop publishing www.teachict.com/gcse/software/spread/student/shome_spreadsheet .htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on spreadsheets www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/databases/concepts/home_d b_concepts.htm Theory notes on databases www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/databases/2datab asesrev1.shtml First of 5 pages on databases and data capture CD of notes from the former website www.theteacher99.btinternet.co.uk/theteacher has: introduction to word processing introduction to spreadsheets introduction to databases sorting and searching of databases LWS coursebook pp. 245 www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm 2

Customisation of generic application v1 2Y05

These short programs recorded or written in an API scripting language such as Microsoft Office Word VBA or Excel VBA in order to automate frequently-needed access to hard-to-access commands or series of timeCambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

Syllabus ref

Learning objectives software by the use of macros

Suggested teaching activities consuming commands are best studied through practical exercises. In some software, such as Microsoft Office Word, Excel and PowerPoint, it is possible to open the VBA editor once the recording process has started and watch the accumulation of recorded code or even delete mistakes. Microsoft Office Access cannot record macros, but can have them written as macro actions. Macros written or modified from recordings by the student may constitute programming for a simpler coursework project. Ask students why generic application software is often called off-theshelf. (Ans: Because it is a mass-produced item generally available from stock) Also, ask students what bespoke means. (Ans: Made to suit a particular customer, not just a particular use) Students can explore possible advantages and disadvantages of off-theshelf compared with bespoke software in groups or as a whole class activity. Students need to research the features of a range of software, such as fax, telephony, VoIP, video-conferencing, email and instant messaging. The study of search engines can be linked to their application in Unit 1. It may be helpful to draw students attention to the fact that web design software commonly refers to programs for building or authoring websites, blurring the distinction required in Units 3 and 12 between design (detailed planning) and implementation (building). Students often find Microsoft Paint or other simple graphics programs fascinating, but it is helpful to give them practical exercises that illustrate the differences between bitmap and vector graphics.

Learning resources Search for macro

The advantages and disadvantages of generic application software compared with bespoke software

LWS coursebook pp. 256 www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/213_software/custom_offshel f/home_custom_offshelf_sw.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on off-the-shelf compared with bespoke software

Communications software Web authoring and browsers programs and search engines

LWS coursebook pp. 103 LWS coursebook pp. 136 www.teach-ict.com/videohome.htm Links to video tutorials on Dreamweaver & FrontPage web authoring programs LWS coursebook pp. 167 www.gimp.org/downloads/ GIMP, open source graphics program for a variety of operating systems It differs from many other programs in the way that a selected graphical object is moved and each text box is its own layer

Graphics editing programs

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Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources Microsoft Office Tools contains Picture Manager contains a relatively small number of powerful photo editing features www.teach-ict.com/videohome.htm Links to video tutorials on Adobe Photoshop photo editing program LWS coursebook pp. 178 http://sketchup.google.com/ Sketchup, free CAD program LWS coursebook pp. 1821 www.teach-ict.com/videohome.htm Links to video tutorials on Adobe Flash multimedia authoring program, Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation program and MissionMaker 3-D game authoring program LWS coursebook pp. 213 http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/measurecon trol/3dataloggingrev1.shtml First of 3 pages of introduction to data-logging www.teachict.com/gcse/software/datalogging/students/shome_datalo gging.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on data-logging www.valianttechnology.com/archive/freebies/cdsamples/datalogger/lo gger.swf Flash simulation of the operation of a data logger LWS coursebook pp. 234 www.mathplayground.com/mathprogramming.html Applet for programming a turtle in Logo

CAD programs

Students need to research the features of CAD programs, preferably through practical work.

Multimedia authoring and presentation programs

Students need to research the features of these programs, preferably through practical work. Note that Impress is a presentation program available as part of the open source Open Office suite.

Data-logging

Consider using a simulation if no data logger is available for practical work. A data logger typically exports a CSV file, which can be imported by a spreadsheet program for analysis. Students can research the features and hardware components of a data logger: automatic scheduled data capture allows 24/7 monitoring improved accuracy since it eliminates transcription errors contains: o ROM memory to store the program to control its operation o RAM or flash memory to store the captured data

Programming

As with generic application software, students need to start practical exercises with one or more programming languages early in the course to allow time for skills to develop. Introductory exercises should include programming a turtle in Logo, which

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Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities although simple, sometimes appears in exam questions. Explain to students that, although program code can be written with a simple text editor program, it needs software to compile (if required) and debug it, which is usually provided, together with other facilities, by a single program called an integrated development environment (IDE) for their chosen programming language. Amongst free languages that are well documented and have large user communities, Python is prominent. Students need to perform practical exercises to develop programming skills that will prepare them for coursework. These should cover the range required for pseudocode in Unit 5, namely: processes: o input o output o assignment o totals o counting structures: o iteration (repetition) o selection Additionally, students need to learn how to handle data types and structures and probably files. As mentioned above, macros written or modified from recordings by the student may constitute programming for a simpler coursework project. Note that while Microsoft Office VBA is common to many members of the suite of programs, each member of the suite has its own dialect of VBA, as the language has to interact with different sets of objects in each member of the suite.

Learning resources http://education.mit.edu/starlogo/ StarLogo, MITs free, agent-based simulation language Has a 2-D version, OpenStarLogo and a 3-D version, StarLogo TNG http://gcsecomputing.org.uk/theory/1_7/1_7_programming _languages.html End of page describes an IDE http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Scratch_1.4_Download Scratch, a free programming language that lets you create your own interactive stories, animations, games, music, and art www.briggs.net.nz/log/writing/snake-wrangling-for-kids/ Snake Wrangling for Kids, a free, printable electronic book that covers the basics of programming in Python 3 www.pythonsummerschool.net/course.php A free teachers course in the Python programming language Prerequisite resources: www.pythonsummerschool.net/get_ready.php www.justbasic.com/download.html A free version of the BASIC programming language Help requires download in Windows Vista and 7 and does not include the tutorial mentioned in the Welcome screen

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 8: Organisation of data
Recommended prior knowledge It will be helpful if students have studied Unit 6 before starting this unit. Context Students need to study this unit before or alongside Unit 12. For this unit, together with Unit 7, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 4 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31799.pdf) provides notes on section 4 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline The relationship between data and information; methods of data collection, encoding and preparation; appropriate methods of ensuring the correctness of data (including validation and verification); methods of automatic data capture; analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue conversion. File organisation: different forms of organisation and storage medium, depending on the data stored and the requirements for processing; sequential file processing and processing individual records by means of record keys; sorting and merging; methods of processing and file maintenance. Data types: numbers, characters, strings, arrays and the need for different data types and structures to represent the data for a particular application. Syllabus ref 4.2.1 Learning objectives The relationship between data and information Suggested teaching activities Consider the Input, Process & Output model and introduce the idea of information as appropriately presented processed data. Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 301 www.teach-ict.com/ks3_old/unit9_1/miniweb/pg3.htm Simple illustration of Input, Process & Output www.teachict.com/gcse/theory/datainfo/student/shome_datainfo.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on data and information (ignore knowledge for this syllabus) LWS coursebook pp. 31 and 323 www.teachict.com/gcse/software/datacapture/students/shome_datac apture.htm 1

Collection of data

It is helpful to distinguish between data collection prior to entry, often on paper forms and methods of data capture (when data actually enter the computer). Students need to describe different data capture methods and learn when their selection is appropriate: Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities manual input via keyboards and touch screens automatic data capture techniques: barcodes in automatic stock control systems OMR techniques in input of lottery entries and survey data OCR techniques in input of text in questionnaires sensors in data-logging. Explore the types of encoding used to help students describe encoding of data and the reasons for its use. Other forms of data preparation include ensuring that data are in a standard format.

Learning resources Theory notes, activities and quizzes on data capture

Encoding of data for input

LWS coursebook p. 31 www.teachict.com/as_a2/topics/data_info_know/datainfo/coding_of_ data.htm Introduction to encoding data LWS coursebook pp. 337 www.teach-ict.com/gcse/software/db/miniweb/pg10.htm Introduction to validation www.teach-ict.com/gcse/software/db/miniweb/pg11.htm Introduction to verification www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/databases/3datav alidationrev1.shtml First of two pages on data validation and verification LWS coursebook pp. 312 www.teachict.com/gcse/software/control/miniweb/pg4.htm Introduction to analogue-to-digital conversion http://gcsecomputing.org.uk/theory/1_4/1_4_sound.html Introduction to ADC and DAC for sound

Methods of ensuring its correctness (including validation and verification and the distinction between these)

Analogue-todigital and digitalto-analogue conversions

Explore web forms for examples validation and verification techniques and ISBN codes as examples of ID codes with check digits, to help students learn to describe and select: validation techniques (e.g. range checks, type checks) the use of check digits (how check digits are generated and why they are used) verification techniques (e.g. double entry and visual checks) and their uses (e.g. checking password entries). Although spreadsheet software does not apply type checks by default, students could perform practical exercises in both spreadsheet and database software to apply a range of validation checks. Consider how analogue (smoothly changing) data from a sensor (e.g. for temperature, moisture or pressure) can be input as digital (step-valued) data into a computer. Explain that some sensors are effectively switches with digital outputs, but most have analogue output requiring ADC to produce digital data for a monitoring or control system. Similarly, a monitoring or control system may only need to switch (or rapidly pulse) an output to a lamp or motor, but when an analogue (smoothly changing) output is needed, a DAC is required. Consider a computer sound card as an example of a device containing both sorts of converter and research other computers or devices requiring one or both sorts.

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Syllabus ref 4.2.2

Learning objectives File organisation: different forms of organisation, depending on the data stored and the requirements for processing; processing methods

Suggested teaching activities Explore different ways in which a set of records could be stored in a file to help students learn to describe: the need to process files file structure: field name, field type, concept of key field, relationship between fields and records and conventional presentation in spreadsheets and database tables file organisation: types of file: serial, sequential and direct (random) access their applications, e.g. serial file in a batch processing system, direct access in real-time transaction processing system. how files are processed file maintenance: updating/amending, inserting and deleting data from a file as appropriate, e.g. car sales business will insert data when a new car arrives, delete data when a car is sold and amend data if there is an error or they have a sale and reduce price and select with reasons, the appropriate file organisation and processing methods for a particular application. Data types can be introduced by considering the different data types that may be used in the various fields within a record. Students could perform practical work: on a sample database, to understand that a database program prevents inappropriate data entry partly through the use of type checks to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable types of data on data entry on a similar sample spreadsheet, to understand that: a spreadsheet program accepts any string of characters entered into a cell and automatically interprets it as a particular data type, with text as the default type some other data types can be enforced by applying appropriate data validation to a cell, or range of cells. This should help students to: identify the different forms of data and explain how the data is represented for processing explain the need for different data types and structures and how these relate to the data of the given problem.

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 379 www.teachict.com/gcse_new/databases/terminology/miniweb/pg7.ht m Introduction to key fields www.cedar.u-net.com/ict6/demoidx.htm Search for access to find direct and serial access

4.2.3

Data types for numbers, characters, strings, arrays; the need for different data types and structures to represent the data for problems being solved

LWS coursebook pp. 3942 www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/216_programming/handling_ data/home_handling_data.htm Theory notes on data types

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 9: Hardware
Recommended prior knowledge None, although students will be able to draw on any previous experience of computer hardware. Context Students need to study this unit before or alongside Unit 12. For this unit, as well as Units 10 and 11, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 5 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31800.pdf) provides notes on section 5 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline The main hardware components of a computer. Different types of computer and classes of processor power. The characteristics and uses of different types of input and output device. Different types of internal memory and backing storage and their uses. The capabilities of modern mobile phones. Syllabus ref 5.1.1 Learning objectives Introduction Suggested teaching activities Introduce the basic parts and functions of a computer system. What makes up a typical system: Input devices (keyboard, mouse, touch screens, scanners, etc.). Processing devices (from large and power-hungry in supercomputers to small, low power consumption in smart phones and microcontrollers). Storage devices (internal memory (RAM), backing storage such as HDD and DVD, etc). Output devices (printers, screens, plotters, etc.). Introduce the difference between a computer system and an embedded system. Students could research: examples of devices that use embedded microprocessors or microcontrollers (e.g. still and video cameras (including CCTV), digital watches, domestic appliances) how laptop, notebook and tablet computers differ from desktop PCs v1 2Y05 Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Learning resources www.kids-online.net/learn/c_n_l.html Practice in identifying parts of a computer www.teachict.com/as_a2/topics/input%20processing%20output/input _process_output/ Introduction to Input, Process, Storage and Output (Feedback loop applies where user responds to output and in automated and control systems) LWS coursebook pp. 459 www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/211_hardware_software/inwo rld/miniweb/pg2.htm Examples of embedded systems www.teach1

Computer, microcomputer, microprocessor

Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities the required specification for a laptop (should consume little power to maximise battery duration and run cool, etc.).

Learning resources ict.com/gcse_new/computer%20systems/types_computer/ home_types_computer.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on types of computer LWS coursebook pp. 46 and 49 LWS coursebook pp. 4979 www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/212_computing_hardware/inp ut_devices/home_input_devices.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on input devices www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/212_computing_hardware/ou tput_devices/home_output_devices.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on output devices www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/212_computing_hardware/dis abled_ipop/home_disabled_ipop.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on input and output devices for disabled users www.teachict.com/technology_explained/virtual_reality/virtual_reality. html Notes on input and output devices for VR www.igcseict.info/theory/2/actu/ Illustrated notes on actuators LWS coursebook pp. 7988 www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/hardware/1datast oragerev1.shtml First of 8 pages on storage www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/212_computing_hardware/sto 2

Broad classes of processor power Standard input and output devices

General introduction to classes of processor only no detail required Students could research how to describe/select: suitable input and output devices in relation to the requirements of the application the use of specialist input and output devices (e.g. to help people with disabilities communicate with a computer system, devices to communicate with virtual reality systems note that a VR headset consists of one or more output devices and head position-tracking sensor input devices).

5.1.2

The functions and characteristics of storage media

Students could list all the storage devices they know about, then try to categorise them and research the operation and areas of application for: internal memory (aka main memory) devices: RAM, ROM backing storage devices: hard disk drive (HDD), CD and DVD (ROM, R and RW), USB flash memories, Digital Storage Cards (DSC) such as SD, SDHC or SDXC, non-removable flash memory in MP3/4 media players, magnetic tape cartridges.

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Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities Students could research how the HDD (or possibly DVD-RAM) in a digital video recorder (DVR) allows recording to take place simultaneously with playback of a previous recording). Explain the difference between the backing storage device and the storage medium (plural: media), which is sometimes removable. Students need to be able perform calculations on transferring a given number of files of a given size at a given data transfer rate.

Learning resources rage_devices/home_storage_devices.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on storage devices and media www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/214_representing_data/units/ home_units.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on units of storage Extension material: www.howstuffworks.com/ram1.htm More details on RAM www.howstuffworks.com/rom.htm More details on ROM LWS coursebook pp. 4979 http://gcsecomputing.org.uk/theory/1_2/1_2_input_output. html Comprehensive notes on applications of input and output devices

5.1.3

The characteristics and performance of a range of peripherals (including control and communication devices)

Review the need to communicate with a computer and the range of peripheral (input and output) devices available for this. Students need to be able to justify their choices of suitable peripherals for various applications, including for people with disabilities and devices for interfacing with virtual reality systems. The reasons for choosing certain devices in a number of applications needs to be carefully considered (e.g. barcode readers in supermarkets, pen plotters in design offices). Students could research the different types of sensor used in a wide range of monitoring and control applications, such as: temperature (e.g. heating systems) moisture (e.g. greenhouse applications) gas (e.g. environmental monitoring) light (e.g. operating automatic lights) infra-red (e.g. detecting intruders). Students could research of the role of mobile phones in communication systems. This can cover a wide range of topic areas such as: the most widely available form of computer in the world use as camera, QR code reader, MP3/4 media player access to internet or to SMS or voice information services where Internet is unavailable or unaffordable.

LWS coursebook 6671 www.igcseict.info/theory/2/sensor/ Illustrated notes on sensors www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/measurecontrol/0 computercontrolrev2.shtml Notes on sensors LWS coursebook p. 88 www.teachict.com/gcse_new/communication/mobile_phones/home_ mobile_phones.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on mobile phones 3

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 10: Operating systems
Recommended prior knowledge In order to understand the role of an operating system, students should have had practical experience of using at least one operating system with a GUI. Context Students should study this unit before starting Unit 11. For this unit, as well as Units 9 and 11, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 5 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31800.pdf) provides notes on section 5 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline The nature of batch, online, multi-access, real-time transaction processing, multitasking, network and process-control operating systems. Types of interface between the operating system and the user. How folders are structured and how folders and files can be managed. Peripheral control, including the use of buffers, interrupts and priorities, polling, handshaking and checksums. Syllabus ref 5.2.1 Learning objectives Introduction Suggested teaching activities Introduce: the idea of system software as different from applications software general tasks and facilities of an operating system for processor management, it is helpful to demonstrate Windows Task Manager role of the operating system (OS) in file management the idea that microprocessors or microcontrollers in automated devices such as refrigerators and microwave ovens do not require an operating system since they only execute a single program. Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 924 www.igcseict.info/theory/1/os/ Introduction to operating systems www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system1.htm First of two pages describing operating systems and their functions www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system4.htm Description of the loading of an operating system www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system5.htm First of two pages describing processor management and the use of the Process Control Block (PCB), a data structure containing the information needed to manage a particular process, in multi-tasking v1 2Y05 Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) 1

Syllabus ref

Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system7.htm First of two pages describing memory and device management LWS coursebook pp. 948 www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system3.htm Description of different types of operating system www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/213_software/os_types/miniw eb/pg4.htm Notes on network operating systems

The nature of batch, multiaccess, real-time transaction processing, multitasking, network and process control operating systems

Introduce the different types of processing system taking care to ensure that students understand the differences between them, especially the difference between the sorts of operating system required to support application programs for real-time transaction processing and real-time process control Note that: real-time processing involves processing input within a guaranteed maximum time a real-time transaction processing system is an online system that processes individual, whole transactions as they occur, e.g. an airline booking system or automated stock control system, where the maximum response time needs to be in the range of seconds nowadays users tend not to tolerate delays of tens of seconds or even whole minutes this use of the term real-time differs from its use in a real-time process control system, which continuously monitors and processes sensor data sufficiently rapidly to produce the output required to keep pace with the users needs for information or control although control of a greenhouse would probably tolerate a delay of a few seconds or even a few minutes, in most cases, this means a maximum response time between microseconds and seconds. Review students previous experience of operating systems with graphical user interfaces (GUI), perhaps in Unit 7, and introduce the idea of a command line interface. Discuss the main differences between command line interfaces and GUIs and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

5.2.2

5.2.3

The form of interface between the operating system and the user; use of command line and use of graphical user interfaces Management of files; file directories;

LWS coursebook pp. 98101 www.igcseict.info/theory/1/uis/index.html Types of user interface www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/213_software/user_interface/ home_user_interface.htm Theory notes, activities and quizzes on user interfaces LWS coursebook pp. 1012

Explain that: a file directory is an index of the contents of a virtual container for files and sub-directories maintained by the operating systems file manager Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

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Learning objectives folders

Suggested teaching activities in a GUI, a directory is displayed as a folder and the two terms are often used interchangeably.

Learning resources

5.2.4

Peripheral device control; use of buffers; interrupts and interrupt priorities; polling; handshaking; checksums

Students need to perform practical exercises to ensure that they understand the need for and use of facilities to copy, move, list and print files and create sub-directories. Introduce the ideas that: peripheral devices such as keyboards and printers must be controlled and responded to by the operating system communication between the computer and peripherals must be controlled and errors detected. Explain that: a buffer is an area of memory used to hold data temporarily to compensate for different rates of processing data by the processor and a (slower) peripheral and allow the processor to perform other tasks while waiting to receive or send data in order to respond to messages from peripheral devices, the processor can use one of two methods: polling the OS is responsible for periodically interrogating each peripheral device in turn to discover its status, or interrupts the OS is free to process other tasks until a peripheral device sends an interrupt signal, indicating that it needs the OSs attention handshaking involves sending electronic signals during transfer of data to control the flow of data between the computer and a peripheral device (or over a network with another computer) to prevent a delay in processing data at the receiving end resulting in lost data since a block of data (such as a USB packet) may be corrupted during transfer, a checksum can be: used to summarise the block before transmission by calculating the arithmetical sum of the numerical values of all its elements and transmitted with the block to provide a check after transmission (similar to a check digit used to validate a much shorter numerical ID code).

LWS coursebook pp. 1025 www.teachict.com/gcse_new/computer%20systems/buffers_drivers/h ome_buffers.htm Theory notes and activities on buffers (and drivers) www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue149/60_Interrupt s_made_easy.php Article that compares interrupts with polling

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 11: Types of system
Recommended prior knowledge Students should study Units 1 and 10 before starting this unit. Context For this unit, as well as Units 9 and 10, Computer Studies Support Booklet Part 5 (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31800.pdf) provides notes on section 5 of the syllabus and practice problems (with answers in Computer Studies Support Booklet Answers (http://teachers.cie.org.uk/docs/dynamic/31801.pdf). Outline Different types of system: batch processing, interactive, network, control, automated and multimedia. Requirements to support various types of computer system. The most suitable type of computer system for a given application. Problems in the management of the various types of computer system, such as conflicting access to common data or critical timing considerations. Syllabus ref 5.3 Learning objectives Introduction Suggested teaching activities Review the basic principles of the different types of operating system (OS). Introduce the idea that the different types of OS are designed to support different types of processing system. Help students to decide which types of operating system would be appropriate for each type of processing system encountered when studying computer applications in Unit 1. Explain that almost all students experience of computer systems has been of interactive systems that provide for interaction between the job and the user that may influence the future course of processing. Such systems may be single-user (for example, a personal computer) or multi-user. Typical applications are word processing and online information retrieval. v1 2Y05 Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) 1 Learning resources www.igcseict.info/theory/7_2/modes/ Introduction to batch processing and real-time systems

5.3.2

Interactive systems

LWS coursebook pp. 1089

Syllabus ref 5.3.1

Learning objectives Batch processing systems

Suggested teaching activities Explain that, In contrast to an interactive system, a batch processing system processes a job without any direct interaction between the job and the user. Typical applications are payroll and billing systems. Explain that a network system is one in which processing occurs independently in more than one location, but with shared and controlled access to some common resources. Students could perform research to: describe and compare the ring, bus and star network topologies understand the need for: shared resources, such as: file storage local information resources such as an intranet server remote information resources such as internet servers gateways for accessing wide area networks (WANs) such as the internet.

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 1078 www.igcseict.info/theory/7_2/payroll/ Introduction to payroll processing as an example of batch processing LWS coursebook pp. 10912 www.howstuffworks.com/lan-switch1.htm Introduction to networks www.howstuffworks.com/lan-switch2.htm Introduction to network topologies www.igcseict.info/theory/4/intra/ www.howstuffworks.com/how-intranets-work.htm Introductions to intranets www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/internet/intranet_extranet/ home_intranet_extranet.htm Theory notes and activities on intranets (and extranets) www.igcseict.info/theory/4/inter/ www.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/internet.htm Introductions to the internet LWS coursebook pp. 1123 www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/measurecontrol/ 0computercontrolrev1.shtml First of four pages on control systems

5.3.3

Network systems

5.3.4

Control systems

Explain that: in a control system, one or more computers control the operation of some non-computer equipment, usually involving some monitoring and logging of physical quantities, providing some analysis of performance and allowing some user interaction feedback is an essential element in most control systems timing considerations are often critical and the term real-time control system is sometimes used to indicate this. Students could research applications of control systems such as process control in oil refineries, chemical plants and for integrated traffic control systems.

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Syllabus ref 5.3.5

Learning objectives Automated systems

Suggested teaching activities Explain that automated systems are broadly similar to control systems, but: are dedicated to a particular task lack the ability to collect and analyse data and the flexibility to allow for and act on user interaction beyond a very simple level. Students could research applications of automated systems such the systems found in equipment such as washing machines and digital cameras.

Learning resources LWS coursebook pp. 1134 www.teachict.com/gcse_computing/ocr/211_hardware_software/ inworld/miniweb/pg2.htm First of two pages on automated systems in the home www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/entertainment/camera/ home_camera.htm Theory notes and activities on digital cameras LWS coursebook pp. 1145

5.3.6

Multimedia

Students could research: minimum hardware and software requirements for multimedia applications typical features and uses of multimedia systems.

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Scheme of work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)


Unit 12: Coursework (Paper 2) or Alternative to Coursework (Paper 3)
Recommended prior knowledge Units 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 should be taught before Unit 12 or alongside appropriate sections of it. Outline either Coursework (Paper 2): A single piece of coursework of a complex nature, involving the use of a computer to solve a specific problem, to be carried out over an extended period. Enables candidates to use their skills and experience gained during the course to analyse, design, implement, test, document and evaluate the solution to the problem. or Alternative to Coursework (Paper 3): A written paper containing short-answer and structured questions that refer to a given scenario describing a manual (usually paper-based) system and its proposed replacement by a computer-based system. There is no choice of questions. The topics covered are similar to the skills required for Paper 2. Syllabus ref Paper 2 Introduction Explain that: students undertake a coursework project consisting of one complex piece of work, which is a computer-based solution to a significant problem, with full documentation a complex piece of work means one of the following: integrating components of two generic application packages using some of the more advanced functionalities of a single application package using modules and file handling in a coded solution teachers provide on-going support, guidance and supervision during the project, but if a teacher has to provide excessive help or guidance, the candidate will lose marks students must acknowledge any use of material from magazines, books, the Internet or other sources in their coursework students are responsible for making backup copies of all work Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Syllabus pp. 67 and 3240 explain the nature of Paper 2 Further resource: www.ictgcse.net/Coursework.html A draft coursework guide for this syllabus Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities undertaken on the coursework project teachers are required to set the final date for submission at least one month before the date that they have to submit assessed practical work to CIE for moderation the final date for submission to the teacher will be DD MM YYYY (of which students would benefit from being periodically reminded!). Explain that: the mark a student can achieve is often linked to their choice of problem good coursework project problems are open-ended, so that if the work proves to be expectedly easy for the student, it can be developed further and, similarly, if the work proves to be expectedly difficult for the student, it should be possible to simplify it if a student chooses to write their own program, the choice of programming language must allow them to construct their program using a structured modular approach previous experience of students work shows that certain projects involving games, quizzes and word processing are unsuitable, as they do not provide the opportunity to achieve high marks teachers help each student to choose a problem that is within their capability and range of interests. You may wish to suggest a common list of suitable project problems. Schedule a discussion with each student to help them make a suitable choice of problem to solve. Iterate discussions each lesson until each student has shown you a coherent written description of the problem they intend to solve and their intended method of solution. Discuss the amount of time that students should spend on each stage and announce any intermediate deadlines for submission of work. Explain that: this project may well turn out to be the largest piece of work that each student has ever undertaken and the evidence of what they have achieved will be a large document of which they can be proud you are providing a clear framework for your students to document Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

Learning resources

Project Selection

LWS coursebook pp. 1189 (including the coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework (Paper 2) pp. 25

Documentation (5 marks)

LWS coursebook pp. 13640 (including the Technical documentation and User documentation coursework boxes) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework 2

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Learning objectives

Suggested teaching activities their project work (see LWS CD-ROM under Learning Resources) and that they must start their documentation (aka report) as soon as they start the coursework early documentation is likely to need revision as the project proceeds students should use a word processing program to produce their documentation (preferably in a single file with page numbering) failure to include an overall contents page will result in a loss of marks as part of teachers duty to supervise the work closely throughout the coursework to prevent any possible malpractice, you will regularly inspect each students documentation the students documentation will include technical documentation and a user guide, but should also include documentation for the analysis, design, testing and evaluation of the project in order to provide evidence for 37 of the total of 50 marks available hardcopy output from their solution is essential, except where this is inappropriate and the teacher authenticates appropriate evidence, for example: screen captures or photographs of the screen for control simulations or some graphical solutions video evidence on a DVD for hardware control or animation solutions.

Learning resources (Paper 2): pp. 67 (especially the suggested minimum set of headings and subheadings on p. 6) pp. 3135 (technical documentation) pp. 401 (user guide) other pages referred to below for analysis, design, testing and evaluation

Analysis (11 marks)

Refer to study of documentation in Unit 3. Refer to study of analysis in Unit 3.

LWS coursebook pp. 11925 (including the Analysis coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework (Paper 2) pp. 815 LWS coursebook pp. 12535 (including the nine coursework boxes) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework (Paper 2) pp. 1530 LWS coursebook pp. 135 LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework (Paper 2) pp. 3135, especially the lists of possible subheadings for the Technical Documentation section of 3

Design (14 marks)

Emphasise that design refers to detailed planning documented before implementation takes place and that therefore screenshots are not relevant and will not gain marks. Refer to study of design in Units 3 and 4. Explain that: the solution should bear a close resemblance to the design, even if the design has to be modified on the basis of experience marks are not awarded for the solution itself, as the software and hardware will not be submitted to CIE for moderation Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

Implementation (8 marks)

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Suggested teaching activities instead, marks are awarded for evidence of the solutions implementation students must therefore include separate hard-copy evidence of what has actually been built in their technical documentation, which is likely to include many pages of clear and suitably-captioned screenshots.

Learning resources the report on pp. 323

Testing (7 marks)

Refer to study relevant to the implementation (building) of a solution in Units 5 and/or 7. Emphasise the need to use normal, boundary/extreme and abnormal/ erroneous data for testing: validation of input data selection structures and calculations in programs or spreadsheet formulae. Refer to study of testing in Unit 3.

LWS coursebook pp. 1356 (including the Test results coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework (Paper 2) pp. 369 www.igcseict.info/theory/8/test/ Introduction to testing LWS coursebook pp. 1435 (including the Evaluation and Development coursework boxes) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Guidance on the coursework (Paper 2) pp. 424 www.igcseict.info/theory/8/eval/ Introduction to evaluation and improvements

Evaluation (5 marks)

Explain that two of the five marks available in this section are for suggesting possible improvements or extensions to the students solution in the light of the evaluation. Refer to study of evaluation in Unit 3.

Paper 3 Introduction Explain that: this 1 hour 30 minutes question paper is an alternative to, and has the same weighting as, Paper 2 (Coursework) it consists of short-answer and structured questions the questions refer to a scenario printed at the beginning of the paper and describing a proposed, computer-based solution to a problem Centres receive an outline scenario in advance so that students can do some research to prepare for the examination, although this outline scenario will only be very general, such as a database about ordering and stock control the paper is mostly on the topics covered by Paper 2, particularly section 2 (System life cycle) of Paper 1 the syllabus also covers: Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010) Syllabus pp. 78 and 28 explain the relationship between Paper 3 and the rest of the syllabus

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Suggested teaching activities system flowcharts program flowchart and pseudocode algorithms, including dry running using trace tables testing a given program flowchart or pseudocode algorithm advantages and limitations of adopting a new computer-based system.

Learning resources

6.1

The methods used to identify how the existing system operates

Teachers should: allocate approximately 25% of the available time to study of this part of the syllabus choose a graded series of typical problems involving the creation of a computer-based system to replace a manual (usually paper-based) system for each problem, guide students study of section 6 of the syllabus, performing practical work where possible and otherwise research start with simpler problems, such as the simple applications listed on p. 7 of the syllabus progress to more complex problems, such as those applications listed on p. 8 of the syllabus aim to give students two or three mock exams with past papers or similar scenarios and questions to those in past papers. Refer to study of fact finding (syllabus section 2.1.1) in Unit 3.

LWS coursebook pp. 11921 (including the Paper 3 guidance in the Fact-finding methods coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) pp. 34 LWS coursebook pp. 1257 (including the Paper 3 guidance in the Planning coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) pp. 56 LWS coursebook: p. 127 (software including the Paper 3 guidance in the Selection of software coursework box) p. 133 (hardware including the Paper 3 guidance in 5

6.2

Action plans

6.3

Selection of hardware and software

Explain that: a large project team is often needed to develop and implement (change over to) a new computer-based system managing the completion of such a project to an agreed timescale and within budget, requires careful planning and monitoring (tracking) tools available for such planning and monitoring are Gantt Charts, PERT charts, Critical Path Analysis and project management software. Refer to study of: software (syllabus section 4.1) in Unit 7 hardware (syllabus section 5.1) in Unit 9. Cambridge O Level Computer Studies (7010)

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Suggested teaching activities

Learning resources the Selection of hardware and system flowchart coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework): pp. 67 (hardware) p. 8 (software) LWS coursebook: pp. 1234 (system flowcharts) p. 133 (Paper 3 guidance on system flowcharts in the Selection of hardware and system flowchart coursework box) p. 132 (Paper 3 guidance on program flowcharts for algorithms in the Processing design coursework box) pp. 2445 (program flowcharts) pp. 24751 & 2669 (dry running) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework): pp. 913 (system flowcharts) pp. 146 (program flowcharts) pp. 178 (dry running) LWS coursebook: p. 132 (Paper 3 guidance on pseudocode for algorithms in the Processing design coursework box) pp. 2606 LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) p. 16 LWS coursebook pp. 1335 (including the Paper 3 guidance in the Test strategy coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) pp. 189 (& 213) LWS coursebook pp. 1403 (including the Paper 3 guidance in the Changeover method coursework box)

6.4

Flowcharts and pseudocode

Refer to study of: system flowcharts (syllabus section 2.1) in Unit 3 program flowcharts (syllabus section 3.1.2) in Unit 4 dry running a program flowchart or pseudocode algorithm using a trace table (syllabus section 3.1.3) in Unit 4. For pseudocode, see below.

6.11

Pseudocode processes and structures

Refer to study of pseudocode (syllabus sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.4) in Unit 5.

6.5

Test data for use with algorithms

Refer to study of test data (syllabus section 2.2.2) in Unit 3.

6.6

Implementing the new system

Explain that implementation means changeover to the new system. Refer to study of changeover (syllabus section 2.2.4) in Unit 3.

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Learning resources LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) pp. 1920 LWS coursebook pp. 1336 (including the Paper 3 guidance in the Test strategy coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) pp. 213 LWS coursebook pp. 13640 (including the Technical documentation and User documentation coursework boxes) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) pp. 245 LWS coursebook pp. 1435 (including the Evaluation and Development coursework boxes) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework) p. 26 LWS coursebook: pp. 21621 pp. 1212 (feasibility study including the Paper 3 guidance in the coursework box) LWS coursebook CD-ROM: Tackling the exam papers: Guidance on Paper 3 (alternative to the coursework): pp. 2730 p. 5 (feasibility study)

6.7

Testing

Refer to study of testing (syllabus section 2.2.2) in Unit 3.

6.8

Documentation

Refer to study of documentation (syllabus section 2.2.3) in Unit 3.

6.9

Evaluation

Refer to study of evaluation (syllabus section 2.2.5) in Unit 3. Students also need to be able explain the reasons why evaluation is performed.

6.10

Advantages and limitations of adopting the new computer-based system

Refer to social and economic effects (syllabus section 1.2.1) and changes in employment & re-training (syllabus section 1.2.2) in Unit 2. Also explore with students: the impact of computerised systems, e.g. how once a system has been computerised, many further developments become possible, including making the system available on a company-wide intranet and an internet website the features likely to be required by such an intranet or internet website the potential advantages to both the website owner and their clients how the development of an intranet and/or website requires extra expenditure and staff training the benefits of computer-based methods for such training. A question could also be asked about a feasibility study refer to study in Unit 3.

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