This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**HYDRAULIC FRACTURES IN LOW PERMEABILITY WELLS
**

A.D. LAIRD L. MATTAR

this article begins on the next page F F

PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM PAPER NO. 85-36-8 THIS IS A PREPRINT - SUBJECT TO CORRECTION PRACTICAL WELL TEST DESIGN TO EVALUATE HYDRAULIC FRACTURES IN LOW PERMEABILITY WELLS by A.0 ' Laird L. Mattar T. Fekete and Associates Consultants Ltd. PUBLICATION RIGHTS RESERVED THIS PAPER IS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE 36TH ANNUAL TECHNICAL MEETING OF THE PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM HELD JOINTLY WITH THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS IN EDMONTON JUNE 2-5,1985. DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER IS INVITED. SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE TECHNICAL

MEETING AND WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR PUBLICATION IN CIM JOURNALS IF FILED IN WRITING WITH THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM CHAIRMAN PRIOR TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING. ABSTRACT When a low permeability well is hydraulically frac- tured, the test time required to acquire meaningful data and estimate both fracture and matrix paramet- ers from a single test is often impractically long. Using today's linear flow analysis techniques, the test can be designed to achieve more reservoir in- formation in less time. The general success of the stimulation, and the fracture half-length can be evaluated from two

short tests, one before and one after the frac. It is necessary to obtain a pre-frac or other in- dependent estimate of matrix permeability which can be combined with the linear flow data to yield an estimate of fracture parameters. By spending time on the pre-frac test, a greater amount of time can be saved by reducing the length of the post-frac portion of the test. INTRODUCTION This paper was written by and for the practising reservoir engineer. It collects and summarizes several important developments in pressure trans- ient analysis and emphasizes how to practically apply them to the

design and analysis of fractured well tests. It has been the authors' experience that quite often fractured wells are not tested properly, that the tests are long and expensive and fail to yield the desired practical evaluation of the success of _ the frac job. This is usually combined with the improper use of drawdown typecurves and semi-log analysis. These well-known conventional techniques need to be supplemented with other techniques that have been specifically designed to account for the flow regimes found in fractured well tests. This paper presents three main ideas; the Tandem- Root-

T plot, and the delta-t-equivalent-radial and delta-t-equivalent-linear type curves. These are all powerful and useful ideas which have been previously published but do not yet seem to be used and applied widely in the industry. The use of these techniques is illustrated with a series of simple and practical examples. -273-

THIS IS A PREPRINT - SUBJECT TO CORRECTION

PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM PAPER NO. 85·36·8

1

,

;,

,

.'

PRACTICAL WELL TEST DESIGN

TO EVALUATE HYDRAULIC

FRACTURES IN LOW

PERMEABILITY WELLS

A.Dbraird

L. Mattar

T. Fekete and Associates Consultants Ltd.

PUBLICATIDN RIGHTS RESERVED

THIS PAPER IS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE 36TH ANNUAL TECHNICAL MEETING OF THE PETROLEUM

SOCIETY OF CIM HELD JOINTLY WITH THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS IN EDMONTON

JUNE 2-5, 1985. DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER IS INVITED. SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE

TECHNICAL MEETING AND WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR PUBLICATION IN CIM JOURNALS IF FILED IN WRITING

WITH THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM CHAIRMAN PRIOR TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING.

.':

., '-

.

,- .

ABSTRACT

When a low permeability well is hydraulically frac-

cured, ehe cest eime required to acquire meaningful

data and estimate both fracture and matrix paramet-

ers from a single test is often impractically long.

Using coday's linear analysis techniques, the

test can be designed to achieve more reservoir in-

formacion in less time_ The general success of the

stimulation. and the fracture half-length can be

evaluated from two short tests. one before and one

after the frac.

It is necessary to obtain a pre-Erac or other in-

dependent estimate of matrix permeabilicy which

can be combined with the linear flow data to yield

an estimate of fraccure parameters. By spending

eime on ehe pre-Erac test, a greacer amount oE

time can be saved by reducing the lengeh of the

posc-frac portion of che test.

INTRODUCTION

This paper was writcen by and for the pract1s1ng

reservoir engineer_ It colleccs and summarizes

-273-

several importane developmencs in pressure trans-

ient analysis and emphasizes how to practically

apply them to the design and analysis of fractured

well teses.

Ie has been the auchors' experience that quice

often fractured wells are noc teseed properly, thae

the tests are long and expensive and fail to yield

the desired practical evaluation of the success of

the frac job_ This is usually combined with the

improper use of draYdown typecurves and semi-log

analysis_ These well-known conventional techniques

need to be supplemented wieh other techniques thac

have been specifically designed to account for the

flow regimes found in fractured well tests.

This paper presents three main ideas; the Tandem-

Root-T ploc, and the delta-t-equivalent-radial and

delta-t-equivalent-linear type curves_ These are

all powerful and useful ideas which have been

previously published but do not yet seem to be

used and applied widely in the industry.

The use of these techniques is illuscrated with a

series of simple and practical examples_

......

THE TM"DEM-ROOT-T A.NALYSIS :-[£:THOD

Millheim and Cichowicz 0) originally dC'.monscrated

chat for a buildup tesc dominated by linear flow,

cne pressure Lransienc beh.l.Vior could be modelled

as:

allows ehe use of a varieey of drawdoun

type HO!,.lcver, be exercised

since Agarwal's ue is based on the assumpeion of

radial flow. and Hawkes (4) demons traced

thae further refinemenes are needed when

with a linear flow domina red well eest.

..,here

qgBg v·<..

h xf koc

o

To emphasize this paine, and to differenelate

between Ag a["\o1a 1 's time function ocher

ones, ie shall be referred co in this paper as

ot

e

(r3.dial) or

DELTA-T-EQUIVALENT (LINEAR)

This equation is presenced Ln Uniced States field

unics and uses pressure to represent gas potential

Converced into metric and using real gas

pseudo-pressure, the equacion reads as follows:

- c

i !,.IS

Samaniego and Cinco-ley (5) published a eime func-

tion thae is similar co Agarwal's delta-t-equlva-

lent-radial but which is based on the assumpeion

of linear flow_ This tIme (Linear).

is also used r:o correct buildup daca fof use with

drawdown type curve where

•.'ne re

, l

k=c J.,:

o

Wh3.c chis mean'S is. that, in a fraccured gas well

eese. where ehe pressure eransient behavior can be

adequaeely modelled by chis equacion, a ploe of

pseudo-pressure versus ehe tandem-root-t eime

funceion gives a ser3.ighc line of slope (me) which

is direceLy proponional '[.0 the Er3.ceure haLf-

lengch (xf) and che square rooe of the formaeion

permeaoilicy vk_ The iirs!. scep is co use a

curve to ideneiiy che linear flo\,,' dominaeed porcion

of the test and then dra\.,' it scraighc Line through

that poreion of che eandem--rooe-t plot_

In eheir paper, which is a useful rererence for

engineers dealing ·,..,ieh frac:cured wells, Lee and

Holdiech cn examined the theory and applicacion

of che Millheim and Cichow:.cz (N-C) method and

proposed some Eurcher rnodificaeions.

In bor:h ehe modified and original H-C mechod, onl:I

ehe produce of xf (k is given. Therefore. in order

co calculate xf, an escimal.e of k must be made,

ideally from a cest analysis. [n the

3bsr=.nce of a pre-fracture l.est, an independene

t::!stimace of k can be made from core daca, pecro-

physical correlaeions, or Judgement based on

experie.nce •.... ith ocher ..,ells in the same area and

formacion.

E:':AMPLES

In practice, all of these three new analvsi& eectl-

niques can easily be combined \lith the conventional

Horner and type curve ploes_ They can be used in

two 1) more information can be excracted

from exiseing data or 2) shoreer eesc programs

C3n be designed to yield the same information.

Some examples are given to illuserate ehe practic.J.l

nature of these eechniques. Simulated

buildup daca was used to allow different test pro-

grams and frac jobs to be run on the same "reser-

voir" _ The pre-frac model is an

homogeneous, isotropic reservoir wieh a posieive

skin, and low matrix permeabiliey co

a drillstem test on a tighe, damaged zone with a

downhole shut-in. The dimensionless solucion for

rhis model was preseneed by Gringareen. Bourdet,

Landel, and Kniazeff (6)_

The posc-frac modeL has che same maerix parameeers

with an infiniee conductivity vereical fraceurc

(ICVF) exr:ending into the reservoir. The dimen-

sionless solution for this model preseneed by

Gringareen, Ramey and Ragahavan (7).

To give more meaning to the specific

reservoir, fluid and time parameters have been

used inscead of the general dimensionless soLueions_

These parameters are:

DELTA-T-EQUIVALl:NT (RADIAL) Field Unies Meeric Units

p.

,

015 ps ia 27 680 kPa

,

T 158 F 70 C

q 0.5-3 :-1Mscf/d L4-85 e

J

m

J

/day

•

0_ 10 0_10

"., 0_316 fo 0.096 m

h 45 Eo

13,7

m

o

c

e

In an exce.llent paper, (J) presented a

powerful meehod of analyzing pressure buildup by

uSLng pressure dr3wdown type curves_ His meehod

correces che buildup daea an equivalent draw-

down rime funceion, delea-t-equivalenc

e Yo c.t

c

-274-

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- WASTE
- Hydrofracking- What Everyone Needs to Know
- CSUG HydraulicFrac Brochure
- 06044037
- Net_groos
- BJ Frac Manual v1.0 June 2005(A4)
- -55-1-Bekbauov
- Og St 140234
- ENPE 523 Practice Midterm
- Physico u2013Chemical Alterations of Naturally Fractured Carbonate
- Falling Head Permeability
- Truthland
- Aguilera 2014
- TS5A4
- Perorating and Perforation
- Shawket Exam Questions Dec 06
- 2 3 Unconventional Technology
- Principles of Well Spacing
- RESR6010-WaterfloodConcepts-snt
- Pipesim User Guide
- 2007-1312
- 1
- OG EP for Non Technical Professionals - MO
- Petrophysics MSc Course Notes
- Boel 2008
- otc23696.pdf
- Ex5.doc
- Karoon October Review
- PVT Laboratory Procedures and Report
- Hydrocarbon Gas Detection & Interpretation
- PETSOC-85-36-8-P