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Taylor Henry LBST 2102-005 Prof.


Revolution, as defined by Merriam-Webster is the usually violent attempt by many people to end the rule of one government and start a new one. Throughout the years weve seen many examples of revolution in countries such as Syria, Egypt, Libya, and also the United States. There are many factors that contribute to the outbreak of revolution. These factors are corruption, injustice, inequality, and distrust in the nation. Corruption is the perversion of integrity; this can lead to distrust causing common people to demand change ultimately leading to rebellion. Injustice also leads to strong since of distrust in the government. Injustice is the violation of rights and the mistreatment of individuals. Injustice is experienced by citizens of corrupt governments. Many revolutions begin as small organized rebellions. If no change occurs, the rebels grow angrier and more forceful which leads to an attempt to totally overthrow the government, or revolt. A much publicized example of revolution is the ongoing conflict in Syria. This conflict began because protesters demanded the resignation of Bashar al-Assad, whose family has held the presidency in Syria for over forty years. They demanded his resignation because of years of corruption and the abuse of human rights. The government responded to these protests with more violations of human rights such as arbitrary execution, arrests, prisoner torture, and police brutality. As these protests grew larger, President al-Assad began launching large-scale military operations which lead to the deaths of many citizens. A group of citizens responded with the FSA (Free Syrian Army) on July 29. This rebel army was composed of defected Syrian Armed Forces personal as well as civilian volunteers. The purpose of this group is to bring down the government while protecting the protesting civilians from the brutal force of the Syrian government military. This group was the beginning of armed resistance to the Assad government. Since the formation of the FSA, it has connected with many other rebel forces. These other rebel forces include, Martyrs of Syria Brigades, led by Jamal Maarouf, Northern Storm Brigade, and Ahrar Souriya Brigade. Although the purpose of this group is to protect protesting individuals, innocent civilians are in constant danger. These unarmed civilians are at a higher risk than any military group because they have no way to protect themselves other than just hiding, which is sometimes of no use because of overhead helicopter bomb attacks by the Syrian military. According to the Observatorys figures, 40,146 civilians,

including 6,087 children and 4,079 women, have been killed in the conflict1. These civilians run the risk of starvation. If their home is invaded and destroyed by any militant groups, they are face with displacement. Their survival depends on the humanitarian efforts by outside countries. The United Nations has taken many efforts to aid in the resolution of the Syrian revolution. Resolution 66/253 expresses grave concern over the conflict. 3. Calls upon the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to immediately put an end to all human rights violations and attacks against civilians, protect its population, fully comply with its obligations under applicable international law and fully implement Human Rights Council resolutions S-16/1,1 S-17/11 and S-18/1,2 as well as General Assembly Resolution 66/176, including by cooperating fully with the independent international commission of inquiry; 4. Condemns all violence, irrespective of where it comes from, and calls upon all parties in the Syrian Arab Republic, including armed groups, to stop all violence or reprisals immediately, in accordance with the League of Arab States initiative; 5. Stresses again the importance of ensuring accountability and the need to end impunity and hold to account those responsible for human rights violations, including those violations that may amount to crimes against humanity;2

This resolution also condemns the systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms by the Syrian authorities (A/RES/66/253). The United Nations Security Council believes it is very important to convene an international conference to implement the Geneva Communique, which, like Resolution 66/253, stresses the importance of intervening in the Syrian conflict. The Geneva

Druzin, Rye. Syrian Observatory: Syrian conflict death toll rises to 115,000." Media Line. 17 10 2013: n. page. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. 2 A/RES/66/253 Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 16 February 2012

Communique also calls for the cessation of armed violence, which will aid in the transition to a peaceful country. Another revolution is the Egyptian revolution of 2011. This revolution started as a result of an uprising on January 25, 2011. This protest called for the overthrow of the regime President Hosni Mubarak. They protesters spoke out against factors harming the Egyptian people such as police brutality and government corruption. The uprising did cause the ejection of President Hosni Mubarak however; the protest resulted in a violent clash between security forces and protesters, which began the battle between the Egyptian military and civilian opposition groups. The Muslim Brotherhood was a group that had a large part during the revolution. The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna. Its goals are to instill the Quran and Sunnah as the sole reference point for ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community, and state. During the revolution the brotherhood had a strong position in the 2011 parliamentary election. In 2012, the brotherhoods candidate Mohamed Morsi was elected president. Mohamed Morsi faced a large amount of public opposition because of his taking advantage of his power. He granted himself the power to pass legislation without judicial review as a way to protect the citizens of Egypt from the Mubarakera power structure. The governing structure of Mohamed Morsi was extremely unpopular with citizens. Those who opposed Morsi accused him and the brotherhood of attempting to monopolize power. In the summer of this year, Egypt became much divided and Mohamed Morsi was arrested and detained by the military. Raids against the Muslim Brotherhood commenced all over Egypt. The Brotherhood retaliated by burning and looting police stations and churches. Mohamed Morsis presidency came to an end on July 3, 2013. During the Revolution of 2011, there have been reports of at least 840 deaths, which is significantly less than that of the Syrian Revolution. A number of these deaths were caused by selfimmolation, a form of protest in which and individual sets themselves on fire. The nation of Egypt continues to have a high level of civil unrest. The end to the revolution was followed by years of unrest including the presidency of Mohamed Morsi and under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The UN Secretary-General has stressed the importance of peaceful protest, respect for freedom of assembly and commitment to non-violence3. The Libyan Civil War is another example of revolution. The war started on February 15, 2011 after a number of protests in Benghazi. This armed conflict was between the forces loyal to former


Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. These protesters were seeking to oust his government. Like Egypt and Syria, citizens of Libya were faced with the burden of a corrupt government and violation of human rights. The protests against these factors lead to a widespread rebellion, these opposing forces established the National Transitional Council. These forces were able to overthrow the regime or Muammar Gaddafi. Muammar Gaddafi ruled as leader of Libya from September 1969 to August 2011. He was very unpopular with the people of Libya. During the rebellion, Gaddafi stated that the rebels would be hunted down street by street, house by house, wardrobe by wardrobe. He had the army open fire on protests in Benghazi killing hundreds. Gaddafi responded to the civil war by calling those who opposed him rats and cockroaches. He also accused his opponents of being under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs and alcohol. He did many things to suppress protests, which only angered civilians more. Gaddafi was captured and killed by rebel forces on October 20, 2011. After the end of the Libyan Civil War the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 2022 (2011). This resolution concerned the transition of Libya after the war.

Recalling its decision to establish a United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) for an initial period of three months until 16 December 2011 to assist and support Libyan national efforts in the post-conflict phase, Welcoming the establishment of the transitional Government of Libya on 22 November 2011, and stressing its key role in creating the conditions conducive to the full implementation of UNSMILs mandate, Welcoming also the engagement of the Secretary-General and the President of the General Assembly, including through their recent visit to Libya which affirmed the key role of the United Nations in supporting Libyan national efforts in the postconflict phase,

Looking forward to an assessment of needs by UNSMIL and the transitional Government of Libya by 16 March 2012, cooperating with all relevant international partners, including the international financial institutions, with a view to continuing the work of the UN in coordinating international support to the transitional Government of Libya on the basis of its needs, Stressing the importance of the UNs, including UNSMILs, continued support to the transitional Government of Libya in addressing immediate priorities as set out in paragraph 12 of resolution 2009 (2011)4 The protests and rebellion that precede revolution are constructed by citizens that have a shared sense of nationalism. The term nationalism is generally used to describe two phenomena: (1) the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity, and (2) the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve (or sustain) self-determination.5 These individuals each were displeased with the government and the state of their nation, so together they began to protest. The American Revolution is an example of revolution that most know quite well. Across the colonies a shared sense of anger caused the colonials to join together against the British rule. The American Revolution as well as the revolutions in Syria, Egypt, and Libya show that, without nationalism and camaraderie, there would be no need for revolution.

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S/RES/2022 Resolution adopted by the Security Council on December 2, 2011 Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy