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History and Preamble

1. Constituent assembly was set up in 6th December 1946. 2. There were 389 members in the constituent assembly. 3. The first meeting of constituent assembly was hel in elhi in 9th December 1946. 4. !naugerent"temporary presi ent of constituent assembly was Dr. sacchi anan a sinha. #. Dr. $a%e ra &rasa was the permanent presi ent of constituent assembly. 6. 'emen ra (umar mu(hopa hyay was the )ice presi ent of constituent assembly. *. $a%en ra &rasa was electe as the permanent presi ent of constituent assembly in 11th December+ 1946. 8. Dr. ,.- $ao was the constitutional a )isor of constituent assembly. 9. Drafting committee for constitution was set up in 29th .ugust 194*. 1/. There were * members in the rafting committee. 11. ,.$ .mbe (ar was the chairman of the rafting committee. 12. 0ye 1 . 0a ullah was the only muslim member of the rafting committee. 13. 2n 4th -o)ember 194*+ rafting committee starte wor(ing to prepare constitution. 14. Drafting committee submitte the rafting constitution to constituent assembly in 21st 3ebruary 1948. 1#. !n ian constitution was actually rea y in 26th -o)ember+ 1949. 16. The constitution came into force in in ia in 26th 4anuary 19#/. 1*. Time ta(en to prepare the constitution was 2 years 11months an * ays5some boo( says 18 ays6. The amount spen for preparing it was nearly 64la(h. 18. Diarchy was intro uce in pro)inces in 1919. 19. There were 39# articles in the constitution. -ow it has 446. 2/. There were 22 parts in the constitution. -ow it has 24. 21. There were 8 sche ules in the constitution. -ow it has 12. 22. There were 3 members in the cabinet mission. 23. The main i ea of the !n ian constitution has been prepare base on the go)t. of in ia act 193#. 24. The preamble is a preface or the intro uction to the constitution. !t is not an integral part of the constitution. 2#. The interpretation of the constitution is base on the spirit of the preamble. 26. The ob%ecti)e resolution propose by pan it -ehru an passe by the constituent assembly+ ultimately became the preamble. 2*. The i ea of preamble was borrowe from the constitution of 70.. 28. The wor 8socialist9+ 8secular9 an 8integrity9 were a e by the 42n amen ment in 19*6. 29. &reamble is not %ustifiable. 3/. 0o)ereign means free to follow internal an e:ternal policies. 31. The wor socialist has been inserte in the preamble to the constitution of in ia by the 42n amen ment in 19*6. !n ia;s concept of socialism is ifferent from the 1ar:ian concept of socialism. !n ia;s type of socialism is emocratic socialism. 32. 0ecular means no particular religion. 33. Democratic means electe representati)es.

34. $epublic means no room for here itary ruler or monarch. 3#. !n the berubari case 5196/6 the supreme court hel that the preamble was not part of the constitution+ but later on the (esha)anan a bharati case 519*36+ it was eclare that it was part of the constitution. 36. The preamble is the heart an soul of the !n ian constitution was state by ,.$ .mbe (ar. 3*. <rnst ,ar(er of <nglan has mentione our preamble in his famous boo( 8principles of social an political theory9.

Union and State Legislature


Union legislature/parliament/modern form of constituent assembly

main organs [lok sabha,rajyasabha,president]

lok sabha/lower house of parliament/first chamber of parliament/popular house of parliament/house of people of parliament

min age [25yrs] max strength [552] present/normal strength [5 5] members elected

!" [ 2] U# [$%] Union territories [&']

delhi [(]

tenure [5yrs] leader of majority party [prime minister] member nominated by president [2] leader of sabha/president of sabha [speaker] magic number

winning/ruling party [total no) of seat / 2 * &] defending/opposition party [total no) of seat / &%]

art ''& [president nominates 2 anglo indian members]

rajya sabha/upper house of parliament/second chamber of parliament/council of state of parliament/

min age ['%yrs] tenure [+yrs] members nominated [&2]

by [president] mentioned art [$%]

members elected [method of election is called ,proportional representation by means of single transferable -ote,]

!" [&+] U# ['&] .elhi ['] #ondicherry [&]

presides o-er sabha [-ice president] max strength [25%] present/normal strength [2 5] composition art [$%] dissol-e [no one,permanent body] retire [&/' member after 2yrs]

president/executi-e head

concept [U/0] list [union list] articles

5' [executi-e head in india] 5 [electoral college for pre1] +% [oath or affirmation] +& [impeachment of pre1] (2 [pardon power of pre1] &2' [ordinance power of pre1]

part [5] oath or affirmation [chief justice of india/chief justice of supreme court] electoral college for election of pre1 consist all the electoral members of 2#s and 230s age ['5yrs] impeachment [members of both houses of parliament] task

declare ordinance in recess period of parliament

salary [consolidated fund of india] resignation [-ice president] tenure [5yrs]

-ice president/exofficio chairman of rajya sabha

list [union list] articles

+ [ex officio chairman of rajya sabha] ++ [electoral college for election of -ice pre1] +( [impeachment of -ice pre1] +4 [oath or affirmation]

part [5] electoral college for election of -ice president is consisted with all 2#s oath or affirmation [president] age ['5yrs] impeachment [members of rajya sabha] resignation [president] salary [consolidated fund of india] tenure [5yrs]

composition art [(4] concept [U5] members indirectly elected from union territory in rajya sabha [delhi 6'7 * pondicherry 6&7 8 ]

/tate legislature/bidhan mandali

composition [go-ornor,bidhan parishad,bidhan sabha]

bidhan parishad/upper house of state legislature/state legislati-e council/second chamber of state legislature

minm age ['%yrs] max strength [&/' of bidhan sabha members] min strength [ %]

members nominated by go-orner [&/+ of total,from persons with special knowledge and experience in science,literature,art,social ser-ice 6by art &(&6577] dissol-e [no one can] created/abolished [parliament on recommendation of 2/' bidhan sabha] &/' members retires [after 2yrs] creation/abolition art [&+4] tenure [+yrs] composition art [&(&] !" abolished [&4+4] chairman [chief minister]

bidhan sabha/lower house of state legislature/state legislati-e assembly/first chamber of state legislature

anglo indian member nominated by go-orner [&, by art '''] tenure [5yrs] min strength [+%] max strength [5%%] president [speaker]

resignation [to the deputy speaker] deputy speaker resignation [speaker]

composition art [&(% 6&7] leader of majority party [9hief minister]

principal channel between go-orner and 9:2 [92] part related to 92 [+] acti-ities of members of majority party of bidhan sabha [92] list [state list] 92 and 9:2 salary [from public accounts fund]

principal channel between go-orner and bidhan sabha [speaker] 92 and 9:2 collecti-ely responsible [bidhan sabha] speaker election [elected members of bidhan sabha]


list [union list]

mentioned in part [+] concept from [go-t of india act &4'5] art [&52 ; &+2]

&52 [defn of go-ernor] &5' [go-ernor of state) there will be & go-ernor per state] &5 [executi-e power of go-ernor)executi-e power of state will be -ested on go-ernor] &55 [appointment of go-ernor]

appointment [president on recommendation of union cabinet]

&5+ [term of office]

term [5yrs, duration depend on president]

&5( [<ualification of appointment as go-ernor]

<ualification [citi1en of india, complete '5yrs, should not hold any office of profit of union = state] man appointed as go-ernor will be out of state after (th amendment of &45+ it is possible to appoint same person as go-ernor for more than one state

&5$ [condition of go-ernor office] &54 [oath or affirmation administered by chief justice of high court or senior most judge of high court] &+% [discharge of fn of go-ernor in certain contingencies] &+& [power to grant pardons etc and to suspend reunit or commute sentence in certain cases] &+2 [extent of executi-e power of state by go-ernor] 2&' [go-ernor can promulgate an ordinance during the recess of state legislature] &+'6&7 [his discretionary power to choose the political party and 92 when no party gains majority] '5+ [go-ernor may in-ite president to take o-er the administration of state in case of breakdown of constitutional machinery]

remo-al [president on ad-ice of union cabinet of ministers]

resignation submitted to president

salary [> subpoints]

when acting as go-ernor for multiple state,salary should be same salary determine by parliament consulting two state legislatures monthly ?s &,&%,%%% charged on consolidated fund of state but after retire pension from consolidated fund of india

past [> subpoints]

first go-orner genl bengal [warren hastings] first go-orner genl india [lord william bentink] first go-ernor !" [chakra-arty raja gopalcharya]

tasks [> subpoints]

92 appointed other 9:2 appoint on ad-ice of 92 oath of 92 and council of ministers 92 and 9:2 resignation submission to go-orner 92 and 9:2 indi-idually responsible bound to gi-e assent in money bill of state legislature, without assent no bill can be made an act act as chancellor of uni-ersity of state appoint -ice chancellor of uni-ersity of state appoint ad-ocate genl of state appoint chairman and member of state psc special responsibility regarding scheduled tribe of some specific area constitute finance commision after e-ery 5yrs to re-iew financial position of panchayat and municipality

present go-ernor [25 @arayanan 625th7] agent to the centre but fortnightly report on state affairs all the executi-e action of state go-t to be taken in go-ernors name

composition article [&+$] upper house [state legislati-e council or /39] two houses [( 6U#,A=5, 2aharashtra, karnataka, "ihar, Bamil @adu, 0#7]

Supreme Court and High Court

supreme court

concept [U/0] estd) [delhi,&45%] first chief justice [Carilal A) 5anaria] judges during estd [$] chief justice appoint [president] other judge appoint [president on ad-ice of chief justice] mentioned part [5] tenure [+yrs] related art [&2 ;& (]

&2 [composition of /upreme 9ourt] &24 [court of record of supreme court] &'& [original jurisdiction] &'( [judicial re-iew] & % [auxilary power of supreme court] & ' [ad-isory jurisdiction of supreme court]

list [union list] retirement of judges [+5yrs] judge impeachment [president]

participate in impeachment [members of both houses of parliament]

oath or affirmation of judges [president] resignation of judges [president] salary [consolidated fund of india] women judges [meera sahib fatima 6first women,&4$47, sujata manhar 6&44$7,ruma pal 62%%%7,gaan sudha mishra62%&%7] chief justice * other judges

&45% [& * (] &4+% [&*&'] &4+$ [&*&(] &4$+ [&*25] 2%%4 [&*'%]

high court

mentioned part [+] mentioned art [2& ;2'&]

2& [C9 for each state] 2'& [parliament by law can establish common C9 for two or more states] 2&5 [C9 to be court of records] 2&+ [composition of C9]

no) of judges to be determined by president

2&( [appointment and conditions of office]


chief justice [president on ad-ice with chief justice of /9 and go-ernor] other judges [president on ad-ice of chief justice of C9]

term [upto +2yrs for all] resignation [to president for all] remo-al [president on ground of pro-en misbeha-iour/incapacity after remo-al bill passed by each house of parliament separably by special majority] transfer [president from one C9 to another] <ualification [indian citi1en, hold judicial office for at least &%yrs or has been ad-ocate of C9 for at least &%yrs] rules and regulations [determined by parliament] other rules [any person who has hold office of judge of C9 shall not plead before any court in india except /9 and other C9]

2&4 [oath to be done by go-ernor for all] 22& [salaries]

determined by parliament and charged upon consolidated fund of state but their pension after retire to be charged upon consolidated fund of india present salary of other judges updated from 2+%%% to $%%%% per month present salary of chief justice updated from '%%%% to 4%%%% per month

22' [acting chief justice of C9 will be appointed by the president among judges of C9] 22 [appointment of additional and acting judges]

additional judges [president may appoint duly <ualified persons for temporary increase in business of C9 for max 2yrs] acting judges [president may appoint duly <ualified person temporarily in absensce of any judge]

22+ [writ justification of C9, it ha-e power to issue writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights and for other legal rights also]

concept [U/0] list [union list] first high court [&$+2, first calcutta then bombay and madras] present total C9 [2&] in ( union territory, .elhi has own C9 and others ha-e common C9

Attorney general and Advocate general


attorney general

concept [U5] related part [5] related art [(+] list [union list] retirement [+5yrs] tenure [+yrs] appoint [president on ad-ice of #2] impeachment [president] enjoy rank [of ordinary 2#] enjoy <ualification [like other judges of supreme court] tasks

can participate the meeting of parliament without 2# he is legal ad-isor/highest law officer of india

salary [consolidated fund of india]

ad-ocate general

mentioned part [+] mentioned art [&+5]

<ualification [same as judge of C9]

term [pleasure of go-orner] remo-al [by go-orner] salary [determined by go-orner charged on consolidated fund of state]


he is the highest law officer of state and legal ad-isor of state go-t) can take part in the proceeding of state legislature without being a member,but do not ha-e right to -ote gi-e legal ad-ice to state go-t and to perform such duties of legal character as may be referred by go-orner to him

appointment [go-orner] right to audience all courts in that state

Fundamental rights, Fundamental duties, Writs and DPSP


fundamental rights

concept [U/0] mentioned part ['] mentioned art [&2;'5] no) of rights

past [(] present [+] amendment &4($]

abolished right [art '& which is right to property by power to amend rights [parliament]

right to property is called legal or moral right at present power to suspend rights during emergency [president] art cannot be suspended during emergency [2% and 2&] pre-enti-e detention act [passed in &45%] articles related

&2 [defn of fundamental right] &' [importance of fundamental right] right to e<uality [& ;&$]

& [e<uality before law]

concept [U5]

&5 [abolition of social discrimination] &+ [e<ual opportunity in go-t ser-ice] &( [abolition of untouchability] &$ [abolition of titles] about right [e-ery citi1en is assured e<uality before law and e<ual protections of laws) @o discrimination on basis of religion,caste,race,sex or birthplace) Dn matters of public employment also all citi1ens are assured e<uality of opportunity]

right to freedom [&4;22]

about right [gurantees six fundamental freedoms]

freedom of speech and expression freedom of assembly freedom to form associations freedom of mo-ement freedom to reside and settle in any part of country freedom of profession

art 2& [right to life] art 2&607 [right to education,introduced $+th amendment 2%%2]

right against exploitation [2';2 ]

about right

protect weaker sections agains exploitation #rohibits traffic in human beings and beggar imposes restrictions on employment of children below age of & in factories and jobs

right to freedom of religion [25;2$]

25 [three conscience of religion] about right

e-ery citi1en free to profess and propagate any religion state cannot patroni1e any particular religion state cannot ask citi1en to pay taxes for promotion of any religion 6art 2(7 instruction of religion in any educational institution 6art 2$7

cultural and educational rights [24;'%]

about right

permits minorities to conser-e their language,script and culture establish and administer educational institutions for minorities

right to constitutional remedies ['2]

"? 0mbedkar said this as heart and soul of constitution to sa-e fundamental right supreme court applies writ


concept [U5] number of writs [5]

habeas corpus [issued against meaningful detention) "y issueing such writ the court can order that a person who has been imprisoned brought before it to know the reasons of his detention and set him free if there is no legal justification for imprisonment] mandamus [it commands the person to whom it is addressed to perform some public or <uasi public legal duty which he has refused to reform and performance of which cannot be enforced by any other ade<uate legal remedy] prohibition [issued by /9 or C9 to lower courts forbidding latter to discontine proceeding in a case which is outside its jurisdiction] certiorary [issued to lower court after a case has been decided by it <uashing the decisions or order)Dssued when court acts beyond its jurisdiction] <uo warranto [proceeding by which court en<uires into the legality of claim of a person to public offence and to remo-e him from enjoyment if the claim is not well founded]

enjoys writ [high and supreme courts] art 22+ [to sa-e our legal or moral rights and fundamental rights high court applies the writ]

directi-e principles of state policy

articles ['+;5&]

+ [promotion of educations and economic interest of weaker sections] % [setup the panchayat raj system all o-er india] '4 [right to ade<uate li-elihood to all the children] '40 [e<ual pay and free legal aid to poor citi1ens] & [right to work] ' [promote the cottage industries in rural areas or cooperati-e basis] '0 [participation of workers in the management of industries]

[uniform ci-il code] 5 [pro-ide free and compulsory education] ( [prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs] $ [prohibition of cow slaughter] $0 [protection of animal life] 4 [protect the historical places and monuments] 5% [executi-e should be separate from judiciary] 5& [secure international peace and security]

classification [economic and socialist principles,gandhian principles,liberal principles] mentioned part [ ] concept [ireland] no) of dpsps

past [&'] present [&(]

ideas of welfare state has been enshrined in dpsp

fundamental duties

included [by 2nd amendment &4$+] concept [U//? ; united states of so-iet russia] mentioned art [5&0] mentioned part [ 0] number

past [&%] present [&&]

&&th one included through the $+th amendment in 2%%2


inister and Chie!

appoint [president]


prime minister

other member appoint [president on ad-ice of #2] oath or affirmation of #2 and 9:2 [president] #2 and 9:2 responsible

indi-idually [president] collecti-ely [lok sabha]

principal channel between

president and 9:2 [#2] president and lok sabha [speaker]

#2 and 9:2 resignation [president] tasks

dept distribution among majority party in lok sabha controls acti-ities of members of majority party of lok sabha

Controller and Auditor "eneral #CA"$


90E [controller and auditor general of india]

concept [U5] conditions of ser-ice act passed [&4(&] appointment [president on ad-ice of #2] articles [& $;&5&] retirement [+5yrs] mentioned part [5] list [union list] tenure [+yrs] enjoys rank like [an ordinary 2#] <ualification like [other judges of /upreme 9ourt] salary [consolidated fund of india]

Panchyati ra% system, Local sel! government, &'S


panchayati raj system

minm age [2&yrs] tenure [5yrs] election taken by [state go-t]

first election in !" [&4($]

articles [2 ';2 '6o7]

% [directs state go-t to organi1e #?/]

first introduced [rajasthan,&454] mentioned part [4] highest tier [1ila parishad]

president [sabhadhipati] executi-e officer [district magistrate] takes role [district le-el]

middle tier [panchayat samiti]

president [sabhapati] executi-e officer [".:] role [block le-el]

grassroot tier [gram panchayat]

takes role [-illage le-el] minm strength [5] maxm strength ['%] president [pradhan]

schedule [&&th]


no F?/ states [@agaland and 2i1oram] schedule for /9 and /B [5th] articles for /9 and /B [''% ; ' 2]

[''5] article for reser-ation ''% [reser-ation of /9 and /B in lok sabha] ''2 [reser-ation of /9 and /B in bidhan sabha]

part of special pro-ision of certain classes [&+] addition in constitution [&442,by ('rd amendment] seats in go-t ser-ice

/9 [&5G] /B [(&/2G] :"9 [2(G]

local self go-ernment

father [3ord ?ipon] municipality

oldest [madras,&+$$] addition in constitution [&442 by ( th amendment] mentioned part [part 40] schedule [&2th] article [2 'p ; 2 '1g] number

!" [&2&]

ward no

minm) [4] maxm) ['5]

president called [chairman] minm age [2&yrs] tenure [5yrs] election taken by [state go-t]

municipal corporation


!" [+ 6kolkata,howrah,chandennagore,durgapur,asansol,siliguri7] kolkata wards [& &]

chairman [mayor] first 529 election held [&4$5,'%th june]