Capitolul V

PROCESE TEHNOLOGICE DIN INDUSTRIA
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0DWHULDOHOHGHFRQVWUXF LHVHIRORVHVFODH[HFXWDUHDvQWUH LQHUHDúLUHSDUDUHDFRQVWUXF LLORU(OH
VXQW GHQDWXU DQRUJDQLF VDXRUJDQLF &DOLWDWHDORUGHWHUPLQ UH]LVWHQ DFRQVWUXF LLORUFLYLOHUXWLHUH
LQGXVWULDOHGLQDJULFXOWXU 
3ULQFLSDOHOHWLSXULGHPDWHULDOHGHFRQVWUXF LHVXQW

roci PDUPXU  

JUDQLW ED]DOW JUHVLH WXI YXOFDQLF SLDWU  GH UkX SLDWU  VSDUW  SLHWULú QLVLS

FDOFDUJLSVDUJLO HW

c.;
: var, ipsos, ciment; 
materiale ceramiceF U PL]L LJOHWHUDFRWHJUHVLLIDLDQ SRU HODQXUL 
VWLFO ; 
PDWHULDOHPHWDOLFHIHURDVHúLQHIHURDVH; 
materiale lemnoaseOHPQUXPHJXúKkUWLH 
materiale plastice SROLHWLOHQ  SROLFORUXU  GH YLQLO SROLXUHWDQ SROLVWLUHQ U 
OLDQ L

úLQL ILUH úL ILEUH

VLQWHWLFHHODVWRPHULODFXULYRSVHOHFRORUDQ L

produse petroliereVPRDO  

ELWXP 

GHúHXULGLQDOWHUDPXULLQGXVWULDOH]JXULPHWDOXUJLFHFHQXúLGHWHUPRFHQWUDO F U PL]LVSDUWH

etc.
Procesele tehnologice IRORVLWH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD OLDQ LORU úL PDWHULDOHORU FHUDPLFH VXQW SURFHVH
FRQWLQXH IDEULFDUHD FLPHQWXOXL VWLFOHL  úL SURFHVH GLVFRQWLQXH IDEULFDUHD YDUXOXL LSVRVXOXL
F U PL]LORU  FDUH IRORVHVF FD PDWHULH SULP  URFLOH PHWDPRUILFH $FHVWH SURFHVH VXQW

mari

FRQVXPDWRDUH GH HQHUJLH WHUPLF  (OH VXQW UHQWDELOH vQ FD]XO SURGXF LHL GH VHULH PDUH úL PDV 
,QVWDOD LLOHIRORVLWHVXQWvQJHQHUDOVLPSOH 

)DEULFDUHDOLDQ LORU
8QORFDSDUWHvQLQGXVWULDPDWHULDOHORUGHFRQVWUXF LLvORFXS IDEULFDUHDOLDQ LORUDQRUJDQLFL(L
VXQWVXEVWDQ HPLQHUDOHvQVWDUHSXOYHUXOHQW FDUHvQDPHVWHFFXDSDVDXDOWHOLFKLGHIRUPHD] VLVWHPH
SODVWLFHFDUHVHULJLGL]HD] vQWLPS/LDQ LLWUHEXLHV DGHUHIRDUWHELQHODPDWHULDOHOHSHFDUHOHOHDJ 
V  VH vQW UHDVF  v

ntr-XQ LQWHUYDO GH WLPS UHODWLY VFXUW V 

DLE  YDULD LL GH YROXP vQ VWDUH VROLG  IRDUWH

PLFL&HLPDLXWLOL]D LVXQWOLDQ LLFDUHvQVLVWHPXOGLVSHUVHWHURJHQVROLG

-lichid, folosesc apa.

/LDQ LL VH SRW FODVLILFD GXS  RULJLQH úL GXS  PRGXO GH LQWHUDF LXQH DO FRPSRQHQ LORU 'XS 
RULJLQH OLDQ LL VXQW

naturali úL artificiali 'XS  PRGXO GH LQWHUDF LXQH DO FRPSRQHQ LORU VXQW aerieni,
hidraulici FkQG VLVWHPXO GLVSHUV VH vQW UHúWH vQ PHGLX

FkQG VLVWHPXO GLVSHUV VH vQW UHúWH vQ DHU úL

umed.
/LDQ LLDHULHQLVXQWSHED] GH

sulfat de calciu LSVRVXO SHED] GHoxid de magneziu (cimentul
oxid de calciu (var).
/LDQ LL KLGUDXOLFL VXQW unitari úL PLFúWL. Cei unitari sunt QHFOLQFKHUL]D L YDU KLGUDXOLF  úL
FOLQFKHUL]D L (cimentul Portland, cimentXO DOXPLQRV HWF  /LDQ LL KLGUDXOLFL PLFúWL VXQW SH ED]  GH
6RUHO SHED] GH

FLPHQWLSVRVVDXYDUFXDGDRVXULGH]JXU JUDQXODW FHQXú FDOFDUQLVLSDUJLO FDOFLQDW HWF
3HQWUXIDEULFDUHDOLDQ LORUVHIRORVHVFvQSULQFLSDOURFLOHFDOFDURDVHFDUHFRQ LQFHOSX LQ 70%
CaCO3, argile cu procent mare de SiO2 úL $O2O3, marne cu (40÷70)% CaCO3 úL UHVWXO ]JXU  JLSV
(CaSO4 . 2H22 EDX[LWHFHFRQ LQ$O2O3ÌQYHGHUHDFRQIHULULLDQXPLWRUSURSULHW LOLDQ LORUvQúDUM VH

LQWURGXF PDWHULDOH GH DGDRV FXP VXQW VLOLFD L DOXPLQD L QLVLS FXDU RV FHQXúL GH WHUPRFHQWUDO  úL
SLULW YDUVXOIDWGHFDOFLXFORUXU GHFDOFLX
&HLPDLIRORVL LOLDQ LvQFRQVWUXF LHVXQWYDUXOLSVRVXOúLFLPHQWXO3RUWODQG

5.1.1. Fabricarea varului
Varul FRQ LQH ÷95)% CaO, (1÷5)% MgO, iar restul Al2O3, Fe2O3 HWF úL HVWH GH FXORDUH
alb-J

OEXL 6H IRORVHúWH vQ FRQVWUXF LL SHQWUX RE LQHUHD PRUWDUHORU SHQWUX ]LG ULH úL WHQFXLHOL úL vQ

÷  &D2 SHQWUX IDEULFDUHD FDUELGXOXL FORUXULL GH YDU úL FD IRQGDQW vQ

LQGXVWULH FkQG FRQ LQH 

metalurgie.
9DUXOVHRE LQHSULQFDOFLQDUHDSLHWUHLGHYDUFDUHFRQ LQHPLQLP&D&23

, la temperatura

0

de1200

&vQFXSWRDUHYHUWLFDOHFXIXQF LRQDUHFRQWLQX 5HDF LDFHDUHORFHVWH

CaCO3


CaO + CO2

Descompunerea CaCO3 este

IDYRUL]DW  GH VF GHUHD SUHVLXQLL &22

în cuptor, sub valoarea

QRUPDO  FHHD FH VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ WLUDM SXWHUQLF & OGXUD QHFHVDU  VH RE LQH SULQ DUGHUHD

combustibilului -JD]PHWDQS FXU FRFV-vQSUH]HQ DDHUXOXLLQWURGXVvQFXSWRUSHODED]DVD
VarXO HOLPLQDW SH OD SDUWHD LQIHULRDU  D FXSWRUXOXL VH OLYUHD]  QHVWLQV VXE IRUP  GH EXOJ
VDXVWLQVVXEIRUP GHSUDISDVW úLODSWHGHYDU9DUXOVWLQVVHQXPHúWHvar gras.

UL

5.1.2. Fabricarea ipsosului
Ipsosul (2CaSO4 • H22 VHRE LQHSULQDUGHUHD gipsului natural (CaSO4 • 2H2O) la temperatura
de (140÷190)0&vQFXSWRDUHURWDWLYH(OVHOLYUHD] VXEIRUP GHSUDIDOERE LQXWSULQP FLQDUHDILQ D
SURGXVXOXLUH]XOWDWGLQDUGHUHÌQDPHVWHFFXDSDIRUPHD] RSDVW FDUHVHvQW UHúWHGXS -PLQúLVe
IRORVHúWHSHQWUXRE LQHUHDXQRUIRUPHvQWXUQ WRULHDXQRUPXODMHFXSURILOFRPSOLFDWSHQWUXWHQFXLHOL
ÌQDPHVWHFFXYDUúLQLVLSVHIRORVHúWHSHQWUXRE LQHUHDXQRUSURGXVHFHUDPLFH
ÌQFRQVWUXF LHLSVRVXOVHIRORVHúWHODRSHUD LLOHGHILQLVDUHDOHLQWHULRDUHORUFO GLULORU

5.1.3. Fabricarea cimentului Portland
Cimentul Portland HVWH OLDQWXO FHO PDL XWLOL]DW GDWRULW 

SURSULHW

LORU VDOH FH GHSLQG GH

FRPSR]L LD FKLPLF  úL PLQHUDORJLF  FRQGL LLOH GH IDEULFD LH HWF 8Q FLPHQW 3RUWODQG QRUPDO DUH

uUP WRDUHDFRPSR]L LH
- silicat tricalcic (3CaO. SiO2), simbolizat (C36 vQSURSRU LHGH
- silicat dicalcic (2CaO . SiO2), simbolizat (C2S), într-un procent de 28%
- aluminat tricalcic (3CaO.Al2O3), cu simbolul (C3$ vQSURSRU LHGH
- feritaluminat tetracalcic (4CaO . Al2O3 . Fe2O3), simbolizat (C4AF), într-un procent de 8%
- CaSO4 (3%); MgO(2%); CaO liber (0,5%); Na2O (0,5%)
(O VH RE LQH SULQ DUGHUHD úL WRSLUHD PDWHULHL SULPH vQ LQVWDOD LL VSHFLDOH &LPHQWXO VH SRDWH
RE LQHSULQSURFHGHXOXVFDWVHPLXVFDWXPHGúLVHPLXPHG
,QGLIHUHQWGHSURFHGHXHWDSHOHSURFHVXOXLWHKQRORJLFVXQWSUHSDUDUHDPDWHULHLSULPHRE LQHUHD
FOLQFKHUXOXLúLRE LQHUHDFLPHQWXOXL

Prepararea materiei prime
0DWHULDSULP IRORVLW SHQWUXIDEULFDUHDFLPHQWXOXL3RUWODQGVHFRPSXQH

roci calcaroaseFXXQFRQ LQXWGHFDOFDUGH ÷80)% 
FHFRQ LQH6L22, Al2O3úL)H2O3 
DGDRVXULGHFRUHF LH, precum:
- EDX[LW SHQWUXP ULUHDFRQ LQXWXOXLGH$O2O3  

DUJLO

din:

-

GLDWRPLWSHQWUXFUHúWHUHDSURFHQWXOXLGH6L22
FHQXúLGHSLULW FDUHDGXF)H2

O3úLVFDGWHPSHUDWXUDGHFOLQFKHUL]DUH
O3

]JXULPHWDOXUJLFHFHLQWURGXFvQúDUM )H2
JLSVSHQWUXUHJODUHDWLPSXOXLGHSUL] 

3HQWUXFRORUDUHDFLPHQWXOXLVHDGDXJ R[L]LGHFURPQLFKHOPDQJDQFREDOWILHUSkQ OD

Prepararea materiei prime depinde dH

SURFHGHXO IRORVLW vQ FD]XO SURFHGHXOXL XVFDW FRQVW  GLQ

XUP WRDUHOHRSHUD LL

concasare IRORVLQG FRQFDVRDUH FX I

È

OFL VDX FLRFDQH SHQWUX URFL úL FRQFDVRDUH FX YDO XUL

SHQWUXDUJLO 

uscareUHDOL]DW vQXVF WRDUHVSHFLDOHVDXvQPRULXVF WRDUHFRQFRPLWHQWFXP FLQDUHD
dozare SHQWUX VWDELOLUHD FDQWLW LL FRPSRQHQ LORU vQ IXQF LH GH FRPSR]L LD FKLPLF
È
È 

D

PDWHULLORUSULPHúLFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHFLPHQWXOXLIDEULFDW
P FLQDUH H[HFXWDW  vQ PRUL FX ELOH FX R PDUH ILQH H D VLWHL SHQWUX P ULUHD VXSUDIH HL GH
È
FRQWDFWGLQWUHUHDFWDQ L
È

omogenizarea materiei prime, în strat fluidizat, prin suflare de aer.

3HQWUX SURFHGHXO VHPLXVFDW PDWHULD SULP  RPRJHQL]DW  HVWH XPH]LW  FX DS  RSHUD LH vQXUPD
F UHLDVHSURGXFH

granularea sa.
Prepararea materiei prime pentru pURFHGHXOXPHGFXSULQGHXUP WRDUHOHRSHUD LL
concasare;
È
dozare;
È
deleiere FH UHSUH]LQW  DPHVWHFDUHD PDWHULHL SULPH FX DS  SULQ DJLWDUH vQ ED]LQH SUH]HQ D
È
DSHLSURGXFHvQPXLHUHDPDWHULHLSULPHSkQ ODSODVWLILHUH
P FLQDUHXPHG HIHFWXDW WRWvQPRULFXE
È

ile.

ÌQSURFHGHXOVHPLXPHGGXS P FLQDUHPDWHULDSULP HVWHILOWUDW SHQWUXPLFúRUDUHDFDQWLW

LL

GHDS 'XS ILOWUDUHHDVHJUDQXOHD] 
2E LQHUHDFOLQFKHUXOXL
$FHDVW  HWDS  VH GHVI úRDU  vQ LQVWDOD LL VSHFLDOH GHQXPLWH FXSWRDUH URWDWLYH D F UR

r

FRQVWUXF LHGHSLQGHGHSURFHGHXODSOLFDW3HQWUXSURFHGHHOHXVFDWúLVHPLXVFDWLQVWDOD LDHVWHGLQWDEO 
GH R HO F SWXúLW  OD LQWHULRU FX F U PLG UHIUDFWDU  ILJ  úLVHFRPSXQHGLQ SUHvQF O]LWRUFXSWRUúL
U FLWRU

)LJ,QVWDOD LDSHQWUXRE LQHUHDFLPHQWXOXL

1-SUHvQF

O]LWRU

-cuptor; 3-U

FLWRU

)D]HOHGHRE LQHUHDFOLQFKHUXOXLVXQWSUHvQF O]LUHD

, arderea, topireaúLU

FLUHD

.

3UHvQF O]LUHD DUH ORF vQ SUHvQF O]LWRU XQGH PDWHULD SULP  RPRJHQL]DW  VH vQF O]HúWH OD

temperatura de (500÷600)0&&

OGXUDQHFHVDU VHRE LQHSULQDUGHUHDXQXLFRPEXVWLELOVROLGF UEXQH

LQIHULRU FX SXWHUH FDORULF  FXSULQV  vQWUH ·  NFDONJ 3HQWUX SUHvQF O]LUHD DHUXOXL IRORVLW OD
DUGHUHDFRPEXVWLELOXOXLFRQGXFWDGHDGPLVLHDDHUXOXLUHFHVWU EDWHU FL

torul.

ÌQDFHDVW SHULRDG VHHOLPLQ DSDGHvPELQDUHGHFRQVWLWX LHúLGHFULVWDOL]DUHLDUDUJLODWUHFH
vQVWUXFWXU PDLSX LQVWDELO GHRDUHFHGLR[LGXOGHVLOLFLXúLWULR[LGXOGHDOXPLQLXGHYLQDFWLYL
$UGHUHD úL WRSLUHD  'LQ SUHvQF O]LWRU vQF UF WXUD S WUXQGH vQ FXSWRU FH DUH OXQJLPHD GH

(50÷150) m, diametrul de (2÷3,5) m, fiind montat înclinat cu 30ID
FRQWLQX DvQF UF WXULLFXSWRUXOVHURWHúWHFX · URWPLQ 

GHRUL]RQWDO 3HQWUXDPHVWHFDUHD

& OGXUDQHFHVDU vQF O]LULLvQFRQWLQXDUHDUGHULLúLWRSLULLvQF UF WXULLHVWHWUDQVPLV GHJD]HOH
UH]XOWDWHGLQDUGHUHDODED]DFXSWRUXOXLDXQXLFRPEXVWLELOJD]RVúLFDUHVHGHSODVHD] vQFRQWUDFXUHQW
FX PDWHULD SULP  *D]HOH DUVH GLQ FXSWRU HOLPLQDWH OD FRú SH OD SDUWHD VXSHULRDU  DQWUHQHD] 

o parte

GLQ PDWHULD SULP  3HQWUX UHFXSHUDUHD HL úL SURWHMDUHD PHGLXOXL vQFRQMXU WRU JD]HOH WUHF GXS  FH
S U VHVFFXSWRUXOSULQILOWUHVSHFLDOHGRWDWHFXVDFLGLQD]EHVWúLHOHFWURILOWUH

000C, începe procesul de

/D SDUWHD VXSHULRDU  D FXSWRUXOXL OD WHPSHUDWXU  PDL PDUH GH 
GHVFRPSXQHUHDFDUERQDWXOXLGHFDOFLXSRWULYLWUHDF LHL

CaCO3


CaO + CO2

3H P VXU  FH vQF UF WXUD FRERDU  WHPSHUDWXUD VD FUHúWH úL GLR[LGXO GH FDOFLX UH]XOWDW
UHDF LRQHD]  vQ VWDUH VROLG  FX FHL GRL R[L]L DFWLYL IRUPkQG VLOLFDWXO GLFDOFLF úL WULDOXPLQDWXO
SHQWDFDOFLF 'HRDUHFH DUJLOD FRQ LQH PLFL FDQWLW

(2CaO.Fe2O3  ÌQ XUPD UHDF LLORU FH DX ORF SkQ

L GH )H2

O3

0

VH IRUPHD]  úL IHULWXO GLFDOFLF 

OD  & UH]XOW  R PDV  SRURDV  GLQ SUHOXFUDUHD

F UHLDVHRE LQOLDQ LKLGUDXOLFLQHFOLQFKHUL]D L

Peste 13000&

vQFHSH WRSLUHD FRPSXúLORU PHQ LRQD L úL IRUPDUHD DOWRU FRPSXúL FDOFLFL

0

DOXPLQDWXO WULFDOFLF úL IHULWDOXPLQDWXO WHWUDFDOFLF /D ED]D FXSWRUXOXLvQ]RQDWHPSHUDWXULL GH

silicatul dicalcic reaF LRQHD]

C, 

SDU LDO FX &D2 úL IRUPHD]  VLOLFDWXO WULFDOFLF $FHúWL FRPSXúL VXQW

VSHFLILFLOLDQ LORUKLGUDXOLFLFOLQFKHUL]D LGLQFDWHJRULDFLPHQWXULORU3RUWODQGúLVHJ VHVFVXEIRUP GH
VROX LLVROLGH
5

FLUHD'LQFXSWRUWRSLWXUDWUHFHvQU FLWRUXQGHVHVROLGLILF VXELQIOXHQ DXQXLFXUHQWGHDHU

UHFHVXEIRUP GHEXF

LYLWULILFDWH VWLFORDVH FXGLDPHWUXOGH · FPUH]XOWkQGFOLQFKHUXO

&OLQFKHUXOFLPHQWXOXL3RUWODQGVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQWUHLSDUDPHWUL

-

gradul de saturare în oxid de calciu (Sk) FDUH HVWH OLPLWDW SULQ VWDQGDUGH úL FDOFXODW FX
UHOD LD

% Ca O
%(2,8 Si O 2 + 1,1 Al 2 O 3 + 0,7 Fe 2 O 3 )
modulul de siliciu (MSi):
% Si O 2
M Si =
%Al 2 O 3 + %Fe 2 O 3
Sk =

-

(OGHWHUPLQ QDWXUDFOLQFKHUXOXLúLSURSULHW

LOHVDOH

-

modulul de aluminiu (MAl):
%Al 2 O 3
M Al =
%Fe 2 O 3
El caracterizea] VLVWHPXOGHFULVWDOL]DUHúLSURSULHW

LOHFLPHQWXOXL

2E LQHUHDFLPHQWXOXL

2[LGXO GH FDOFLX UH]XOWDW GLQ GLVRFLHUHD FDUERQDWXOXL GH FDOFLX QX UHDF LRQHD]  LQWHJUDO FX
FHLODO L R[L]L R SDUWH GLQ HO FD úL R SDUWH GLQ R[LGXO GH PDJQH]LX U PkQH OLEHU  GHWHUPLQkQG
H[SDQVLXQHD FLPHQWXOXL SUHOXFUDW úL GHJUDGkQG FRQVWUXF LLOH 'H DFHHD FOLQFKHUXO GLQ LQVWDOD LH HVWH

supus

PDWXU ULL FH FRQVW  vQ GHSR]LWDUHD OXL vQ VLOR]XUL GHVFKLVH SkQ  FkQG R[LGXO GH FDOFLX U PDV

UHDF LRQHD] vQID] VROLG FXDSDG

in aer, rezultând hidroxidul de calciu.

&OLQFKHUXO PDWXUDW HVWH FRQFDVDW úL P FLQDW vQ PRUL FX ELOH GRWDWH FX VLWH FDUH DX ILQH HD GH 
RFKLXULSHFHQWLPHWUXOS WUDWÌQúDUMDGHP FLQDWVHDGDXJ  · JLSVSHQWUXDP ULWLPSXOGH
SUL] 

Cimentul rezultat este transportat pneumatic în silozuri. Din silozuri, cimentul este ambalat în
VDFLGLQKkUWLHLPSHUPHDELO VDXvQFRQWDLQHUHPRQWDWHSHYDJRDQHVDXDXWRFDPLRDQH
,QVWDOD LD IRORVLW  SHQWUX RE LQHUHD FLPHQWXOXL SULQ SURFHGHHOH XPHG úL VHPLXPHG QX SUH]LQW 
SUHvQF O]LWRU 3UHvQF O]LUHD PDWHULHL SULPH DUH ORF OD SDUWHD VXSHULRDU  D FXSWRUXOXL D F UXL OXQJLPH
FUHúWH 3H SHUH LL LQWHULRUL DL FXSWRUXOXL VXQW IL[DWH ODQ XUL SHQWUX DPHVWHFDUHD PDWHULHL SULPH úL

vPSLHGLFDUHD DGHU ULL HL OD VXSUDID D FXSWRUXOXL ÌQ WLPSXO SUHvQF O]LULL VH HOLPLQ  DSD GLQ PDWHULD
SULP  úLVHGHVFRPSXQFDUERQD LL&DXUPDUHODDFHVWHSURFHGHHFRQVXPXOGHFRPEXVWLELOJD]RVHVWH

mai mare decât la precedentele, rezultând pe ansamblu un cost mai ridicat al cimentului.
AvantajeOH SURFHGHHORU XPHG úL VHPLXPHG VXQW PDWHULD SULP  HVWH P FLQDW 

PDL ILQ

RPRJHQL]DUHDVDPDLEXQ FDOLWDWHDFLPHQWXOXLVXSHULRDU 
'LQ FRPSDUDUHD SURFHGHHORU UH]XOW  F  FHO PDL PLF FRQVXP GH F OGXU  VH UHDOL]HD]  OD
SURFHGHXO XVFDW FDUH DVLJXU  úL FHO PDL PLF FRVW DO FLPHQWXOXL FX UH]HUY  ID 

GH SROXDUHD SH FDUH R

produce.
3URSULHW

LOH FLPHQWXULORU VXQW LPSXVH GH XWLOL] UL úL GHSLQG GH FRPSR]L LD FKLPLF  úL

PLQHUDORJLF &HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWHSURSULHW

LVXQWSUL]DúLWLPSXOGHSUL] UH]LVWHQ DOD

compresiune,

UH]LVWHQ D OD vQFRYRLHUH FRPSRUWDUHD OD DF LXQHD VXEVWDQ HORU FRUR]LYH FRPSRUWDUHD OD WUDWDPHQWHOH

termice.
PrizaUHSUH]LQW 

SURFHVXOGHWUDQVIRUPDUHDOLDQ LORUGLQWU

-un material plastic într-unul rigid.

3URFHVXO GH SUL]  úL vQW ULUH D FLPHQWXOXL 3RUWODQG DUH ORF vQ SUH]HQ D DSHL FkQG FRPSRQHQ LL
PLQHUDORJLFL VH KLGUDWHD]  úL VH GHVFRPSXQ SULQ KLGUROL]  IRUPkQG vQ ILQDO KLGURVLOLFD L
KLGURDOXPLQD L KLGURIHUL L úL KLGUR[LG GH FDOFLX 8OWLPXO VH DIO  OLEHU vQ VWDUH FULVWDOLQ  VDX GH J

el.

+LGURVLOLFD LLGHFDOFLXFXVWUXFWXU GHJHODXRFDSDFLWDWHOLDQW PDUHúLFRQGXFODFUHúWHUHDvQWLPSD
UH]LVWHQ HL PHFDQLFH D FLPHQWXOXL +LGURDOXPLQD LL úL KLGUR[LGXO GH FDOFLX FULVWDOL]HD]  vQ ID]D GH
KLGUDWDUH D FLPHQWXOXL FHHD FH GHWHUPLQ  ULJLGL]DUHD PDVHL GH UHDF LH OD vQFHSXWXO vQW ULULL &HL PDL
LPSRUWDQ LFRPSRQHQ LvQSURFHVXOGHvQW ULUHVXQWVLOLFD LLGLúLWULFDOFLFL
&RQYHQ LRQDO VH GLVWLQJ GRX  PRPHQWH DOH SUL]HL vQFHSXWXO úL VIkUúLWXO 3HQWUX FLPHQWXO

Portland începutul prizei WUHEXLHV 

VHSURGXF GXS RRU LDUVIkUúLWXOGXS PD[LPRUH

7LPSXO QHFHVLWDW GH DFHVW SURFHV VH QXPHúWH WLPS GH SUL]  (O HVWH PLFúRUDW GH SUH]HQ D
DOXPLQDWXOXL GH FDOFLX GH R DUGHUH LQVXILFLHQW  GH P ULUHD WHPSHUDWXULL GH DUGHUH GH FUHúWHUHD

grDGXOXLGH P

FLQDUHVF GHUHDUDSRUWXOXLDS FLPHQW7LPSXOGHSUL] SRDWHILUHJODWFXDMXWRUXOXQRU

VXEVWDQ H GHQXPLWH

acceleratori (HCl, NaOH, CaCl2, Na2CO3 etc.) sau

vQFHWLQLWRUL GH SUL] 

(H2SO4,

=Q2VROX LLGH]DK UHWF

, e[SULPDW

5H]LVWHQ D OD FRPSUHVLXQH

2 

vQ 1PP  HVWH R FDUDFWHULVWLF  IRDUWH LPSRUWDQW  ILLQG

IRORVLW ODQRWDUHDP UFLORUGHFLPHQW(DGHSLQGHGHFRPSR]L LDFKLPLF DFLPHQWXOXLúLFUHúWHRGDW 
FXFUHúWHUHDSURFHQWXOXLGHVLOLFDWWULFDOFLF
&LPHQWXO VH IDEULF  VXE PDL PXOWH P UFL  FDUH VH VLPEROL]HD]  SULQ OLWHUH PDUL 3

,

- ciment

Portland, A - ciment aluminos, Pz - FLPHQW 3RUWODQG FX DGDRV GH ]JXU  XUPDWH GH XQ QXP U FH
N/mm2.
'LQWUHP UFLOHIDEULFDWHVHSRWHQXPHUDciPHQWXOFXUH]LVWHQ HLQL LDOHPDUL (RIM) caracterizat
SULQ WLPS GH SUL]  PLF úL UH]LVWHQ  PHFDQLF  PDUH cimentul hidrofob FH SUH]LQW  UH]LVWHQ  PDUH OD
umiditate; cimentul expansiv FDUH vúL P UHúWH YROXPXO vQ WLPSXO SUL]HL ILLQG IRORVLW FD PDWHULDO Ge
HWDQúDUH D XQRU FRQVWUXF LL VSHFLDOH cimentul alb V UDF vQ R[L]L FRORUD L FLPHQWXO SHQWUX VRQG ,

UHSUH]LQW UH]LVWHQ DODFRPSUHVLXQHDEHWRQXOXLP VXUDW vQ

UH]LVWHQW OD DF LXQH FRURVLY  úL FX WLPSXO GH vQFHSXW GH SUL]  PDUH OD WHPSHUDWXUL ULGLFDWH SHQWUX D

putea fi pompat; cimentul aluminos FH FRQ LQH ·50)% Al2O3 FX UH]LVWHQ  PHFDQLF  úL OD
FRUR]LXQH PDUH úL IDFH SUL]  UDSLG cimentul mixt FDUH FRQ LQH DGDRVXUL DFWLYH GH ]JXU  GH IXUQDO
JUDQXODW FHQXú GHWHUPRFHQWUDO DG XJDWHFOLQFKHUXOXLvQWLPSXOP FLQ ULLVDOH 

0RUWDUHúLEHWRDQH

LiaQ LLVHIRORVHVFFXSUHF GHUHODSUHSDUDUHDPRUWDUHORUúLEHWRDQHORU
Mortarul HVWH XQ FRQJORPHUDW RE LQXW SULQ vQW ULUHD XQXL DPHVWHF RPRJHQL]DW GH OLDQW DS 

úL

DJUHJDW P UXQW QLVLS YDU  1LVLSXO QX SDUWLFLS  OD vQW ULUH HO P UHúWH UH]LVWHQ D PHFDQLF  úL UHGXFH
FRHILFLHQWXOGHFRQWUDF LHDOOLDQWXOXLGXS vQW ULUHúLXVFDUH

Mortarul poate fi SHQWUX]LG

, în care raportul liant-QLVLSHVWHGHFXDGDRVGHDS
ciment.

ULH

SHQWUXOHJDUHDF U PL]LORUvQWUHHOHúLSHQWUXWHQFXLDO RE LQXWGLQYDUúL 

IRORVLW

Betonul HVWH XQ FRQJORPHUDW RE LQXW SULQ vQW

ULUHD XQXL DPHVWHF GH OLDQWDS DJUHJDW SLHWULú

SLDWU VSDUW úLPLFL DGDRVXULGH VXEVWDQ HFKLPLFH$FHVWH VXEVWDQ HDX UROXOGHDPRGLILFDVWUXFWXUD
úL SURSULHW

LOH EHWRQXOXL vQW ULW FXP VXQW UH]LVWHQ D OD FRUR]LXQH OD vQJKH  P UHVF FRPSDFWLWDWHD

%HWRDQHOH WUHEXLH V  DLE  UH]LVWHQ 

OD FRPSUHVLXQH vQFRYRLHUH FRUR]LXQH X]XU  úRFXUL PDUL

FRQWUDF LHúLGLODWDUHPLFLHODVWLFLWDWHúLFRPSDFWLWDWHPDUL
6WDELOLWDWHD vQ WLPS D FRQVWUXF LLORU G

in beton, amplasate în diverse medii, depinde de

FRPSR]L LDPLQHUDORJLF úLFRPSDFLWDWHDEHWRQXOXL%HWRDQHOHFXFRPSDFWLWDWHULGLFDW DXUH]LVWHQ 

OD

FRUR]LXQHPDUH&RUR]LXQHDVHGDWRUHD] ILHGHFDOFLILHULLFLPHQWXOXLvQFRQWDFWFXDSHOHVXSHUILFLDOHúL
VXEWHUDQH FX GXULWDWH PLF  FX DSHOH FH FRQ LQ &22 FX VROX LLOH V UXULORU GH DPRQLX úL PDJQH]LX FX
VROX LLOH DFL]LORU RUJDQLFL úL DQRUJDQLFL ILH H[SDQVLXQLL FLPHQWXOXL vQW ULW GDWRULW  IRUP ULL vQ FRQWDFW
FXVROX LLOHGHVXOID LFORUXU GHFDOFLXHVWHULSODVWLILDQ LDXQRUFRPSXúLFXYROXPP ULW 

2E LQHUHDSUHIDEULFDWHORUGLQEHWRQ

Prefabricatele din betonVXQWHOHPHQWHGHFRQVWUXF LHFRQIHF LRQDWHvQDLQWHGHXWLOL]DUHúLFDUH
bricate sau elemente executate pe loc.
Prefabricatele din beton sunt din EHWRQ RELúQXLW, beton celular autoclavizat úL beton
precomprimat.

VXQWPRQWDWHvQFRQVWUXF LHSULQDVDPEODUHFXDOWHSLHVHSUHID

3URFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH RE LQHUH D SUHIDEULFDWHORU GLQ EHWRQ FXSULQGH XUP WRDUHOH HWDSH
FRQIHF LRQDUHDWLSDUHORURE LQHUHDDUP WXULORUúLPRQWDUHDORUvQWLSDUHSUHSDUDUHDEHWRQXOXLWXUQDUHD
EHWRQXOXL FRPSDFWL]DUHD EHWRQXOXL WUDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF DO SLHVHORU GHFRIUDUHD úL GHSR]LWDUHD

produselor finite.
&RQIHF LRQDUHD WLSDUHORU

Tiparul este un ansamblu metalic ce

FRQ LQH FDYLWDWHD FDUH SULQ

XPSOHUH FX EHWRQ FUXG YD GD SLHVD SUHIDEULFDW  (O FRQVWLWXLH XWLODMXO SULQFLSDO DO SURFHVXOXL GH
IRUPDUH D SUHIDEULFDWHORU GLQ EHWRQ úL WUHEXLH V  DVLJXUH IRUPD úL GLPHQVLXQLOH GLQ SURLHFW V  ILH
UREXVWH QHGHIRUPDELOH úL HWDQúH ÌQDLQWH GH XWLOL]DUH WLSDUHOH VH FXU 

GH UHVWXUL úL VH XQJ SHQWUX

XúXUDUHDGHFRIU ULL
2E LQHUHD DUP WXULORU úL PRQWDUHD ORU vQ WLSDUH $UP WXULOH VH RE LQ GLQ EDUH QHWHGH VDX
SURILODWH GLQ R HO VSHFLDO SULQ W LHUH vQGUHSWDUH IDVRQDUH úL VH PRQWHD]  vQ WLSDUH FD EDUH SDUDOHOHVDX
VXEIRUP GHSODV ÌQWLSDUHVHSRWPRQWDúLXQHOHSLHVHPHWDOLFHúLS U LDOHXQRULQVWDOD LL

Prepararea betonuluiDUHORFODFHQWUDODGHEHWRQSULQDPHVWHFDUHDvQPDOD[RUDFLPHQWXOXLúL
agregatelor, dozate anterior.
Turnarea betonuluivQWLSDUHOHDUPDWHúLXQVHDUHORFvQDSURSLHUHDFHQWUDOHLGHEHWRQ
Compactizarea betonuluiVHIDFHSULQYLEUDUHPHFDQLF VDXHOHFWULF FXYLEUDWRDUHVSHFLDOHVDX
SULQ WRUFUHWDUH $FHDVWD FRQVW  vQ WXUQDUHD EHWRQXOXL vQ WLSDUH vn straturi succesive, cu viteze de 
· PVGHODRGLVWDQ 

GH · PFXDMXWRUXOXQXLGLVSR]LWLYQXPLWWRUFUHW

Tratamentul termicDOEHWRQXOXLGLQWLSDUHVHDSOLF 

SHQWUXDFFHOHUDUHDSURFHVXOXLGHvQW ULUH(O

SRDWHILI FXWODSUHVLXQHQRUPDO úLODSUHVLXQHULGLFDW 
7UDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF OD SUHVLXQH QRUPDO  VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ vQF O]LUHD EHWRQXOXL vQ LQFLQWH

închise cu abur aflat la (60÷85)0&vQED]LQHFXDS 

FDOG SULQVWURSLUHFXDS FDOG HOHFWULF

7UDWDPHQWXOWHUPLFODSUHVLXQHULGLFDW QXPLWúLautoclavizareFRQVW vQLQWURGXFHUHDWLSDUHORU
în autoclave în care presiunea este de (8÷16) daN/cm2 úL WHPSHUDWXUD GH · 0& &UHúWHUHD
SUHVLXQLLúLWHPSHUDWXULLVHIDFHOHQW WLPSGH-RUH 7LPSXOGHPHQ LQHUHvQFRQGL LLOHHQXQ DWHHste
GH · RUHLDUFHOGHPLFúRUDUHDSUHVLXQLLúLU FLUHGH · RUH

DecofrareaUHSUH]LQW 

H[WUDJHUHDSLHVHLGLQWLSDUúLVHH[HFXW FkQGUH]LVWHQ DEHWRQXOXLDDWLQV

FHO SX LQ  GLQ UH]LVWHQ D GH PDUF  SHQWUX EHWRQXO RELúQXLW DUPDW úL  SHQ

tru betonul

precomprimat.
Depozitarea prefabricatelorDUHORFvQVSD LLDFRSHULWH
Betonul celularVHRE LQHSULQH[SDQGDUHDEHWRQXOXLGDWRULW
UHDF LDGLQWUHSXOEHUHDGHDOXPLQLXúLYDUXODG XJDWHvQFRPSR]L LH

2Al + Ca(OH)2 + 6H2O = CaO . Al2O3 . H2O + 3H2 

GHJDM ULLKLGURJHQXOXLUH]XOWDWGLQ

Betonul precomprimat HVWH FHO vQ FDUH VH UHDOL]HD] 

HIRUWXUL XQLWDUH GH FRPSUHVLXQH vQDLQWHD

PRQW ULL VDOH vQ FRQVWUXF LH $FHVWHD VH RE LQ ILH SULQ vQWLQGHUHD DUP WXULL vQDLQWHD WXUQ ULL úL vQW ULULL

betonului îQWLSDUILHSULQLQWURGXFHUHDDUP

WXULL GXS vQW ULUHDEHWRQXOXLvQFDQDOHVSHFLDOHúLIL[DUHD

DUP WXULLODFDSHWHOHHOHPHQWXOXLGHEHWRQ
2 HOXOúLEHWRQXO IRORVLWHSHQWUX RE LQHUHDEHWRQXOXLSUHFRPSULPDWVXQWGH FDOLWDWHVXSHULRDU 

Avantajele acestui beton sunt:
- HVWHXQPDWHULDOGHFRQVWUXF LHRPRJHQHODVWLFI U ILVXULFDUHDUHVLJXUDQ vQH[SORDWDUH
- VHUHDOL]HD] HFRQRPLLGHPDWHULDOH · ODR HOúL · ODEHWRQ
- are durabilitate mare;
- OXFU ULOHVHSRWLQGXVWULDOL]D
Betonul precomprimDW VH XWLOL]HD]  SHQWUX FRQVWUXF LD SRGXULORU D SLVWHORU DHURSRUWXUL-lor, a
tuburilor de presiune, recipientelor circulare, barajelor, reactoarelor nucleare etc.
)RORVLUHD SUHIDEULFDWHORU vQ FRQVWUXF LL GXFH OD VFXUWDUHD WLPSXOXL GH H[HFX LH D FRQVWUXF Lilor,
UHGXFHUHDFRVWXOXLOXFU ULORUUHDOL]DUHDORUSHWRDW GXUDWDDQXOXLPHFDQL]DUHDOXFU ULORUHFRQRPLHGH
FLPHQWGHOHPQSHQWUXFRIUDMHGHPHWDOSHQWUXHúDIRGDMH
3UHIDEULFDWHOHVHXWLOL]HD] DWkWvQFRQVWUXF LLFLYLOHFkWúLLQGXVWULDOH

5.3. /XFU

ULGHFRQVWUXF LH

2ULFHFRQVWUXF LHQHFHVLW HIHFWXDUHDXUP WRDUHORUFDWHJRULLGHOXFU UL
OXFU

-

ULSUHPHUJ

WRDUHH[HFX LHLFRQVWUXF LHL

RE LQHUHDIXQGD LLORU
UHDOL]DUHDSHUH LORUúLDFRSHULúXOXL
OXFU

ULGHL]ROD LH

OXFU

ULGHPRQWDUHDLQVWDOD LLORU

OXFU

ULGHILQLVDUH

/XFU

ULOH SUHPHUJ

WRDUH FRQVWUXF LHL VXQW H[HFXWDUHD GUXPXULORU GH úDQWLHU OXFU UL

SUHJ WLWRDUHúLV S WXULSHQWUXIXQGD LL
'UXPXULOH GH úDQWLHU UHSUH]LQW  F LOH GH FLUFXOD LH UXWLHU  FDUH DVLJXU  DFFHVXO OD úL GH OD

drumurile exiVWHQWH VDX GH OD VXUVHOH GH DSURYL]LRQDUH FX PDWHULDOH DIODWH vQ LQWHULRUXO úDQWLHUXOXL
F WUH úDQWLHU 5HDOL]DUHD DFHVWRUD WUHEXLH I FXW  DVWIHO vQFkW V  DVLJXUH XQ UDQGDPHQW ULGLFDW DO
DFWLYLW

LORUGHúDQWLHUSULQWU RFLUFXOD LHXúRDU úLUDSLG DPLMOR

-

acelor mecanizate.

3HQWUX PLFúRUDUHD FRVWXULORU H[HFX LHL GUXPXULORU VH YRU IRORVL PDWHULDOH ORFDOH SURGXVH
VHFXQGDUH FHQXúL GH WHUPRFHQWUDO  ]JXU  GH IXUQDO JUDQXODW  QLVLS DUV GH WXUQ WRULH VWHULO GLQ
LQGXVWULDFKLPLF úLHOHPHQWHSUHIDEULFDWHGLQ

beton).

'UXPXULOH GH úDQWLHU YRU WUDYHUVD WHUHQXUL QHSURGXFWLYH VDX VODE SURGXFWLYH DJULFRO 3HQWUX
FRQVWUXF LD ORU VH YRU HYLWD PLúF UL PDUL GH WHUHQ FDUH SRW JHQHUD DOXQHF UL WDV UL QHXQLIRUPH
vQ] SH]LUH7UDVHXO GUXPXOXLYDOHJDWRDWHSXQFWHOHREOLJDWRULLGLQSURFHVXOWHKQRORJLFúLYDDVLJXUDR
EXQ YL]LELOLWDWH
/XFU

ULOH  SUHJ

WLWRDUH LQFOXG XUP WRDUHOH  DPHQDMDUHD WHUHQXOXL úL D SODWIRUPHL GH OXFUX

GHIULú UL GHPRO UL FXU
DSHORUGHVXSUDID

LUHD WHUHQXOXL V SDUHD úL GHSR]LWDUHD S PkQWXOXL YHJHWDO vQGHS UWDUHD 

H[HFXWDUHDGHXPSOXWXULúLQLYHO UL IL[DUHDSR]L LHLFRQVWUXF LLORU WUDVDUHDD[HL

ORQJLWXGLQDOH úL WUDQVYHUVDOH  WUDVDUHD WHUDVDPHQWHORU úL D IXQGD LLORU WUDVDUHD úL SR]L LRQDUHD
HOHPHQWHORUvQSODQRUL]RQWDOúLYHUWLFDO
6

S

WXULOHSHQWUXIXQGD LLVH H[HFXW PHFDQL]DWúLVXQWLQIOXHQ DWHGHQLYHOXODSHLVXEWHUDQH

úLGHDGkQFLPHDV S WXULORU(OHSRWILFXSHUH LQHVSULMLQL L vQVWkQFLS PkQWXULGXUH úLVSULMLQL L

elemente din lemn, metal sau beton armat.
2E LQHUHDIXQGD Lei. )XQGD LDHVWHSDUWHDLQIHULRDU

cu 

DXQHLFRQVWUXF LLDF UHLIXQF LHHVWHGH

D WUDQVPLWH úL UHSDUWL]D WHUHQXOXL GH IXQGDUH vQF UF ULOH DGXVH GH FRQVWUXF LH VXSUDVWUXFWXU (D VH
DIO vQJHQHUDOVXEVXSUDID DWHUHQXOXLFRQVWLWXLQGLQIUDVWUXFWXUDFRQVWUXF LHL

)XQGD LDLQWHUDF LRQHD] FXWHUHQXOGHIXQGDUHGHWHUPLQkQGLQWHJULWDWHDúLIXQF LRQDELOLWDWHD
FRQVWUXF LHLvQDQVDPEOX&DXUPDUHWHUHQXOGHIXQGDUHúLIXQGD LDWUHEXLHV vQGHSOLQHDVF DQXPLWH
FRQGL LL $VWIHO WHUHQXO GH IXQGDUH WUHEXLH V  IL

e suficient de rezistent pentru a nu se rupe sub

IXQGD LHúLGHIRUPD LLOHVDOHV U PkQ vQOLPLWHOHDGPLVLELOHSHQWUXFRQVWUXF LDUHVSHFWLY 
)XQGD LD VH SURLHFWHD]  úL UHDOL]HD]  DúD vQFkW V  UHSDUWL]H]H úL V  WUDQVPLW  vQ GHSOLQ  
vQF UF ULOHSUHOXDWHGHODVWUXFWXU 6ROX LDGHIXQGDUHVHVWDELOHúWHGHSURLHFWDQWFDUHDUH

VLJXUDQ

vQ YHGHUH F  IXQGD LD HVWH R OXFUDUH DVFXQV  D F UHL FRPSRUWDUH GXS  H[HFX LH QX PDL SRDWH IL
FRQWURODW  GLUHFW úL UHPHGLHUHD HYHQWXDOHORU GHIHF LXQL HVWH H[WUHP GH GLILFLO  6ROX LD GH IXQGDUH
HVWHGHWHUPLQDW GHWUHLFDWHJRULLGHIDFWRUL

o

factori tehnologici ce cuprind mijloacele de realizare disponibile (materiale, utilaje,
PDQRSHU úLWHUPHQXOGHUHDOL]DUH GXUDWDGHH[HFX LH 

o

caracteristicile terenului ce se refer
VHLVPLFLWDWHD

JHOLYLWDWH

VHQVLELOLWDWH 

OD

OD

SURSULHW

vQJKH

LOH

JHRWHKQLFH

-GH]JKH 

LQXQGDELOLWDWH

VHQVLELOLWDWH

OD

XPH]LUH

VHQVLELOLWDWHODXPIODUHúLFRQWUDF LHJROXULVXEWHUDQHúLDSDVXEWHUDQ 

o

WLSXO FRQVWUXF LHL úL FDUDFWHUXO SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF FDUH DUH ORF vQ FRQVWUXF LD
UHVSHFWLY 

$WHQ LH GHRVHELW  VH DFRUG  DGkQFLPLL GH IXQGDUH SHQWUX FD IXQGD LD V  QX ILH DIHFWDW  GH
vQJKH GHIHQRPHQXOGHXPIODUHVDXFRQWUDF LHGHLQIOXHQ DFRQVWUXF LLORUvQYHFLQDWH

Materialele utilizate la fuQGD LL VXQW EHWRQXO ]LG
(geotextile).

ULD OHPQXO R HOXO PDWHULDOHOH WH[WLOH

)XQGD LLOHVHFODVLILF GXS PDLPXOWHFULWHULLFXPVXQW 
DGkQFLPHDID 

GHQLYHOXOWHUHQXOXLIXQGD LLGHVXSUDID 

PRGXOúLORFXOGHH[HFX LH 

úLIXQGD LLGHDGkQFLPH

funGD LLPRQROLWWXUQDWHGLUHFWvQJURDSDV

SDW vQDFHVWVFRS

úLIXQGD LLSUHIDEULFDWH

materialul folosit: IXQGD LLGLQEHWRQVLPSOX sau armat, IXQGD LLGLQ]LG ULHGHSLDWU sau
F U PLG , IXQGD LLGLQOHPQ, IXQGD LLGHPHWDO, IXQGD LLGLQDOWHPDWHULDOH 
mRGXOGH WUDQVPLWHUHDvQF UF ULORUIXQGD LLGLUHFWH FRQWUDFWQHPLMORFLWvQWUHWDOS -baza 

IXQGD LHLúLWHUHQXOGHIXQGDUH úLIXQGD LLLQGLUHFWH

forma lor în plan: IXQGD LLFRQWLQXHúLIXQGD LLGLVFRQWLQXH (izolate);
gide GLQ EHWRQ VLPSOX úL IXQGD LL HODVWLFH din beton
armat.  

FRPSRUWDUHD OD vQF UF UL IXQGD LL UL

5HDOL]DUHDSHUH LORUúLDFRSHULúXOXL
3HUH LL VDX ]LGXULOH VXQW HOHPHQWH YHUWLFDOH GH FRQVWUXF LH FX DMXWRUXO F URUD VH GHOLPLWHD] 
FRQVWUXF LD GH PHGLXO vQFRQMXU WRU úL vQF SHULOH DFHVWHLD (L WUHEXLH V  vQGHSOLQHDVF  R VHULH GH
FRQGL LLFXPVXQW
V  UH]LVWH OD vQF UF ULOH SURYHQLWH GH OD SODQúHH JULQ]L DFRSHULúXUL úL GLQ DF LXQHD
È
YkQWXOXLúLDFXWUHPXUHORU
V ILHLPSHUPHDELOLODSUHFLSLWD LLOHDWPRVIHULFH
È
V DVLJXUHL]RODUHDWHUPLF úLIRQLF DFRQVWUXF LLORU
È
GXUDELOLWDWHDORUV ILHHJDO FXDVWUXFWXULLGHUH]LVWHQ
È 

UH]LVWHQ DODIRFV ILHGH RUHvQIXQF LHGHPDWHULDOXOGHH[HFX LH
È

-

ILQLVDUHD V  ILH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH FD DVSHFW I U  QHUHJXODULW
È

varietate cRORULVWLF

L DVSHULW

L FX R PDUH 

XúRUGHVS ODWúLvQWUH LQXW

3HUH LLVHFODVLILF GXS 

material: SHUH L GH ]LG ULH, din beton simplu, beton armat, lemn, elemente metalice,
VWLFO , azbociment, PDWHULDOHXúRDUH, polimeri 
UROXO vQ FRQVWUXF LH SHUH L GH UH]LVWHQ 
SRUWDQ L  SHUH L DXWRSRUWDQ L (preiau greutatea
proprie), SHUH LSXUWD L GHXPSOXWXU VDXGHVS U LWRUL 
SR]L LD vQ FRQVWUXF LH SHUH L GH VXEVRO, SHUH L LQWHULRUL, SHUH L H[WHULRUL, SHUH L VLWXD L
deasupra terenului natural ID DGHFDOFDQH  

PRGXO GH H[HFX LH

perH L PRQROLW H[HFXWD L SULQ WXUQDUH SHUH L H[HFXWD L GLQ ]LGLUH,

SHUH LSUHIDEULFD L
3HUH LLLQWHULRULIRORVL LSHQWUXFRPSDUWLPHQWDUHDVSD LXOXLGLQLQWHULRUXOFO GLULORUVHQXPHVF
SHUH LGHVS

U LWRUL

.

3HQWUX DVLJXUDUHD FRPXQLFD LLORU vQWUH vQF SHUL úL vQWUH LQWHULRUXO úL H[WHULRUXO FO GLULORU vQ
SHUH LVHSUHY GJROXULÌQDFHVWHJROXULVHLQWURGXFXúLOHúLIHUHVWUHOH
3H OkQJ  JROXULOH GH FLUFXOD LH VH H[HFXW  úL JROXUL SHQWUX DHULVLUH úL LOXPLQDUH QDWXUDO 

pentru evacuarea gazelor de ardere etc.
AFRSHULúXO VH H[HFXW  OD SDUWHD VXSHULRDU 

D FRQVWUXF LLORU úL DUH UROXO GH D SURWHMD SODQúHXO

vPSRWULYDXPH]HOLLÌQIXQF LHGHPDWHULDODFRSHULúXOSRDWHILGLQEHWRQúL]LG ULHVDXPHWDOLF
&HO GLQ EHWRQ úL ]LG ULH HVWH RUL]RQWDO úL VH FRPSXQH GLQ PDL P

ulte straturi cu o grosime

WRWDO GHFHOSX LQFP(OFXSULQGHREOLJDWRULXXQVWUDWGHL]ROD LHKLGURIXJ 
$FRSHULúXOPHWDOLFHVWHvQFOLQDWúLIL[DWSHRVWUXFWXU GLQOHPQ
/XFU

UL GH L]ROD LL OD FO

GLUL

3HQWUX SUHYHQLUHD GHJUDG ULL FRQVWUXF LLORU VXE DF LXQHD

DJHQ LORU DWPRVIHULFL VDX GLQ PHGLXO vQFRQMXU WRU DVXSUD DFHVWRUD VH H[HFXW  OXFU UL GH L]ROD LL

hidrofuge, L]ROD LLWHUPLFHúLL]ROD LLIRQLFH.
,]ROD LLOH KLGURIXJH vPSLHGLF  S WUXQGHUHD DSHL vQ HOHPHQWHOH FRQVWUXF LHL VDX vQ LQWHULRUXO
FO GLULL(OHVXQWOXFU ULGHHWDQúDUHH[HFXWDWHSHVXSUDIH HOHXQRUHOHPHQWHGHFRQVWUXF LH IXQGD LH
]LGXULSHUH LHWF SHQWUXSURWHMDUHDORUvPSRWULYDXPH]LULLLQILOWU ULLDSHLvQFRQVWUXF LHVDXDF LXQLL
FRUR]LYH D DSHORU +LGURL]ROD LLOH VXQW rigide, executate din beton úL tencuieli impermeabile,
metalice executate din foi metalice SOXPEDOXPLQLXR HO bituminoaseFHOHPDLU VSkQGLWH
,]ROD LLOHWHUPLFHDXUROXOGHDP ULFRQIRUWXOWHUPLFQHFHVDUGHVI úXU ULLYLH LLIL]LRORJLFHD
RPXOXL úL IXQF LRQ ULL QRUPDOH D XQRU GLVSR]LWLYH VDX LQVWDOD LL (OH VH DSOLF  SH SHUH L SDUGRVHOL

plafoane.
Confortul termic este determinat de temperatura aerului din interior, temperatura
VXSUDIH HORU LQWHULRDUH DOH HOHPHQWHORU vQF SHULORU SHUH L SDUGRVHOL SODIRDQH  YLWH]D úL XPLGLWDWHD
UHODWLY DDHUXOXLGLQLQWHULRU
0DWHULDOHOH XWLOL]DWH SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD WHUPRL]ROD LLORU VXQW

organice

SO FL GH OHPQ

ILEUREHWRQ SURGXVH GLQ SOXW  SROLPHUL SUHFXP SROLXUHWDQ SROLHVWHUL SROLFORUXU  GH YLQLO  úL

anorganice (bHWRQ FHOXODU DXWRFODYL]DW F

U PL]L GLQ GLDWRPLW EHWRQ FX DJUHJDWH XúRDUH YDW 

PLQHUDO YDW GHVWLFO D]EHVW 
,]ROD LLOH IRQLFH RSUHVF U VSkQGLUHD ]JRPRWHORU FH VH SURGXF vQ LQWHULRUXO VDX H[WHULRUXO
FRQVWUXF LLORU
/XFU

ULOH GH ILQLVDUH DOH FO GLULORU VH UHIHU  OD FHOH GH RE LQHUH D

plafoanelor, ]XJU
igienico-sanitar.

YHOLORU úL

vopsitoriilor,

PRQW

UL WkPSO

pardoselilor, tencuielilor,

ULH (OH DX URO IXQF LRQDO GHFRUDWLY úL

&RPSDUDWLY FX FHOHODOWH  OXFU UL DFHVWHD QHFHVLW  XQ YROXP PLF GH PDWHULDOH DO F URU FRVW
HVWHULGLFDWDMXQJkQGOD · GLQFRVWXOWRWDODOFRQVWUXF LHLúLVHH[HFXW vQFHDPDLPDUHSDUWH
PDQXDOFXFRVWXULFHDMXQJSkQ OD · GLQPDQRSHUDWRWDO DFRQVWUXF LHL
5HGXFHUHDFRVWXULORUOXFU ULORUGHILQLVDMVHSRDWH

realiza prin:

XWLOL]DUHDXQRUPDWHULDOHHILFLHQWHúLDSUHIDEULFDWHORUGHILQLVDM
È
È

mecanizarea proceselor tehnologice folosite;
introducerea de metode avansate de lucru;
È
FUHúWHUHDFDOLILF ULLIRU HLGHPXQF 
È

Pardoselile VXQW HOHPHQWH DSOLFDWH SH ID D VXSHULRDU 

VDX GLUHFW SH S PkQW FX UROXO GH D

DVLJXUD FLUFXOD LD GHSR]LWDUHD RELHFWHORU úL FRQIRUWXO vQF SHULORU (OH VXQW IRUPDWH GH UHJXO  GLQ
GRX  VWUDWXUL SULPXO

stratul-suport GLVSXV GLUHFW SH SODQúHX úL DO GRLOHD VWUDWXO GH X]XU sau
pardoseala propriu-]LV  8QHRUL vQ VWUXFWXUD SDUGRVHOLORU VXQW vQFRUSRUDWH úL VWUDWXUL GH L]RODUH
IRQLF WHUPLF úLKLGURIXJ 

Stratul-suport poate fi rigid RE LQXW GLQ EHWRQ VLPSOX úL elastic FkQG HVWH GLQ QLVLS SLHWULú
VDXSLDWU VSDUW *URVLPHDVDHVWHGHWHUPLQDW GHUH]LVWHQ DQHFHVDU úLGHFRVW

6WUDWXOGHX]XU VHH[HFXW DVWIHOvQFkW
V UH]LVWHODX]XUDSURGXV GHFLUFXOD LDRDPHQLORUDQLPDOHORUúLYHKLFXOHORU
È
V QXVHGHIRUPH]HVDXGHWHULRUH]HVXEDF LXQHDvQF UF ULORU
È
V SUH]LQW VLJXUDQ
È 

FRQWUDDOXQHF ULL

V ILHIRQRL]RODQWHWHUPRL]RODQWHúLLPSHUPHDELOH
È
V ILHXúRUGHH[HFXWDWvQWUH LQXWUHSDUDWúLvQORFXLW
È
V
È

-úLS

VWUH]HWLPSvQGHOXQJDWFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHLQL LDOH

V ILHHVWHWLFHúLUH]LVWHQWHODDFL]LXOHLXULJU VLPLVDXIRF
È

În funF LHGHPDWHULDOXOXWLOL]DWODUHDOL]DUHSDUGRVHOLOHVXQWGLQlemn, SLDWU QDWXUDO , SLDWU 
, materiale bituminoaseúLpolimeri sintetici.
Pardoselile din lemn VH IRORVHVF vQ FDPHUH GH ORFXLW ELURXUL DWHOLHUH GH PHFDQLF ILQ V OL
de spectaFROH$FHVWHDVXQWHODVWLFHWHUPRL]RODQWHIRQRL]RODQWHDQWLGHUDSDQWHúLHVWHWLFH([HFX LD

DUWLILFLDO

UHSDUDUHD úL vQWUH LQHUHD ORU VXQW XúRDUH 'H]DYDQWDMHOH ORU VXQW QX UH]LVW  OD FLUFXOD LD LQWHQV  VH
GHIRUPHD] ODYDULD LLGHXPLGLWDWHVXQWSXWUHVFLELOHúL

combustibile.

$YkQG vQ YHGHUH IRUPD úL GLPHQVLXQLOH HOHPHQWHORU GH OHPQ GLQ FDUH VH H[HFXW SDUGRVHOLOH

din lemn pot fi din GXúXPHOH, parchete, SO
3DUGRVHOLOHGLQSLDWU 

QDWXUDO

FLILEUROHPQRDVHúL 

VDXURF VHH[HFXW

panele de lemn. 
vQFO GLULVRFLDO-culturale, administrative

úL PDJD]LL 5RFLOH IRORVLWH WUHEXLH V  ILH UH]LVWHQWH OD X]XU  úL DF LXQHD DJHQ LORUDWPRVIHULFL(OHVH
WDLH PHFDQLF VXE IRUP  GH SO FL GDOH OHVSH]L  FXEXUL VDX VS UWXUL GLQ SO FL 3O FLOH VXQW FX

dimensiuni de la 400 x 400 lD[FXJURVLPHDGH · PPDYkQGIH HQHWHGHúLSODQH
úOHIXLWH(OHVHPRQWHD] SHXQVWUDWGHPRUWDUSODVWLFFXJURVLPHDGH · PPSUH]HQWkQGvQWUH

ele rosturi filiforme (1÷2) mm sau groase (5÷10) mm care se umplu cu mortar de ciment alb sau
FRORUDW'LQDFHDVW FDWHJRULHIDFSDUWHPR]DLFXULOH
3DUGRVHOLOH GLQ SLDWU 

DUWLILFLDO 

DUV  VDX QHDUV  VH H[HFXW  vQ E L EXF W ULL VS O WRULL

FDQWLQHODERUDWRDUHUHVWDXUDQWH)LLQGUHFLHOHQXVHH[HFXW vQFDPHUHGHORFXLWELURXULHWF

ParGRVHOLOH GLQ SLDWU  DUWLILFLDO  QHDUV  VXQW GLQ beton, ciment, mortar de ciment, mozaic
turnat, SO FLGHEHWRQ/DDFHVWHSDUGRVHOLVWUDWXOGHX]XU  vPEU F PLQWH VHUHFRPDQG V VHWRDUQH
vQDLQWHDvQW ULULLVWUDWXOXLVXSRUWSHQWUXDVHDVLJXUDREXQ OHJ WXU FXDFHVWD
3DUGRVHOLOH GLQ SLDWU  DUWLILFLDO  DUV  VXQW GLQ SO
DUJLO

FL GH JUHVLH FHUDPLF , SO FL FHUDPLFH GLQ
, F U PLG .
Stratul suport poate fi rigid (beton simplu sau beton armat) sau elastic QLVLS SLHWULú SLDWU  

DUV

VSDUW EDODVW

Pardoselile din materiale bituminoase VH IRORVHVF vQ DWHOLHUH PHFDQLFH úL PHWDOXUJLFH
mastic bituminos turnat la cald, dale de mastic bituminos, suspensie
de bitum filerizat. Stratul suport poate fi rigid (beton simplu sau armat) sau elastic SLHWULú SLDWU 
6WUDWXOGHX]XU VHH[HFXW GLQ

VSDUW  F U PLG  $YDQWDMHOH DFHVWRU SDUGRVHOL VXQW HODVWLFLWDWHD LPSHUPHDELOLWDWHD UH]LVWHQ D OD
X]XU  DQWLGHUDSDUHD WHUPRL]RODUHD UH]LVWHQ D OD DFL]L úL ED]H &D GH]DYDQWDMH VH SRW HQXPHUD 
UH]LVWHQ 

UHGXV  OD WHPSHUDWXUL ULGLFDWH OLSV  GH  HVWHWLF  GHIRUPDULWDWH VXE DF LXQHD VDUFLQLORU

concentrate.
Pardoselile din polimeri sintetici sunt din poliacetat de vinil, xilolit (mortar de ciment cu
DJUHJDWHRUJDQLFHVDXDQRUJDQLFHúLFRORUDQ L GHVWLQDWHvQF SHULORUFDUHQXVXQWXPHGHúLvQFDUHQX
H[LVW FLUFXOD LHJUHDSUHFXPVSLWDOHOHODERUDWRDUHOHV OLOHGHVSRUWORFDOXULOHSXEOLFH

din linoleum
-

FDUH VXQW FDOGH QX UH LQ SUDIXO  H[HFXWDWH vQ ORFXLQ H ODERUDWRDUH ELURXUL LQVWLWX LL VRFLDO

culturale, din mochete, H[HFXWDWHvQORFXLQ HV
$FHVWH SDUGRVHOL DX UH]LVWHQ

OLGHVSHFWDFROHFDPHUHGHKRWHOXULELURXULHWF 

OD X]XU  DVSHFW úL FRORULW SO FXWH VXQW WHUPR úL IRQRL]RODQWH

LJLHQLFH XúRU GH PRQWDW úL vQWUH LQXW 3HQWUX DVWIHO GH SDUGRVHOL VWUDWXO
SHQWUXDILRVXSUDID

Tencuielile

-supoUW WUHEXLH SUHJ

WLW DWHQW 

SODQ QHWHG ULJLG úLXVFDW 
VXQW ILQLVDMH GLQ PRUWDU DSOLFDWH SH VXSUDID D EUXW  D XQRU HOHPHQWH GH

FRQVWUXF LH

Mortarul pentru tencuieli se compune din agregat, (nisip sau praful de piDWU  SUDIXO GH
liant FLPHQW VDX YDU LSVRV DUJLO  SODVWLILDQ L (var,

F U PLG  VWLFOD SLVDW  PLFD D]EHVW HWF 

DUJLO 

materiale auxiliare FXORUL QDWXUDOH VDX DUWLILFLDOH FkO L GH LQ VDX FkQHS 

vQFHWLQLWRUL GH

SUL] 

Înaintea depunerii stratuOXLGHPRUWDUVWUDWXOVXSRUWVHSUHJ

WHúWHIRORVLQGX VHSODVDGHUDEL 

-

SHQWUXVXSRUWGLQOHPQPHWDOEHWRQWDYDQHERO LIDOVHFRUQLúHSURILOH VDXúLSFLGHOHPQ SHQWUX

suport din lemn).
7HQFXLDOD VH DSOLF  vQ WUHL VWUDWXUL SULPXO VWUDW GH DPRUV 

FP  SHQWUX P ULUHD DGHUHQ HL

tencuielii la suport; al doilea grundul DSOLFDW SH SULPXO SURDVS W vQ VWUDW GH ·  PP SHQWUX
F U PLG VDX PPSHQWUXUDEL VDXúLSFLDOWUHLOHD stratul vizibil (de finisare), aplicat pe grundul
vQW ULWúLXPH]LWúLFDUHVHQHWH]HúWHGXS FHvQFHSHV VHvQW UHDVF 
7HQFXLHOLOHVHFODVLILF GXS  
QDWXUDVXSUDIH HLSHFDUHVHDSOLF F

U PLG , beton, SLDWU , UDEL ;
umede, uscate; 
liantul de preparare a mortarului: var, nisip, DUJLO , var lichid; 
modul de prelucrare-ILQLVDUHDOIH HLY ]XWHVXSUDID DQHWH]LW H[HFXWDW FXPDWHULDOHúL
metode speciale; 
GXS SR]L LDORUvQFRQVWUXF LHinterioare, exterioare sau GHID DGH.
Tencuielile sunt RELúQXLWHúLdecorative&HOHPDLXWLOL]DWHGLQFHOHRELúQXLWH sunt: 
brute,FXID DY ]XW QHWH]LW JURVLHUIRORVLWHvQSLYQL HGHSR]LWHSRGXUL 
netezite,FXID DY ]XW QHWH]LW ILQIRORVLWHSHQWUXID DGHSHUH LLQWHULRULWDYDQH 
sclivisite, H[HFXWDWH vQ GRX  VWUDWXUL GH PRUWDU QHWH]LWH ILLQG XWLOL]DWH SHQWUX VSD LL FX
umiditate mare; 
gletuite,H[HFXWDWHGLQGRX VWUDWXULXQXOGLQPRUWDUúLDOGRLOHDGLQLSVRVVDXYDUQHWH]LW
. 
PRGXOGHH[HFX LH

7HQFXLHOLOH GHFRUDWLYH vQWkOQLWH vQ FRQVWUXF LH VXQW SHQWUX ID DGH úL SHQWUX LQWHULRU 'LQWUH

primele se pot enumera: 
tencuieli cu SUDIGHSLDWU QHWH]LWH; 
tencuieli stropite manual sau mecanic; 
tencuieli de terasit, granulit, dolomit - executate din mortar la care agregatul este din
JUDQXOHGHPDUPXU FHUDPLF PLF 

Tencuielile decorative pentru interior sunt în calcio-vechio.
Placajele VXQW HOHPHQWH DSOLFDWH SH VXSUDID D SHUH LORU LQWHULRUL VDX H[WHULRUL (OH VXQW
IRUPDWH GLQ SO FL VDX SDQRXUL GLQGLIHULWHPDWHULDOH 3ODFDMHOHVHH[HFXW GXS WHUPLQDUHDOXFU ULORU
GHFRQVWUXF LH
'XS  QDWXUD PDWHULDOHORU IRORVLWH SODFDMHOH VXQ

t:

GLQ IDLDQ

,

GLQ SO

FL FHUDPLFH VP

O XLWH

tip CESAROM, GLQ SO FX H GH VWLFO  FRORUDW , GLQ SO FL GH VWLFO  VSDUW (toate pentru placaje
interioare) din F U PLG DSDUHQW , GLQSO FLLPLWD LHGHSLDWU QDWXUDO sau beton mozaicat (ambele
pentru placaje exterioare), GLQ SLDWU  QDWXUDO  SODFDMH LQWHULRDUH úL H[WHULRDUH  GLQ SO FL GH 39&,
din lemn DPEHOHSHQWUXSODFDMHLQWHULRDUH )L[DUHDSO FLORUSHVXSUDID DVXSRUWVHIDFHFXPRUWDUGH
FLPHQW IDLDQ 

VWLFO  RSD[LW F U PLG  DSDUHQW  SDVW  GH FLPHQW SO FLOH &(6$520 VWLFOD

FRORUDW  SULQGHUH FX SLHVH PHWDOLFH SO FLOH LPLWD LH GH SLDWU  QDWXUDO  OLSLUH SO FLOH GLQ 39&

lemn).
YHOLOH úL YRSVLWRULLOH VXQW OXFU UL GH ILQLVDM H[HFXWDWH SHQWUX SURWHMDUHD KLGURIXJ 

=XJU

LJQLIXJ  úL DQWLFRUR]LY  D HOHPHQWHORU GH FRQVWUXF LH úL SHQWUX FUHDUHD XQXL DVSHFW SO FXW úL D XQXL

mediu igienic.
=XJU

YHOLOHVXQWOXFU ULGHILQLVDMSULQFDUHSHVXSUDID DHOHPHQWXOXLGHFRQVWUXF LHVHDSOLF 

XQ VWUDW VXE LUH GLQWU R VXVSHQVLH GH SLJPHQ L vQ DS  (OH VH H[HFXW  GXS  WHUPLQDUHD WXWXURU

-

OXFU ULORU GH FRQVWUXF LH úL LQVWDOD LL úL GXS  XVFDUHD FRPSOHW  D VXSUDIH HL ÌQ YHGHUHD ]XJU YLULL
VXSUDIH HOHVXSRUWVHSUHJ WHVFFXU
6XSUDIH HOHPHWDOLFHVHFXU

LQGWHQFXLDODGHVWURSLVDXGH]XJU YHDODYHFKHúLVHúOHIXLHVF 
SULQVDEODUHVHJUXQGXLHVFFKLWXLHVFúLQHWH]HVF

&HOH PDL LPSRUWDQWH WLSXUL GH ]XJU YHOL VXQW Y
VLPSOHSHED] 

GHFOHL

(pentru interior), ]XJU

UXLWXO SHQWUXLQWHULRUúLH[WHULRU ]XJU

YHOLSHED] 

GHSROLDFHWDWGHYLQLO

YHOL

, VINAROM (pentru

interLRU úL H[WHULRU  ]XJU YHOL GHFRUDWLYH DSOLFDWH SHVWH ]XJU YHOL VLPSOH vQ LQWHULRU  ]XJU YHOL vQ
calcio-vechio SHQWUXLQWHULRUúLH[WHULRU 
Vopsitoriile UHSUH]LQW  DSOLFDUHD SH VXSUDID D HOHPHQWXOXL GH FRQVWUXF LH D XQHL VXVSHQVLL GH
SLJPHQ LvQXOHLVDXHPXOVLLGHOLDQWvQDS 
3UHJ WLUHDVXSUDIH HLVXSRUW WHQFXLDO OHPQPHWDO vQYHGHUHDYRSVLULLFRQVW vQJUXQGXLUH
FKLWXLUHúLúOHIXLUH9RSVHDXDVHDSOLF PDQXDOVDXLQGXVWULDOvQGRX WUHLVWUDWXULXQLIRUPH

Tapetele VXQW IkúLL GHFRUDWLYH Gin hârtie, carton, stofe,

P

, PVC HWF /XFU

WDVH

ULOH GH

WDSHWDUH VH H[HFXW  OD LQWHULRU SH SHUH L úL XQHRUL SH WDYDQH ÌQ YHGHUHD DSOLF ULL WDSHWHORU
VXSUDIH HOH VXSRUW VH SUHJ WHVF SHQWUX D IL SODQH QHWHGH FXUDWH úL XVFDWH 3HQWUX WDSHWHOH GH KkUWLH

sDX 39& VXSUDID D-VXSRUW SUHJ

WLW  VH DPRUVHD]  FX R VROX LH GH FOHL VDX DGH]LY VLQWHWLF 'XS 

XVFDUHD DFHVWXL VWUDW SH VXSUDID D VXSRUW VH  OLSHúWH FX FOHL KkUWLH GH ]LDU FDUH XVFDW  HVWH úOHIXLW 

-

'HDVXSUDVHOLSHúWHWDSHWXOFXDGH]LYVLQWHWLF

TapetHOH GH P

WDVH VDX VWRIH GHFRUDWLYH VH vQWLQG SH UDPH GH OHPQ IL[H DSRL SH SHUH L SULQ

dibluri.
2GDW XVFDWHWDSHWHOHODSDUWHDLQIHULRDU DSHUHWHOXLVHPRQWHD] 

plintaLDUODFHDVXSHULRDU

bagheteGLQOHPQVDXIkúLLvQJXVWHGLQWDSHWFRORUDWúLGHVHnat. 

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