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# Chapter Three

Analysis of Ride Comfort using Conventional Damper
In this chapter simulation of passive system, semi-active (switchable) and bi-linear damper characteristics and its effect on vehicle ride comfort will be presented using MATLA program! That is because passive suspension systems of conventional

elements (spring and dampers) have limitation in respect of completely controlling the vehicle dynamics! The difficulty comes from vehicle typically being operated over re"uiring ade"uate attitude control with load changes and maneuvering! #ven for the same operating conditions, it is well \$nown that the ride comfort parameter can be indefinitely improved (at all e%pense of the suspension wor\$ing space) by softening the suspension spring in practice the wor\$ing space must be restricted! &ormal passive suspension parameter choices represent a compromise between the different re"uirements and are made according to the vehicle type and layout!

3.1 Quarter car linear model
The analysis of vehicle suspension unit purpose is to increase the comfort of a passenger! 'onsider a simple model as in figure ((!))! This contains a plant with a massspring system! The irregularities in the road parole act as a disturbance to the plant and we view the damper as a controller which is attached to ensure that these disturbances have a low impact on the position of the mass! Let M) be the mass of the vehicle and let \$) be the spring constant of the spring! As the vehicle moves, * o is a disturbance that is caused because of irregularities in the road parole! +uppose ' is the damping constant of

1 Equations of motion  = K ( X − X ) + C ( X  −X  ) MbX b ) w b w b    −X  ) M w X w = K 0 ( X / − X w ) − K) ( X w − X b ) − C ( X w b ()1) ig.ed in the "uarter car representation in figure ((!))! 3.1. 3.the damper and assumes .d is the force e%erted by the damper on the mass in the downward direction! The ma-or elements of a motorcar suspension are summari.1 Quarter car model using conventional damper !here" Xb Xw ody displacement 2heel displacement 3oad displacement X/ M w Mass of vehicle tyre (4 \$g Mb Mass of vehicle body 05/ \$g 6/ .

# Results The coming results show the characteristic curves of the "uarter car linear model using a conventional damper! .igure ((!() represents the relation between body acceleration and time! The enemy number one enemy to the ride comfort is the body acceleration which acts directly on driver body and it needed to be reduced to minimi.igure ((!5) represents the relation between dynamic tire load and time! 8ynamic tire load occurs as a result of the road e%citation which is considered as the input of the "uarter car system and it ta\$es the shape of the sine wave and it have to be minimi.igure ((!6) represent the relation between the dynamic force and relative velocity !The dynamic force e%ists from the damper to limit the vibration caused by the e%erting e%citation effect the vehicle mass! 6) .K) K0 +tiffness of suspension system spring )4 /// &7m +tiffness of tire )4/ /// &7m 8amping coefficient of suspension system damper )/9/ &!s7m C 3.ed to increase the ride comfort! .e it! .igure ((!0) represents the relation between suspension wor\$ing space and time! +uspension wor\$ing space caused by the difference between the displacements of the vehicle:s body and tire! .1.

3. 3.# Relation \$et%een suspension %or&ing space and time ig.3 Relation \$et%een \$ody acceleration and time 60 .ig.

3.' Relation \$et%een dynamic tire load and time ig.( )inear damper characteristic 6( .ig. 3.

the characteristic curves of the vehicle damper would be differ from the case of the "uarter car linear model as shows in the following curves! .igure ((!.igure ((!9) represents the relation between the suspension wor\$ing space and the time! . 3.3.igure ((!1) represents the relation between the dynamic tyre load and the time! .) represents the relation between the dynamic force and the relative velocity! ig.+ Relation \$et%een \$ody acceleration and time 65 .# Quarter car \$i*linear model y changing the value of the damping coefficient in the compression and tension stro\$e C c = (// N !s 7 m and C t = ))// N !s 7 m respectively.igure ((!4) represents the relation between the body acceleration and the time! .

. 3.Relation \$et%een suspension %or&ing space and time 66 .ig. 3.. Relation \$et%een dynamic tyre load and time ig.

* ) + F Mb * b ) w b   M w * w = > 0 ( * / .* w ) − > ) ( * w .3 Quarter Car /odel of s%itcha\$le t%o states damper <ere. 3.ig.1 Equation of motion  = > ( * .. Relation \$et%een dynamic force and relative velocity 3.* b ) − Fa ()9) 64 . we are considering a "uarter car model with two degrees of freedom shown in fig! ((!)/)! This model uses a unit to create the control force between body mass and wheel mass! The motion e"uations of the car body and the wheel are as follows= 3.3.

10 Quarter car model of s%itcha\$le t%o states damper !here" Mb ody mass (one "uarter of the total body mass) 05/ \$g M w 2heel mass (4 \$g K) +pring constant (stiffness) of the body )4 /// &7m K 0 +pring constant (stiffness) of the wheel )4/ /// &7m Fa 8esired force by the cylinder X / 3oad displacements Xb ody displacement Ch 8amping coefficient hard mode 06// &!s7m Cs 8amping coefficient soft mode (// &!s7m 61 .ig. 3.

igure ((!)1) shows the relation between the root mean s"uare of dynamic tyre load and the damping coefficient of the damper acting in the hard mode over a wide range values and the figure ((!0/) shows the relation between the same root mean s"uare of the dynamic tire load and the damping coefficient of a switchable damper acting in the soft mode and over a wide range values! 69 .igure ((!)4) shows the relation between the root mean s"uare of the suspension wor\$ing space and a varies values of the damping coefficient of the damper acting in the hard mode and figure ((!).3.igure ((!)6) shows the relation between the root mean s"uare of body acceleration and the damping coefficient of semi-active damper acting in the hard mode over a wide range values.igure ((!)5) represents the relation between the damping force and the relative velocity! .igure ((!))) represents the relation between the body acceleration and the time! .# Results The coming results show the characteristic curves of a "uarter car model system using semi-active damper (switchable damper)! . in the other side figure ((!)9) shows the relation between the root mean s"uare of the body acceleration and the damping coefficient of semi-active damper but in this case it would be acting in the soft mode and over a wide range values! .3.) shows the relation between the root mean s"uare of suspension wor\$ing space and the damping coefficient of a damper acting in the soft mode! .igure ((!)() represents the relation between the suspension wor\$ing space and the time! .igure ((!)0) represents the relation between the dynamic tire load and the time! .

11 Relation \$et%een \$ody acceleration and time ig. 3. .1# Relation \$et%een dynamic tire load and time 6. 3.ig.

13 Relation \$et%een suspension %or&ing space and time 4/ . 3.ig.

2 0.7 0.ig.65 RMS of body accel.[m. 3.1+ Relation \$et%een root mean square of suspension %or&ing space and hard damping coefficient 4) ./sec 2] 0.55 0.5 0.4 0.05 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Hard damping coefficient [N.8 0.35 0.6 0.1' 1%itcha\$le damper characteristic 0. 3.15 0.25 0.1( Relation \$et%een root mean square of \$ody acceleration and hard damping coefficient 12 11 10 9 x 10 -3 RMS of SWS 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 hard damoing coefficient [N. 3.sec/m] ig.3 0.1 0.75 0.45 0.sec/m] ig.

45 0.4 0.6 0. 3.3 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 soft damping coefficient [N.240 220 RMS of DTL [N] 200 180 160 140 120 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Hard damping coefficientr [N. Relation \$et%een root mean square of dynamic tyre load and hard damping coefficient t 0.65 0.1.75 RMS of the body ACCEL [m/sec 2] 0.55 0.Relation \$et%een root mean square of \$ody acceleration and soft damping coefficient 40 .5 0.1.35 0.7 0.sec/m] ig.8 0. 3.sec/m] ig.

1. 3. Relation \$et%een root mean square of suspension %or&ing space and soft damping coefficient RMS of the DTL against the sof damping coefficient 240 220 RMS of DTL (N) 200 180 160 140 120 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Soft damping coefficient [N.sec/m) 1400 1600 ig.sec/m] ig. 3.12 11 10 9 SWS [RMS] 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 x 10 -3 RMS of SWS AGAINST THE SOFT DAMPING COEFFICIENT 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Soft damping coefficient (N.#0 Relation \$et%een root mean square of dynamic tire load and soft damping coefficient 4( .

the bi-linear suspension system characteristics had presented to achieve both ride comfort and good handling! This aim was achieved with respect to the results of the simulation? the results of the bi-linear suspension system also show the improved stability of the one-"uarter-car model! y using semi active suspension system improvement of rid comfort. handling and stability has done by reducing body acceleration.3.' Conclusion In this chapter. dynamic tire load and suspension wor\$ing space among the wide range of the damping coefficients! 45 .