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Riemann's "Ideen zu Einer 'Lehre von den Tonvorstellungen' ": An Annotated Translation Author(s): Robert W. Wason, Elizabeth West Marvin and Hugo Riemann Source: Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Spring, 1992), pp. 69-79 Published by: Duke University Press on behalf of the Yale University Department of Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/843910 . Accessed: 20/11/2013 13:21
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" and. it must be remembered that the defects of the original have long been well-known.RIEMANN'S "IDEEN ZU EINER 'LEHRE VON DEN TONVORSTELLUNGEN' ": AN ANNOTATED TRANSLATION Robert W.171.3 Moreover. and few have been translated into English. 69 This content downloaded from 184.none of his works is easily obtainable.7 on Wed. by some chance. while Mickelsen's recent translation of Book III of the History of Music Theory is certainly a useful contribution.' The relatively recent coming of age of American scholarshipin music theory nearly coincides with the "SchenkerianRevolution. as most American theorists are aware. one chooses to venture into this forbidden territory anyway.106. the father of that revolution did not hold a high opinion of Riemann. American music theorists have shown little interest in his work.2 If. Wason and Elizabeth West Marvin INTRODUCTION Although the theories of Hugo Riemann (1849-1919) have had an extraordinaryinfluence upon European musical thought. the going is difficult:with the exception of Riemann's History of Music Theory. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .
and. Riemann deals with familiar aspects of his theory of harmony. would have been a comprehensive Lehre von den Tonvorstellungen(the phrase remains untranslated at present for reasons that will become clear later). with researchin early music and the newly-founded discipline of ethnomusicology. but especially in sections III and IV of this first essay. Presumably. Thus. jected to a bewildering array of translations that are not only awkward. It is hoped that the present translationwill contribute to a resurgence of interest in Riemann's work. One of the keystones of Riemann's notion of tonal imagination. While translations of these early works would be useful." which renders the term "chord 70 This content downloaded from 184. but inaccurate. presented in complete translation here. Despite its quaint and occasionally awkward character ("under-thirds.8 Here.Henry Bewerung (1862-1923). one result of which may be to provide the context for a critical reading of the second essay in the near future.106. at least with regardto his ideas on harmony. this theory too has continued to generate controversy. thus.the crowningachievement of that period.7 on Wed. denotes a psychological processing of each sounding note into a mental representation that considers each of its six harmonicmeanings (as root. but it was clear to at least one of them that his "history of harmonic theory" was essentially the "history of Riemann's harmonic theory. in the second essay.171. sufficient secondary literature already exists to provide a context for its critical reading."4 Riemann's "first period"5 is known to most American theorists largely through secondary sources. The first of the two essays.Riemann's most severely criticalcontemporarieshad to admirehis virtuoso handlingof the earlier sources (even though he was occasionally self-serving there as well). Klangvertretung. most of the terminology in this translation corresponds with that used by one of his more widely-knownEnglish translators. one sees the mature theorist trying to reconcile music-theoretical views he has held for most of his life with recent researches in empiricalscience.""over-thirds. Yet like most of Riemann's ideas."and the like).6The crowning achievement of Riemann's "second period" in the realm of practical harmony is his "theory of tonal functions"--the work for which most Americans probably know him best. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Already in Section I. had Riemann lived long enough to complete it. deals exclusively with matters related directly to Riemann's harmonic theories. An which has been subimportantexception is the term Klangvertretung. third or fifth of a major or minor chord). John Fillmore's translation of Riemann's "Die Natur der Harmonik. but they are not without interest.' The documents that survive from Riemann's "thirdperiod" are fragmentary. the secondary sources are fortunately quite complete. for example.
this. who prefers to transliterate Klang as "clang" (Riemann/ Bewerung. chooses to render the term as "chordrepresentation"(Mickelsen. Stumpf "became bogged down in the detail-work of the preliminary tone-psychological investigation of intervals" (p. as well as a means of expressing in notation the musical-logicalactivities that occur in the musical imagination.9While Riemann's earlier works had dealt with the first two ideas. fares little better in Riemann's essay. following Bewerung.form the basis of the psychological sphere of musical activity that Riemann postulates. Klang (to use Fillencompasses both an "over-chord"and an "under-chord" more's terminology) and therefore connotes a tonal complex above and below the pitch in question. hence. 82). 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 85). the pioneering empiricalpsychologist and ethnomusicologist. Riemann sets forth these priorities from the outset: the ultimate work to which he hopes his ideas will contribute is an obvious revision of Helmholtz's Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (our emphasis)." as Fillmore and Mickelson would translate it. Of crucial importance here is the translation of the term Klang. the translation of Klangvertretunghere is "representationof a tonal complex. It seems certain that Riemann saw this theory as a further step towards an understandingof the mental processing of music. as Rummenh6llerhas remarked. declaring ultimately that 71 This content downloaded from 184.106.171. 28). In Riemann's estimation. Riemann admits that this notion is not really a new one. Helmholtz's primaryerror was to place too much stock in physical and physiological investigations.1' According to Riemann. 104). Even Riemann's famous theory of tonal functions abstractshis earlier harmonictheory from its material source in a move toward the psychological domain that becomes much more pronounced in the present work (Rummenhaller. Riemann places the focus of his "deductive"investigation squarely on the mind.11 In direct contrast to these empirical. instead of producing a true Tonpsychologie. the very opening of the present article stresses the continuity and evolution of ideas from his dissertationon.7 on Wed. the present work attempts the first investigation of Tonvorstellung. Elsewhere. Mickelsen.substitution.Yet. Mickelsen offers "Klang-representation"(Mickelsen. which has a more specific meaning to Riemann than simply "chord. indeed. "inductive"approaches. Carl Stumpf (1848-1936). passim). 216)." The notion of Klangvertretung. and examples of Riemann's emphasis upon the logical understanding of music may be found in any number of his works. on the other hand." is certainly misleading (Riemann/Fillmore. still does not capture Riemann's meaning.together with the more familiar "musicallogic" and the less familiar Tonvorstellung. In the present essay. although an improvement over Fillmore.
one might ask."'3 Wolfgang Schwarz argues strongly and persuasively for "presentation"in a recent revised translation. maintaining that his method is "deductive. "to represent." On the other hand. materialistinvestigationsby Helmholtz and Stumpf. we are now in a position to consider the most important problems of translation. it seems clear that Ellis made a wise choice. but rather exists in the mental image of musical that occurs in the creativeartist'simagination-a mental relationships into notationand re-emerges in imagethatlives beforeit is transformed an artistic theimagination creation of thehearer.Theprocessof notating as well as the soundingperformance of the workare merelyexpedients to transplant musicalexperiences into from the composer'simagination the imaginationof the musicallistener. with the title itself. The dictionarydefinitionof Vorstellungis alreadyconfusing: a common." Beyond these common meanings. While most translatorsof Kant's works render Vorstellungas "representation. since this form of the title begs an unresolvable question of translation (which Ellis presumablychose to beg as well): whether Lehre can be taken to mean "theory. the reflexive verb sich vorstellenhas an abstractmeaning. divining the true nature of the "theory" to which these "ideas" were to be a contribution is difficultindeed. and indeed." Given that Riemann's Lehre remained incomplete. sounding music. a history of controversy among translatorsof Kant and Schopenhauer. indeed.171. to imagine."12What. They begin right at the outset. Riemann'semphasis) Thus. the word has a long history as a philosophical term. concrete meaning of the verb vorstellenis "to introduce. it is at the heart of one of the major difficultiesin translatingthe work. we shall return to it later in this Introduction--his fuzziness on this point was the source of subsequent criticism. retainingthe "placingbefore" as a metaphor--"to place before the mind.the 'Alphaand Omega'of musicalartistryis not found in the actual. "because it avoids 72 This content downloaded from 184. The translationof Tonvorstellungen presents an even more difficult problem. With a clearer idea of Riemann's agenda. however. 82.7 on Wed. Riemann clings resolutely to an independent existence of mind." Thus the meaning of the noun Vorstellungin common speech may vary from "introduction" to "idea. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .moreover. to place before.(p.106. in the face of the empirical. At the same time. We have chosen to render Riemann's proposed study as "On the Imagination of Tone." though in certain contexts it may take on the more abstract meaning." primarily because it underscores the work's relationship to Helmholtz by paralleling Ellis's translation. is the relationshipof this "mentalmusic"to the sounding music of the external world? Though it would be unfair to accuse Riemann of ignoring this question--and.
which refers "mediately to the object through a common characteristic"(Schwarz."'14 a "presentationsignifies any modificationof the mind."'5While Schopenhauer's explanation retains the metaphor of "setting something before" the mind. because. Vorstellungis the "exceedingly complicated physiological process in the brain of an animal. if one is willing to sacrifice the "setting before" metaphor. which is formed from concepts but which transcendsexperience.7 on Wed. Friedrich. 115). 115). the translator of a "popularized" version of Kant.16 Schopenhauer's use of Vorstellung is also considerably closer to Riemann'sdespite Handschin's claim that Riemann's Lehre von den Tonvorstellungenis "echter Kantianismus.any association of duplicatingor copying things which themselves are To Kant. other translationsbecome available.Another substantive with a distinct "verbal"connotation.the latter consisting "in the determinate reference of given presentations to an object" (Schwarz. 269)."citing Kant himself." But this usage is often misleading "representation" 73 This content downloaded from 184. 263).171. though a Vorstellungmight appear to be what one thinks of as an "idea" in common parlance.106. 266)--or to Begriff (concept)."17 Now. the two terms are widely separatedin Kant's usage. According to Schopenhauer. it is perhaps understandablethat an earlier." Consequently. addresses the problem as follows: Even more perplexingis the term Vorstellung. given nowhere but in the presentations we have of them. Schwarzbemoans the "inflationary use of Idee for all kinds of presentations. the result of which is the consciousness of a picture there. From "concept" one moves to "empirical concept" or "pure concept. Carl J. in describing the genesis of "ideas. less criticaltranslationrendered Die Weltals Wille und Vorstellungas The World as Will and Idea. The next step from "cognition"is either to Anschauung (which Schwarzrenders "intuition")--"thatpresentation which can precede any act of thinking something"(Schwarz. the term is often translatedas or "presentation. who remarksthat "anyone used to these distinctionsmust find it abhorrent to hear the presentation of red color called an idea" (Schwarz. this "exceedingly complex physiological process" has moved much closer to a Kantian "idea. A conscious Vorstellungmarks Perzeption. Thus. progressingeither to Empfindung(sensation) or Erkenntnis(which Schwarzrenders as "cognition"). Though the terms Anschauung and Vorstellung are used by Schopenhauer. their meanings differ considerablyfrom Kant's usage. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." and from the latter ultimately to the "idea" (Idee)." he employs a clear hierarchyof terms beginning with Vorstellung-the first stirring of the mind. Terminological correctness and consistency are especially importantfor Kant. as such belonging to the inner sense" (Schwarz.
despite the essay's apparently philosophical theme.""tonal images. It must be rememberedthat while the term Tonvorstellungen is rendered as "the imaginationof tone" in the title. The verbal derivativeis treated in like fashion. and thus one need not-and cannot--distinguish between the first stirringsof the mind and the final "idea":Vorstellung is a nearly ubiquitous." since the latter is more at home in restrictive." For while music may exist in the outer world.'8is Friedrich's approach to the problem proves to be the most practical with respect to Riemann's work.or its plural. our mental musical images are the music..19 Friedrich'sapproach to Vorstellungalso works because the hierarchy of terms and the terminological exactitude found in Kant is notably absent. and (c) the image in the mind. . as Riemann understandsit. in an earlier essay that Riemann himself cites in the present work. technical contexts. partiallyin an attempt to retain the parallelism with Helmholtz's title. It was Handschin's 74 This content downloaded from 184.materialallureof the real tone is so strongthat to a certainextent it even acts obstructively on the consciouspursuitof the more intricatetonal manuverings that one findsin the highestartistic achievements. Riemann's essay is barely saved from this dilemma by the structure that his familiar brand of technical music theory imposes on it. all-purpose term for Riemann." and . 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Thus I question . whetherhearingas an act of receptioncan ever achievethe high degreeof perfectionthat is available to the tonal imagination. in the body of the essay. When we think of music. Tonvorstellung.)20 In order to capture the breadth of the term.. we are not imaginingthings in the outer world."Thus.106. The "thingimagined." on the other hand. he goes so far as to say: The mechanical. (And thus it must be admitted from the outset that the exact epistemological status of Tonvorstellungis difficult to pin down." and occasionally "tonal conception" (to differentiate more finely from "perception" or "sensation"). this translation generally favors "imagination" over "conception.(b) the thing imagined.as context demands. Indeed. sounding music.7 on Wed. is rendered variously as "tonal imagination. Riemann uses the term much more broadly than this English "equivalent. Earlier we posed the question about the relationship of these inward "tonal images" to outer.as the verb vorstellen means primarily "to imagine. is indistinguishablefrom the "imagein the mind. on the contrary. "the act of imagining"and "the image in the mind" are precisely the two most prevalent meanings of the term.171. such "music"is only a transmitting agent from an inventing mind to a receiving mind. In fact." "tonal understanding. the de- rivativenoun may mean: (a) the act of imagining.
their point is that "no power on earth can force the healthy musician to hear something other than . it is precisely the relationshipbetween music of the mind and that of the outer world. By inquiring into the relationship between purely mental musical activity and music in the outer world. Just intonation represents a "cognitive law" for 75 This content downloaded from 184.106. though he had earlier maintained that "in the case of intensive musical temperaments. The examples are not mere curiosities. accordingto which the mind "moves directlytoward rejection of more complicated structures. 91) make it clear that processes involving pitch and rhythm are central to the "musical imagination.171. Riemann ends Section I with more questions about what the mind actually imagines. if there is a central theme to this wide-ranging. below). and "the principle of the greatest economy of the musical imagination. which Rummenh6ller regards as basic axioms of Riemann's epistemology (Rummenhiller.where other possible meanings suggest themselves that weigh less heavily on the powers of interpretation." That such motion may be located in tonal space with exactitude through the phenomenon of "absolutepitch" leads to an investigation of that as well. 83). The music of the mind.. falling into a "subjectiveidealism" (Handschin.opinion that with the notion of Tonvorstellung. but in each section. Seidel comes to Riemann's defense on this. . 124-126). Riemann turns to the phenomenon of "tonal motion. Riemann moves from a theory of "musicalcognition" to at least the beginnings of a theory of "musicalperception." In fact.five-partessay." In Section II..Tonvorstellung-rests upon two interrelated notions. all the attributes of actually sounding music obtain" (p. 88). pointing out that Riemann inquires into the "recognizable characteristicsthat an imagined tone has in common with an actually sounding tone.Riemann had entirely ignored this problem. Riemann hardlyresolves that dichotomy. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . bothersome intonational errors" (p. 107): "representationof tonal complexes" (described above)." Already in Section I of the essay (which deals with the single tone) Riemann defines "representation of tonal complexes" and then proceeds to the second notion. he treats some aspect of the "musicalimagination"and then goes on to attempt an investigationof the relation between the object of his inquiry and sounding music. 90. true.7 on Wed. Still speaking of the single tone. rather than true "modulations"-the latter would become "understandable" only through the "representation of tonal complexes" and the arrangement of key relationships that Riemann will develop as a consequence of this theory in Section IV. his remarkson the "aestheticvalue of string quartet music" (p. . however." (p. 85). Riemann introduces examples from the real world of music: simple tunes that undergo peculiar alterations by whole and half step. when the latter is correctly imagined" (Seidel.
" which may be at the beginning of a piece. Riemann chooses to imagine the dominant and subdominant in succession when negotiating the melodic tritone. forms the absolute basis for relative ascents and descents within the piece. While the "Law of the Greatest Possible Economy of the Musical Imagination"seems to necessitate such an interpretationin the "musical imagination. Riemann concludes: 76 This content downloaded from 184. According to Riemann.. for example.""our musical practice knows nothing of [this problem]. and phraseology can form the basis of a theory of "tonal imagination"in these areas. he warns. But in Section V.7 on Wed. and not as a composite of dominant and subdominant. for such distinctionsoccur only in the tonal imagination." Indeed.23 After attempting to extend this technique briefly to more complex chromatic progressions. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . possessors of absolute pitch who claim to hear enharmonic distinctions in sounding music are to be regarded with skepticism.171. In Section IV. Thus. in which the "Lawof the Greatest Possible Economy of the Musical Imagination" yields the boundaries of an otherwise endless key-relation scheme. "understandable"motions through what he calls "auxiliarymental images" (Hilfsvorstellungen). 100). he attempts to take melodic and harmonic intervals of real music whose interpretationsare not immediately apparentand consider them the composite of simpler. and our tonal consciousness is even less aware that d:f:a would not be a pure minor chord. one presumes that such "complex"motions are difficult or impossible to account for directly by the strings of thirds and fifths developed in Sections III and IV. ending merely with the feeble assertion that traditional theories of rhythm.Riemann. which forms the point of "indifference"for ascents and descents" (p. Riemann seems less able to relate this notion to real music.22 "This enharmonicidentificationof acoustical values that differ by a syntonic comma is simply indispensable to our musical hearing" (p. 96). Riemann turns to the imagination of what he calls "complex voice motions. Yet the end of the section is once again occupied with problems of real music. . for that matter). In Section III.for otherwise we would not be able to imagine the dominant of 11. this "middle level. for every melodic formation. Riemann treats the familiar"representationof tonal complexes" in such detail that it can only be considered digressive. Though Riemann never says so explicitly. motive.21 Riemann ends the section with one of his more thought-provokingspeculations: "the realization of ascents and descents in concrete cases leads. in this late essay Riemann maintains that we even imagine a 117chord with two pure fifths. but rather a type of diminishedtriad. Riemann bringsup the perennialproblem of the "dissonant"II chord (as discussed by Hauptmann-and Sechter.106. to the recognitionof a middle level." Here. .
1962). Henry Bewerung(Lon"Consonanceand Dissodon.7 on Wed."24 Significantly. 7-9. A Translation of "Kontrapunkt" by Heinrich Schenker." NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION nextgeneration of theorists the importance of developing emphasizes 1." Riemann's Lehre von den Tonvorstellungenmight well have been the first step towards a "Theory of Musical Perception. this is the one law Riemann proposes that reaches beyond the mind to the outer world.trans. Thus.That we imaginetonal relationshipsthoroughlyin the sense of pure tuningis beyondquestion. Mickelsen and "History of Music Theory. One who has shownconsiderable interestis David Lewin. Hugo Riemann'sTheoryof Harmony:A Study by WilliamC. amonga numberof possiblepage references.. 77 This content downloaded from 184. trans. John Rothgeb and JiirgenThym (New York and London.. Counterpoint. 1: xxv.Historyof Music Theory(Books I and II).whose variouscomments on and interpretations of Riemann'swork will be cited as appropriate below.typescript in Boston PublicLibrary andin New York Public Library). 109)." ed. and ed. 135-39. to whichis addedTheNatureof Harmony by Dr. ElmarSeidel providesa tabularlist of Riemann's on harmonyon publications in Beitrage zur Musikthepp.Book III" by Hugo Riemann. the last lines reiterating Riemann's belief that the future of music theory depends on developing his theory of "enharmonicidentification.. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .John Fillmore(Philadelphia. 1896) (cited below as Riemann/Bewerung). See. MartinVogel (Regensburg. 1977) (cited below as MarkMcCune. nance:A Discussionof the Problemof Harmonic Dualism"(translation of Das Problem des harmonischenDualismus [Leipzig. 1905]." Theoria1 (1985): 132-150.106.trans. how it is possiblein spite of this that the imperfectcompensatoryintonationof our commonlyused tempered musicsatisfiesus and provesto be a usablemeansof allowingthe tonal of imaginingsof the composerto arise once again in the imagination the listener must be reserved for discussion in a later. trans. that he places its development at the top of the agenda for the mechanisms to explain the relationship between his "cognitive laws" and sounding music. 1925. Jahrhunderts. the climax of the essay places the dichotomy of the mind and the real world once more in center stage. lation. 2. Mickelsen(Lincoln. Harrison Lovewell(Boston. trans. later study. 1987). of published of these works(arranged folEnglishtranslations chronologically) lows: New Lessonsin Harmony.trans. 1887)(cited below as "Riemann/Fillmore"). for example. HarmonySimplified. xxx.171. S. 41-42 of "Die Harmonielehre Hugo Riemanns. A list orie des 19.1966). Hugo Riemann. Raymond Haggh (Lincoln. new study (p.39-92."HugoRiemann's'Ueber TonalitAt': A Trans"Mickelsen"). WilliamC. 3.. Had this been the startingpoint of his "new.
106."A FormalTheoryof Generalized TonalFunctions.) *Fora recent(and morebalanced)view of Riemann'sversionof the history of harmonictheory.1902). "UeberDr. See. Ernst Kurth und Heinrich Schenker (Vienna. Riemann's"Systemof Tonal Functions" serves as Lewin'spoint of departure in a most imaginative of the formalproperties of this system. that claim is made under false pretenses.Also see sitionslehre. Goebel (Chi- (Berlin and Stuttgart. Seidel (pp. Akkord und Stimmfiihrung in den musiktheoretischen Systemen von Hugo Riemann.-19. ed.pp.the secondfrom 1890-1909. see DavidLewin.Lewinlaunchesinto an excursuscontainingan extraorof the relationship betweenRiemann'sharmonic dinarydiscussion systemand the muchbetter-known see "Amfortas's to Titurelandthe Stufentheorie."BernhardZiehn.the "harmonic space"that Lewindescribeson pp.rpt. 6. whichstudiesnetworks involving For the latter. 1965):60-76.andthe thirdfrom 1909to 1919. A fundamentalarticle is Richard Miinnich. However. In the midstof an articleon Wagner. Prayer Role of D in Parsifal:The Tonal Spacesof the Drama and the Enharmonic Music7/3 (1984):336-349. Der homophone Satz (Melodielehre und Harmonielehre to Schenkerand Schoenberg (Ann Arbor. Tutzing. 126-7. 13-31 and Robert W." Journalof MusicTheory 26/1 (1982):23-60. for example. In addition.171. 292: (Our translation." Riemann-Festschrift (Leipzig. and to give a coherentaccountof the genesisof the variousconceptsof the 'present-day theory[Lehre].. Viennese Harmonic Theoryfrom Albrechtsberger 78 This content downloaded from 184.sinceby the appliesto the writings term 'present-day Lehre' Riemannunderstands only his own Harmonieleere this wordcannotbe writtenmorecorrectly). "Inthe foreword[to the Historyof Music Theory]HerrRiemannsays that he has strivenat the very least not to leave out anythingessentialto the courseof the development[of theory]. Jahrhundert'. see Scott Burnham. 83-92) recountsmuchof the historyof this controversy. (underthe presentcircumstances. 1927)." in GeHugo Riemanns'Geschichte cago.Lewin'sreC6/B. MickelsendividesRiemann'slife and work into three periods:the firstperiod from 1872-1890. 1985). der Musiktheorie im 9. See. vol. it is moreor less true. v-vi.4." Studiesin Music(Ontario)2 (1977): 108-24.his Table of Contents. exploration andothersderivedfromit.Lewincites as a precedentRiemann'sGrosseKompo"Klangs. 479-480. 7." Music Theory Spectrum 14/1 (1992): 1-14.) An articleby Gerhard Wuenschfurnishes a good introductionto Riemann in English: "Riemann'sMusicalTheory. For a more sympa- Hellmut Federhofer. 1909. . "Von Entwicklungder Riemannschen Harmonielehre und ihremVerhiltnis zu Oettingenund Stumpf.7 on Wed. ElmarSeidel offersthe mostcomprehensive discussion of Riemann's on harmony in writings "Die Harmonielehre cited above. 20-22. 5. 20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1."Methodand Motivationin Hugo Riemann's History of Harmonic Theory. J." is basedupon Miinnichand Seidel. for example." cent book Generalized Musical Intervals and Transformations (New Haven.'To the extentthatthis of antiquity. (Muchof Mickelsen's text Hugo Riemanns. sammelte Aufsiitze zur Geschichte und Theorie der Musik. 1981).. as well as his Chapter transformations of Riemannian 8."Nineteenth-Century 1987) containsa numberof sections that are indebtedto Riemann. Wason.
20 Nov 2013 13:21:53 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Colorado. It mustbe emphasized that Riemann's difpositionon this issueis considerably ferentfromthat of Hauptmann. See Elizabeth WestMarvin. But sucha "deductive" methodis hardlythe deductivemethodof Hauptmann.106. JacquesHandschin.xxii. Payne(IndianHills. 16.171.1877). 18.see his Musikpsychologie (Berlin."NeueBeitrige zu einer Jahrbuchder Musikbibliothek Lehre von den Tonvorstellungen.see especiallypp. 79 This content downloaded from 184. 11. Trans. 92. rpt. Oettingen. All page indications in parenthesesrefer to Riemann'sessay. 33-34.The Worldas Will and Representation. Friedrich 19." Theoria 2 (1987):59-84. 1950)."Jahrbuchder Musikbibliothek Peters (1909): 46. 126.1958). for example. 1965):1-21. 15." In TheoryOnly 6/4 (May. 1982):37-44. 1931). by CarlJ. 17-20). below. NormanKemp Smith(New York. quotedby Rummenholler. F. PeterRummenhiller." Peters 23 (1916. 23. 106. "Ideenzu einer 'Lehrevon den Tonvorstellungen'.1948). for Perspectives a discussion of the historical contextof Riemann'snotionof Tonvorstellungen. see Tom Christensen. Vaduz. 10. Riemannfirstproposedthistheoryin Musikalische Syntaxis (Leipzig. Jahrbuch der Musikbib8.or Helmholtz. 21. 1906). includingStephan Korner. "Spontane Phantasietditigkeit und verstandmaiBige Arbeit in der tonkiinstlerischen Produktion. Critique of Pure Reason.7 on Wed. 9. CompareLewin'sdiscussionof the "harmonic intuition"of the tritone (Genand Transformations. trans. ImmanuelKant. The Philosophyof Kant. ArthurSchopenhauer. 61). Others agree. (London. trans. 1949). 1982).Rummenhillercharacterizes it muchmore accurately as "induction at a higherlevel" (Rummenholler. 104).Musiktheoretisches Denkenim 19. xvii.Haldaneand Kemp. xxxi. and 117 through120."Tonpsychologie andMusikpsychologie: Historical on the Studyof MusicalPerception. 17.rpt. p. WolfgangSchwarz(Darmcited as "Schwarz. eralizedMusicalIntervals pp. ImmanuelKant. 13. 102. with an introduction (New York.hereafter Britannica and the OxfordEnglishDictionaryas corroboration of his choice. Critiqueof Pure Reason. ed. 1965):1-26. 1967). ErnstKurthcomplains thatRiemann's to a repetition essayamounts essentially of his harmonic theory. Kant (New Haven and London. J. 5th ed. (Our translation. "TheSchichtenlehre of Hugo Riemann. E.thetic view. Seidel speculatesperceptively that Riemannmay well have given up the doctrine of the "apparent consonance" of secondarychordshad he lived longer (Seidel. 1982). Jahrhundert (Regensburg.) 20. 47.Der Toncharacter (Zurich. 14." Schwarz cites the Encyclopedia stadt. Lewinlikewiseapto similarHilfsvorstellungen on pp. 22. p. Vaduz." liothekPeters21/22(1914/15.ImmanuelKant'sMoral and PoliticalWritings. trans. 18-19. peals (implicitly) 24. 12.all of whom sought to introducejust intonationinto actualmusicalpractice.
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