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Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

Dănuţ T. BABOR


Chemical and Structural Properties

„Matei-Teiu Botez” Academic Society Publishing House Iaşi 2004

Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României
BABOR, DĂNUŢ T. Building materials: chemical and structural properties / Dănuţ T. Babor, Daniel Covatariu. - Iaşi : Editura Societăţii Academice "Matei-Teiu Botez", 2004 Bibliogr. ISBN 973-7962-52-4 I. Covatariu, Daniel 691(075.8)

Scientific reviewers: eng. Radu HARIGA, Ph.D., Idg scientific researcher National Institute of Testing, Iaşi branch Head of Building Materials Laboratory eng. Mircea RUJANU, Ph.D., associate professor Faculty of Construction “Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iaşi

Computerised edited, photos and cover: eng. Daniel COVATARIU


Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties


Any material is subjected, by natural laws, to physical or performance decay. Every material reacts entropically to the stimulation of certain external or internal agents. Very often, it reacts even synergically, thus affecting the service life of materials. So, the basics notions about physical and chemical properties and, also, the testing method involved to determine those characteristics are the base of the construction engineer’s knowledge.



Chemical and Structural Properties 4 .Building Materials .

........... CHARACTERISTICS OF BULKING MATERIALS ............................. MATERIAL’S DENSITIES ........... water absorption......... 57 8............................................ 95 Compression Tests 13......... MECHANICAL TESTS (II) .............. The Cleaving Extensions Test Bibliography ......................... Identification of some ions.... Modules of fineness 11............................................. water hardness 6....... 104 5 ............................. MECHANICAL TESTS (I) ............. 21 Chemical measurements.. CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS .... THE APPARENT DENSITY OF MATERIALS ............................. MEASURES AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ....................... humidity.................. 100 The Flexural Test............. 65 Bulk density................................................ LIQUID SOLUTIONS (II) .................... GRANULARITY ............................................. 7 2... STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS .................................. 79 Granularity........... 70 Compactness............................ 87 12...... holes’ volume 9.....Building Materials .... LIQUID SOLUTIONS (I) ....... bulking of sand 10... Liquid solutions preparation 5................. MIXTURES OF BULKED MATERIALS ................................. WATER ANALYSIS ........... 34 40 50 7................................................ solution concentration 3.............Chemical and Structural Properties CONTENTS 1.... 26 The pH and its applications 4.......... porosity............................

Chemical and Structural Properties 6 .Building Materials .

50 m the maximal size which can be measured is of 50 cm. impurity when we effectuate an analysis. the sizes and we obtain parameters of calculus for the characteristics which we have to determinate. chemicals. The construction materials will be examined in different modes: looking up the physic-mechanical characteristics when we effectuate a determination. looking up the structural constituents. ♦ the precision express the minimal variation of the size variation which can be determinate and it usually is the minimal size which is marked on the instrument scale.1 General rules to effectuate and express the measurements The instruments and the measuring instruments are typified by their measurement capacity and precision. with a ruler of 0. the sizes which are bigger can be measure if we implement the ruler more then once). 1. suppose effectuation of measurements. 7 .Chemical and Structural Properties MEASURES AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS A laboratory determinations. ♦ the measurement capacity express the maximal value of the size which we can be measured from a single application (for example. To make those measurements we need the instruments / measuring instruments.Building Materials .

calibrated (after case). For the measuring precision and the instruments precision we must know the following rules: the instrument / measurement instrument must be prepared: keying. 8 . we must ensure the environment conditions (temperature. The sizes are expressed in the measurement units from the international system (Appendix 1. because: .1). we must choose the instrument with the proper capacity of measuring. pressure) and the instrument will be acclimated just before we make the measurements. balanced. • • we handle the instrument without touching the indicator because if we move it the results obtained can be wrong.a smaller capacity impose that we must make the measurement by enforcing the instrument more then once.Chemical and Structural Properties The capacity and the precision of a measuring instrument are in correlation because a smaller capacity permits a better precision because the constructional system of the instrument can be more sensible and it can intimate smaller sizes. . humidity.Building Materials .if we overload an apparatus we deteriorate his constructional system. If the measuring instruments are in units from other systems.a bigger capacity goes to a smaller precision. is necessary to transform them in the units from the international system. The unit expressed in multiples or submultiple is admitted to avoid the calculus with big values or many decimals. .

with the mark 0 (zero) at the left limit and we read the mark from the right which coincide with the right limit of the dimension.Building Materials . 1. ♦ The caliper (Figure 1. millimeter “mm”. ♦ Ruler.2. but until we determinate the last value we can use it’s submultiples: centimeter “cm”. 9 . Figure 1.Dimension measuring instruments The measurements are executed through instrument overlap on the dimension we must measure.) allows measurements with a precision of 10-4m. meter and the measuring tape (Figure 1. If we use flexible instruments it must be well outspread on the surface we must measure.1) allow measurements with a precision of 10-3 m.Chemical and Structural Properties In every case is necessary to express the technical characteristics determinates in the measurement units provided by the specific technical norms.1 .2. Dimensions measurement (length) The measurement unit for length is meter “m”.

The Caliper ♦ The micrometer (Figure 1. The dimensions which are measured with the clipper are expressed in millimeters. the number of the mark from the vernier which coincides with the one from the calipers’ rule.Chemical and Structural Properties The measurement is executed through the comprehension of the material between the calipers measuring-jaw and the determination of the dimension through the addition of the next values. and the determination of the dimension through the addition of the next values. The measurement is executed through the comprehension of the material between the micrometer measuring-jaw. • • the number of the undivided millimeters which starts from the mark zero of the vernier.Building Materials . Figure 1.3) allows measurements with a precision of 10-5mm.2 . 10 . as tenths of millimeter.

To use the micrometer we must comprehend the sample between the measuring-jaws with the help of the “operating button”. Figure 1. if not. • the approximation of thousandth of millimeter.4) permits to measure a dimension and has precision of 10-5m.5 mm if between the last oblique sign and the barrel limit we have a vertical sign. which are left-over the barrel. if is actioned by the barrel the micrometer screw will be destroyed by the advancement of the mobile-jaw.Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties • • • the number of undivided millimeters. if the horizontal line from the micrometers’ scale is between the signs from the barrel. marked with oblique signs.3 – The Micrometer ♦ The micro-comparator (Figure 1. The dimensions which were measured with the micrometer are express in millimeters. 11 . as hundredth of millimeters. 0. the number of the sign from the barrel scale which coincide with the horizontal line from the micrometer scale.

and we obtain the variation through the difference between the readings or through the lengths difference that we determinate. We calculate measured the algebraic and sum the between the dimension of the Figure 1. Volumes measurement The measurement unit for volume is m3. To determinate the dimension. In order to measure the volumes of liquids we use glass instruments with a calibrated volume or with continuous scale of volume. 12 to avoid the errors from the thermal . 1.4 Micro-comparator prism difference between 2 readings. but in laboratory technique the small volumes are expressed in cm3.Chemical and Structural Properties This apparatus transform the translational motion of the feeling-bar. In the case when we follow up the length variation we repeat the measurements. through a system of interchangeable gears into an angular motion of the pointer. and after that we introduce the sample which must be measured and we make a new reading. To effectuate the measurements must be respected the following rules: • the liquid and the apparatus must have the standard temperature dilatation.Building Materials . we fix the micro-comparator into a yoke in which is introduced a measured prism.3. We make the reading on micro-comparator.

by filing them until the stamp. The graduated cylinders (Figure 1. the volume is measured on scale and is totally transverses.Building Materials .5. because it depends by cross section of every apparatus.5 – The instruments for liquid’s volumes measuring 13 . in the tangent plan to the meniscus which is formed at the liquid surface owing to the phenomena of lyophilize or lyophobize. that’s why the scales can be different. The bubble pipettes and the calibrated flaks (Figure 1.Chemical and Structural Properties • • • the scale of every apparatus will be analyzed to determinate the measurement accuracy. a – calibrated flask b – graduated cylinder c – graduated cylinder (small) d – Bersellius vessel e – Erlenmeyer vessel a) b) c) d) e) Figure 1.5.b and 1.a) accept dosages only for the volumes for which are calibrated.c) and the calibrated pipettes are used for dosage of liquids with floating but predetermined volumes. the reading of the liquids’ level will be made perpendicular on the scale.5. The apparatus must have a vertical position to be sure that the meniscus is perfectly horizontal.

which after we remove it and the excess of material. The instruments for the mass determination compare the gravitational forces which are developing over the quantity of material.Chemical and Structural Properties The burette (Figure 1. respectively over some measured masses (called avoirdupois or etalon masses). the entire volume of the flask to be correctly filled with material.6) permits a continuous dosage of the liquids. Masses measuring The material mass represents the quantity of substance and is expressed in kilograms (kg). For smaller quantities and when we need a higher precision the masses are expressed in grams (g). so we can read the volume of past liquid from the burette. For the bulked materials the volume is measured with the help of some volumetric flasks with cylindrical form. The filler neck attached by the flask permits to over fill the flask. made up by clad sheet steel thick enough to keep its form.4.7 – Instruments for masses measuring 14 . 1.Building Materials . The mark 0 is at the superior part of the burette. Figure 1. sometimes like prism.

The analytical balance is fated for measurements with small masses (200 g) and a measuring precision of 10-3 g. for the material. on the left balance pan we can put avoirdupois.7. the total mass being calculated like the amount between the avoirdupois and the indicated weight from the scale. The weigh-meter (Figure 1. It is 15 . The mass is calculated doing the addition of the avoirdupois (etalon masses) masses which were used.a) balance pan which are hanged at lever terminals with equal arms. In the case when the material mass is bigger than the capacity which is indicated on the scale. The automatic weighing machine (Figure 1. On one of the balance pan we put the material and on the other we put the avoirdupois until we equilibrate it. the weight being red on the scale.Building Materials .b) has two balances pan but also a system of interior levers which make the measurement on the dial scale.Chemical and Structural Properties The (Figure technical is made balance by two 1.7.7.c) is fated for measurements with big masses (50 ÷ 100 kg) and has only a balance pan.

with the sections S1 and S2 different like size (S1 << S2). but we also use the Celsius degree (°C).6. The forces measurement The measurement unit for forces in I. The total force (F2) which is exerted by the liquid over the piston (S2) is computed helping with following formula: F S F2 = p ⋅ S2 = 1 ⋅ S2 = 2 ⋅ F1 S1 S1 16 [1. because the thermometer capillary doesn’t have contractions on its area to maintain the column of mercury or alcohol at the maximal registered value. After this principle in a system of communicating vessels.1] . in the liquid will appear a pressure “p” which will be transmitted on the surface of the piston with a bigger section (S2).S.Building Materials . covered with an air tight pistons.5. is Newton (N). if we press with a force F1 over the smaller piston with the section S1. 1. The temperatures measurement The measurement unit for temperatures in I. operate through buttons and are hanged on the balance lever. To measure the temperatures we use lab thermometers.Chemical and Structural Properties made after the model of technical balance but the avoirdupois which is very small. like some rings of fine wire. The hydraulic presses are operable on the Pascal principle. When we use the thermometer is necessary to keep the tank in the environment where we make the temperature measurement. 1. is Kelvin (K).S. like a force multiplier. In the lab the samples of material are put on trial at presses.

Setting a sample on the mobile balance pan and clogging its movement with a fix balance pan. than the ratio of force multiplication will be bigger too. the force F2 will be transmitted to the sample.8’ – Hydraulic press a) Main group 17 b) Control panel . Figure 1.Building Materials . and the piston with the big section is considered the mobile balance pan of the press.8’’) the piston with a smaller section is replaced by a hydraulic pump. Force F2 can be read on the attached manometer which is calibrated in units of force.Chemical and Structural Properties If the ratio between the two sections is bigger.8’ and 1. In the structure of a hydraulic press (Figure 1.

to the mobile balance pan. If the rotate angle of the pendulum is increasing than the couple “G x D” is increasing and that implicit means that the force F from the couple “F x d” is growing. The presses’s scale is divided in units of force. through a feeling mechanical system make the pendulum with the weight “G” to rotate.8’’ – Hydraulic press a) Main group The (Figure mechanical 1.9 – presses are b) Control panel principle) operable on the principle of the weigh-meter. which corresponds to the rotation angle 18 .Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties Figure 1. of the fixed balance pan and implicit of the sample. The displacement from the screw.

When the sample is broken.Building Materials . the grits flowing is stopped. and the force “G” is determinate by weighing the recipient and implicating the relation oh transforming from mass in force. systems. and we determinate on the corresponding force from the calibrated graphic. composed from a system of levers which can multiply for 10 times or 50 times. The dynamometric collars permit the determination of the forces with the help of micro-comparators which measures the loading deformation. for exemplification. the force “G” which is enforced by loading the recipient with some plumb grits from the bunker.10 presents. It is executed from special steels and calibrated according to the registered lever deformation.Chemical and Structural Properties of the pendulum and to the attached weight G. permits attempts samples relatively small. the apparatus “Frühling-Michaelis”. The force. at a lower intensity with multiplications for the Figure 1.10 – Frühling – Michaelis apparatus Figure 1. 19 .

m is the mass of recipient when its’ containing grits (kg). apparatus and equipments. quantity of heath power quantity of electricity electrical resistance temperature activity of the radionuclide thermal conductivity thermal capacity Designation meter kilogram second ampere Kelvin mol square meter cube meter kilogram on cube meter hertz Newton Pascal joule watt coulomb ohm grade Celsius Becquerel watt on meter Kelvin joule on kilogram 20 [1. for transformation we must consider the equivalence: 1 kgf = 1 daN = 10 N Appendix 1. Some lab instruments. g is the gravitational acceleration (9.1 Size I.] k is the multiplication ratio of levers system. can be calibrated in other force units – kilogram-force (kgf) -tones-force (tf).3] Symbol m kg s A K mol m2 m3 kg/m3 Hz N Pa J W C Ω O C Bq λ J/kg The expression in units I. s-1 m kg s-2 N/m2(m-1 kg s-2) m2 kg s-2 m2 kg s-3 JA V/A 273.8 m/s2). Derivated units area volume density frequency force pressure energy. which are older.Building Materials .2.05 – T s-1 w m-1 K-1 m2 kg s-2 K-1 .Chemical and Structural Properties G=k×m×g in which: • • • [1.S.Fundamental units length mass time amperage temperature quantity of substance II.

Building Materials .a. 21 . The gram-molecule (mole) of substance. Units of measurement used in chemistry The atoms and the molecules.m) which represent the twelfth part from the absolute mass of Definitions: The atomic mass (relative) of a chemical element is expressed like the ratio between the absolute mass of the atom and the twelfth part from the absolute mass of The molecular mass (relative) of 12 12 C isotope.Chemical and Structural Properties CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS chemical measurements. To express in grams the quantities of substances. C isotope. the molecular mass is calculated doing the amount of the atomic masses of the atoms from which that molecule is composed.1. we define: The gram-atom of a chemical element represents the quantity expressed in grams. solution concentration 2. Practically. and because of this in chemistry we express the relative masses (in atomic units of mass – u. which represents the quantity expressed in grams. have mass. numerical equal with the atomic mass of that element. numerical equal with molecular mass (relative) of that substance. being material particles. a substance is expressed like the ration between the absolute mass of a molecule of a substance and the twelfth part from the absolute mass of 12 C isotope. To express the absolute masses (in grams) is difficult for calculus.

] the basic capacity of the acid is the number of protons H+ contained by the molecule of the acid.Chemical and Structural Properties The gram-equivalent the quantity from a substance expressed in grams.Building Materials . Solution’s concentration Solution’s concentration represents the ratio between the number of solute parts and the number of solution parts.4.2. the parts can be expressed in 22 . which is combining / is substituting to an atom of hydrogen.] of the oxidril groups (OH-) contained by the molecule of the alkali.] [2. the chemical equivalents are calculating with the following rations: atomic mass valence molecular mass basic capacity for the chemical elements for acids Ech= Ech= [2.2.3. sometimes of solvent. of metalic ions • the electric ch arg e of the metallic ions 2.] nb. In the case of some reactions when the substances doesn’t change their chemical valence. for alkalis the alkali acidity is the number Ech= molecular mass acidity [2. The chemical equivalent (Ech) represents the quantity from an element from a radical or a substance. According to our necessities.1. for salts Ech= molecular mass [2. numerical equal with the chemical equivalent of that substance.

C% v/g) A variant for the percentage concentration. and it could be expressed like: mass units (C% g/g) units of volume (C% v/v) combination of units (C% g/v. its concentration being notated “m” or “1m”. moles or vals and according to these we define the molar. 0. molecules (moles) of solute. 100m. Molarities submultiples and multiples are notated with decimals (0. the normality is denoted: 0. respective 10m. 1n.01n. Molar concentration (molarity) – Cm – represents the number of gram. Similar to molarity.Building Materials . The percentage concentration – C % – indicate the number of parts of solute dissolved in 100 solution parts. when its values are too small is the (C‰) concentration.01m) or split fractions (m/10 m/100). the solution is called molar solution.1m 0. When 1 litre of solution contains 1 mol of solute substance. 100n and the solution which have the concentration 1n is called normal solution. contained in 1 ml solution.Chemical and Structural Properties mass units. Molal concentration or molality represents the number of gram – molecules (moles) of solute substance in one litre of solvent.1n. which is found in 1 litre (1000ml) of solution. 10n. in volume units. The titre of a solution – T – represents the quantity of substance expressed in grams. molal and valar percentage concentration. Normal concentration (valar) or normality – Cn – represents the number of grams – equivalents (vales) of solute substance in one liter of solution. 23 .

3.10 40.1 40. The elements we calculate will be use in the futures laboratory works. but with different concentrations.07 2. are mixed.6. in the final solution a quantity of solute substance.Building Materials . which corresponds to their volume an concentration. the concentration which was obtained is calculated as it follows: ∑ (Vi Cni) = C ∑Vi [2. based on the dates from the Table 2.30 35.1 we made the necessary calculus to fill the Table 2. the concentration of the new solution will be contained between the concentrations of the two mixed solutions.1 Chemical element Valence Atomic mass H C O Na Mg Cl k Ca P S 1 4 2 1 2 1 1 5 5 6 1.99 24.1 16. can be applied for: .] formula which results by the fact that every solution will introduce.2. Table 2.01 12.] .Chemical and Structural Properties Inside of the practical work.5. Concentration calculus of solutions mixtures If two or more solutions of the same solute substance. So.46 39.00 22.concentration calculus which results in a mixture of solutions (n) is: 1 C= i=1 ∑ (Vi Ci ) i=1 ∑ Vi 24 1 [2. if Vi and Cni.08 32.5. represent the volumes and respective the solutions concentrations. The formula 2.

) HCl H2SO4 (COOH)2 H2O NaOH Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 CaSO4 CACl2 MgCl2 Ca(HCO3)2 Mg(HCO3)2 Na2CO3 CaO 25 .] and C n−1 i=1 Vn= ∑ Vi − n−1 i=1 ∑ (Vi Ci) Cn − C [2.Building Materials . n i=1 ∑ ⎞ ⎛ n−1 (Vi Ci ) + Vn Cn = C⎜ ∑ Vi + Vn ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ i=1 [2.m. crt.8.Chemical and Structural Properties . the other volumes (n-1) being imposed.7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Solute Moleculary Quantity of CONCENTRATIONS Chemical mass disolvated equivalent Percentage Molarity Normality solute (u.] No.volume calculus necessary from a solution (n).a.

basic and acid (polar molecule). with the [3.] in the sense of recomposition of the substance.] . so implicit.Building Materials . of substance concentration that will suffer the process of transformation. this phenomenon is called electrolytic dissociation and which can be described schematically by this relation. Solutions’ pH Thanks to the neutral character. AB ⇔ (A+) + (B-) Electrolytic dissociation is a reversible [3.3. the water can brake up chemical connections which will be dissolved.1.1.2.Chemical and Structural Properties LIQUID SOLUTIONS (I) The pH and its applications 3.] process that devolves in accordance whit mass actions: the speed which is caused in a chemical transformation at a certain temperature is in proportion to the mass product. The phenomenon will be produced such: • • in the sense of dissociation with the speed V1=k1 • [AB] speed V2=k2 • [A+] • [B-] in which: • k1 and k2 are constants of proportionality that are depending of the system temperature. 26 [3.

H2SO4. H2SO3) weak electrolytes (H2S.] [3.6. which in watery solutions are dissociating completely (HCl.NaCl. Na2SO4) medium electrolytes (H3PO4.] k2 [AB] The constant K is named electrolytic dissociation constant and can be defined by measuring the electrolytic conductivity of the solution and. HNO3. H2SiO3. the substances can be classified as: • • • hard electrolytes.7. pH=-lg[H+] 27 [3.Building Materials . At the dynamical equilibrium (V1=V2).4. and B-. having the constant K=1. value named power or activity exponent of hydrogen ions.5 and the concentrations of the resulted ions (H+ and OH-) are equal we can say that: K = 1.[A] and [B] are molar concentration of the system in the substance AB and ions like A+.] from which results : [H+]=[OH-]=10-7 For an easy express.] . resulted after the electrolytic dissociation. we appeal at the common logarithm value. in function of that. Ca(OH)2.5 = 10-14 1) [3. with changed sign.8 • 10-16 • 55. that means that: k1 • [AB] = k2 • [A+] • [B-] and K = k [A + ] • [B − ] = [3.8•10-16) The water molarity is 55.5.8 • 10-16 = and [H+ ] • [OH− ] [H2O] [H+]2 = K • [H2O] = 1. H2CO3) (Pure water suffers electrolytic dissociation.Chemical and Structural Properties • [AB]. of H+ protons concentration.

The changing of colour take place in pH specifically domains of value of the indicator named domains of banking or transition space. [H+] < [OH-].Building Materials . that. the case of pure water results that solutions are neutral because [H+] = [OH-] When an electrolyte is dissolved in water.Chemical and Structural Properties For pH=7. using the pH indicators. 28 . the value of the pH number is changing. [H+] > [OH-]. • for pH < 7. the solution will take a basic character. • for pH > 7. the electrolytic dissociation schemes: acid + HOH H3O+ + base base + HOH the strongest base. The indicators are organic substances which. changes their colour after structural changes and ionization processes. adequate the modification of the ratio between the concentration of hydrogen protons and hydroxyl groups.+ acid In diluted watery solutions H3O+ is the strongest acid.2. Determination of the pH’s solutions Solutions pH can be determined by the calorimetrical methods. is produced in accordance whit the fallowing 3. the solution will take an acid character. or by electrical methods. and HO.

which will be introduced in solution that must be analyzed.1 . and is underlayed in small amounts (1÷3) drops. The electromotive tension that appears as a result of the potential unbalance between electrodes.Building Materials . The potential electrode is formed from a semi-transparent balloon flask which contains a well known concentrated solution and a contact metal electrode. in the solution which must be analyzed. is based on the measuring of the electromotive tension of an galvanic cell (primary cell) formed. leading through the balloon wall the hydrogen ions H+. 29 . or under shape of impregnate filter paper. ordinarily alcoholic ones.5 0-2 Indicators can be used under the shape of solutions. from a reference electrode (with a known potential) and a potential electrode with a potential variation in action whit the concentration of H+ ions from the solution which must be analyzed. caused by the equalization bearing of solution concentration.Chemical and Structural Properties Table 3. named also potentiometrical methods. The valour of the pH number is established by comparing the colour which is indicated in the solution whit the etalon scale of colours of the indicator which we used. in the solution which must be analyzed. ♦ Determination of the pH number by electrical methods.The main pH indicators Colour in average: pH indicator Acid Basic Phenolphthalein colourless red Cudbear red blue Bromtimol blue yellow blue Methyl red red yellow Methyl-orange red yellow Violet methyl green violet The pH’s domain of banking 8-10 5-8 6-8 4-6 3-4.

a glass electrode is made of a small balloon (1).Building Materials . it will be used as indicator electrode. pH-meter offers the possibility of direct reading of the pH.1m) and an electrode (3) which assure the electric contact electrode (ex. Ag / AgCl. Solution of unknown pH Fig. HCl 0. In this case. In principle.1) and as reference electrode the calomel one. the potential that appears at interface’s glass mean broom.3. Glass electrode 3. Reference electrode 2. because of equalization tendency of the H+ ion’s concentration from the solution of unknown pH in which this is introduced. made of a special composition with roll by semi-permeable membrane. by the ions of hydrogen concentration from the solution.solution is determined almost exclusively. When we introduce the electrode of glass in a solution. The using of the glass electrode as measure electrode of the pH.3. in interior is introduced a solution (2) with a known pH (ex. HCl). is measured on the calibrated scale in pH units. For measuring of the pH it’s made the galvanic cell: 1. the glass electrode (fig.Chemical and Structural Properties amplified by the electronic system of the device. 30 .1 – Glass electrode The determination of the pH with this cell is made with the help pH meter apparatus which uses amplification electronic circuits because the glass electrode has a very big resistance (1200 MΩ). their scale being graduated in pH units. with very thin walls.

then will be added drop by drop from a burette another solution (with a well known concentration). All the time during the titration process the substances must be agitated for the assurance of the reaction. It is optimal to use the indicator which turns in pH number domain. In lab techniques. Titration Hydrogen ions are present in all watery agents. the pH number of liquids is the first parameter which can notify over the impurity of the liquids and the level of chemical aggressiveness over materials. The conditions to realize the process of titration are: • The solute from the titrated solution must react with the solute from the titration solution and the mixture of substances must become neutral. • • • We must know exactly the concentration of one of the substances.Building Materials . Applications of solution’s pH number. or indirectly. From this point of view the pH number must be considered an important parameter in many lab processes. the calorimetrical method can be applied in titration operation for the determination of a solution concentration using another solution which has a well known volume with unknown concentration in which is introduced 1-3 drops of indicator solution. All chemical processes that take place in this kind of agents are influenced by those ions directly when they participate in process.Chemical and Structural Properties 3.3. Knowing the nature of the solute and his electrolytic dissociation constant. industrial or natural. in function of the pH number can be estimated the diluted watery solutions molarity. The calorimetrical method is expeditive. 31 .

V1Cn1=V2Cn2 from which results Cn1=Cn2 V2 V1 [3. with pH indicators from the cases (table 3.] Table 3. in the equivalence moment. with solutions of NaOH.8. Knowing the law of chemical equivalents. Cn1 and Cn2 are the solution normality’s (Cn1 is unknown).10. when the 2 solutes had reacted in equal proportion. This moment is marked by the appropriate colour of the pH number determined by the solution concentration in the product of the reaction of the solutes. HCl and (COOH)2 with the indicated concentrations. The specific reactions of these reactions are: 2NaOH + H2C2O4 → Na2C2O4 + 2H2O NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O [3.Building Materials . distilled water potable water solution of NaOH solution of HCl solution of (COOH)2 lime water cement suspension 32 . in the equivalent moment next relation is verified. demonstratives titrations.] • • V1 and V2 are volumes of the mixture.2 Practice results SOLUTION Indicator Color Solution pH Obs. that says that substances react between them in equal number of equivalents and expressing solutions concentration by normality.Chemical and Structural Properties The titration process is finished when it reaches equivalent moment. In the practice work we will execute: • • determination.] [3.2).9.

Minimal rules for labour protection Chemical substances could be caustic.Building Materials . and after that we must wash with water. so we must follow several rules: • we mustn’t smell the chemical substances. • the recipients which contains chemical solutions or substances will be closed and carefully used to avoid the breaking. • the solution discharge will be made only if are diluted and neutralized. • After we finish our work the recipients and the apparatus must be washed with potable water. In the case of an accidental contact we’ll dab the contact zone with a piece of cotton fill with a dilute solution which is able to neutralize the effect of the first one. other than we have to do. • we mustn’t make mixture of substances.Chemical and Structural Properties 3. • we must avoid the contact of the chemical substances with our skin or clothes. 33 .4.

1. The correct dosage of the solute. and which can form impurities in the solution which is prepared. Doing the distillation we eliminate the salts and by boiling we eliminate the gasses which were dissolved. The entire apparatus which was used in the solution preparation will be washed with the potable water.Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties LIQUID SOLUTIONS (II) Liquid solutions preparation In laboratory technique. Getting out a solution with an imposed concentration. 4. and also the apparatus which were used to dosage the solution will be washed at the end with the solution which will get. and the recipient which will keep the solution. and than with distillates one. The recipients which keep the solution are tight fitting. We must verify if the concentration of the prepared solution is the same with the exact concentration that we realized. by mixing up two solutions with different concentrations. Solvents purification In the case of watery solutions the first problem which appears can be resolved using the distillate water like solvent. In the case of the solvents which can not be distillated we add chemical substances which react with the impurities and 34 . we must face out to the following problems: We must eliminate from the solvent the substances which can react with the solute. to prepare the solutions with an especially concentration.

or it precipitates and it can be separated by filtration or decantation. doesn’t reacts with the solute. with burette or with pipette) and is introduced in a smaller volume of solvent.019 = 4. The oxalic acid is am organic acid with the chemical composition regranted by the formula (COOH)2. In the dosage estate. we have different cases. and that means a quantity of 0. 35 .Building Materials . this solute will have this chemical formula (COOH)22H2O To prepare one litre of solution 0. with the concentration 0. the necessary quantity of solute is stored more precisely (with analytical balance.5019 gram.Chemical and Structural Properties forms new substances which. It is crystallized with two molecules of water. Case II: The solute is stabile at the storage conditions. depending by its estate (pure or impure.1n it is necessary a quantity of 0. after the total dissolution the volume of solution is completed with solvent. The cases which could meet can be showed.2.1 val of pure oxalic acid. in principle with one of the fourth cases: Case I: The solute is pure and stabile at the storage conditions In this case.1n.1 x 45. stabile or unstable at the storage conditions). 4. estate in which is stabile compared to the atmospheric gases. Solute dosage In the mater of a correct dosage of the solute. but it presents impurities with other chemical substances The case is typified with the preparation of the oxalic acid solution in the water. solid or solution.

To solve this problem. than we wash it with distillate water (to remove the carbonated layer) and than will be dissolved in distillate water to obtain one litre of solution. from its content. we prepare a solution with a concentration easily higher.1 val (4g) of pure sodium hydrate. that will make to be necessary the supplementation of crystalline solute with the quantity of crystal water.] Forasmuch the carbonation of the hydroxide granules is variable. and will carbonate after the [4.1 1val(COOH)2 + 2val(H2 O) = [ ] = 0. solution for which we’ll determinate precisely the concentration which will be corrected by dilution until we get the needed concentration. in water.1 × 63.3035g [4. The sodium hydrate easily reacts in water with the atmospheric equation: 2NaOH + CO2 → Na2CO3 + H2O carbon dioxide.019 + 2 × 9.1(45. The concentration of the new solution will be determinate doing the titration with oxalic acid 0.1n in the presence of phenolphthalein: 36 .008) = 0.] Case III: The solute is unstable at the storage conditions This case is exemplified by preparation of a sodium hydrate solution.1val[(COOH)2 2H2 O] = 0. which is superficial carbonated.035 = 6. we introduce crystal water (which will become solvent). To prepare the solution we must dose the quantity of crystalline oxalic acid by: 0. we weighing a bigger quantity (5÷7)g of sodium hydrate granules. with a concentration of 0. In fact.2.1.Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties At the weighing of this quantity. we can’t dosage the exactly quantity of 0.1n.

and is introduced in an Erlenmeyer flask. During titration the Erlenmeyer flask must be agitated to uniform the concentration of the reaction product. It is filled a burette with solution of NaOH (until 0 stamp).4.1 an initial solution volume (Vini) with normality Cn2 must be transformed by dilution with distillate water. with the concentration Cn1=0. until we obtain as the colour a persistence weak-pink (equivalence moment). to eliminate the dissolved carbon dioxide if it exists.Building Materials . at a final volume (Vfin). During the titration we obtain the sodium oxalate after the following reaction: 2NaOH + H2C2O4 → Na2C2O4 + 2H2O [4. is cool down at 20oC and we put 2 drops of alcoholic solution of phenolphthalein 2% ⇒ that the solution stays colourless.1n.Chemical and Structural Properties It is measured V1=20cm3 of oxalic acid solution. Cn2 with the relation: Cn2 x V2 = Cn1 x V1 ⇒ Cn2 = Cn1 V1 V2 [4. calculated with the formula: 37 . We read on the burette the consummated volume V2 of solution of NaOH. because the phenolphthalein is colourless in acid.3.and we must to determinate its concentration Cn2. In the solution of oxalic acid we drop the solution of NaOH.] We calculate the normality of the NaOH solution.] To correct the normality at the value Cn=0. is warmed up at a temperature of (60 70)oC.

86 = = 8.7.] Forasmuch we can’t count on the solution concentration. to obtain 0.Building Materials .] Case IV : The solute is unstable at the storage conditions and it is in a solution with the concentration almost known. The volume of solution which must be dosed.65 x 100 = 8. it must be dissolved in water. This case is exemplified by the preparation of a solution of chlorine hydride of 0.1n of pure chlorine hydride.5. being fabricated (like a lab reactive) in solution with a concentration of 37 % (m/m) and a density ρ=1.1val(HCl) = 3. those 3.8.19g/cm3(dates which are on the flask etiquette). Cn2 =Vini x f Cn [4. results from the next reasoning: 0. than we 38 . The chlorine hydride is gaseous at normal temperature and pressure.] For a concentration of 37%.65 g (HCl gaseous) [4.3 cm3 37 msol 9. we proceed in the same way like in the case III: we prepare a solution with a concentration easily higher than the one we must find out (using a bigger volume of chlorine hydride).6.] The water volume (Vwater) which was used to dilute the volume of solution Vini will be: Vwater = Vfin . To be used.65g of chlorine hydride will be found in the solution mass (msol): msol = 3.3 cm3 ρ sol 1.Chemical and Structural Properties Vini x Cn = Vfin x Cn2 ⇒ Vfin = Vini where f is called solution factor.9.1n.] which corresponds to a volume of solution: Vsol = [4.19 [4.Vini = Vini(f-1 [4.

In the case of chlorine hydride.] We calculate the normality of chlorine hydride and the volume of water which is used to dilute the solution. in the presence of methyl orange indicator. titration is executed with a solution of sodium hydrate.Building Materials . 39 .10. until we obtain a orange color(the color of the crust of dried onion) During the titration. we obtain the reaction of sodium chloride: NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O [4. We titrate with solution of HCl. to get it at the imposed normality. In a Erlenmeyer flask we introduce 20 cm3 of solution of NaOH and 1-2 drops of methyl orange (the solution will become yellow).Chemical and Structural Properties determinate the exact concentration of the prepared solution (by titration) and we dilute to obtain the imposed concentration. similar to case III.

Surface water as those from under the ground dissolve’s some components of the rocks they get in contact with and so they can get to contain chemistry salt of ( Ca. Na. NH3. H2S. Also the impure water they get in contact with the elements of constructions can provoke corrosions of the materials they are made of. Fe ) And in helmet estate. CO2. Mg. the water used for making materials (mortar. If that parameter isn’t performing the proper reactions can be affected with negative effects over the conglomerates that will be obtained. the rinsing and whitening of the textures. K.Chemical and Structural Properties WATER ANALYSIS Identification of some ions. Chemistry salt from the water provoke in homogeneity in many industrial processes where is used (rocks sediment in the power plant installations. The water which is coming from rainfall. clay paste) must fulfil certain quality parameters concerning the mineral and organic substances it contains. water hardness The natural water and the industrials one are. Al. corrosion). also ). in fact solutions because of the substances which are dissolved in it. particles of loam and sand in suspension. 40 . inclusive organic substances. reinforced concrete. SO3. water pH. crossing the atmosphere which is more or less polluted dissolves small quantities of gases (O2. N2.Building Materials . In constructions.

1. NH4 + KOH → NH3 +K+ + H2O Hg NH3+2K2HgI4+3KOH O 〈 Hg 41 [5. 5.] • NH4 ions identifies with an alkaline solution of double iodide of Hg and K (Nessler reactive) with which it makes an amorphous precipitate . red-brown of mercury and ammonia iodide. emission off gasses with distinctive smells).4.Chemical and Structural Properties 5. The water quality analyses Being known the capacity of the water to dissociate electrochemical most of the organic chemical substances.] ions identifies with a solution of potassium sulphur-cyanide (KSCN) with which they make complex basic ion [Fe(SCN)]2+ colored in an intensive red: Fe3++SCN − ⇔ [Fe(SCN)]2+ [5.] . coloring or discoloring of the substances.1.1. Identification of inorganically substances • Ca2+ ions frequently found in natural water has a distinctive reactive the oxalic acid or soluble chemistry salt and together led to a white crystalline precipitate of calcium oxalate: COO − │ COO • Fe 3+ − COO + Ca 2+ COO 〉 Ca [5.Building Materials .] 〉 NH2I + 7KI + 2H2O [5.1.2. For this the water to analyze is treated with specifically reactive that the ion we are looking for reacts with and provoke optical phenomena chemistry salt that can be observed (the appearance precipitates with different forms and colors. the presence of these substances in water can be observed by detecting of some distinctive ions of them.3.

6.Building Materials .] • Cl − identifies with the silver nitrate ( AgNO 3 ) with which it forms an white-cheesy precipitate: Cl − + Ag+ → AgCl ↓ an white crystalline precipitate of barium sulphate.] [5.8.] If after we treat the water with a few drops of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) . Organical substances identification The presence of the organic substances in the water is showed with indirect methods.] The atomic oxygen resulted will oxidize strongly the . SO4 2− + Ba 2+ → BaSO4 ↓ [5.5. iodine dissolves and the water gets a violet colour.8.] • SO4 2− ion identifies with barium chloride (BaCl 2 ) with which it • Nitrite ions (NO2) identificates with potassium iodide (KI) witch colors in brown the water witch is easily carbonated with cloric acid (HCl) .1. Pb2+ +CrO4 2− → PbCrO4 ↓ 2Pb 2+ [5.7.9. because of the releasing of the iodine. 5. 2KMnO4+3H2SO4 → K2SO4+2MnSO4+3H2O+5O 42 [5.] + + HOH + Cr2O7 2− → PbCrO4 ↓ + 2H [5. acid environment.2. based on the reduction action of them over the potassium permanganate (KMnO4). 2NO2 +2KI+4HCl → I2+2NO+ 4Cl − +2k++2H2O [5.Chemical and Structural Properties • Pb2+ ions identifies with solutions of chromium-plated or bichrome of sodium or potassium which precipitates the lead chemistry salt in yellow chromium-plated lead .

this substance will be decomposed like that: COOH 5 COOH If followed the by water the we have of to analyze contains ion organic Mn 2+ substances the mentioned reactions will happen and it will be changing permanganic into uncoloured. For small quantities of organic substances it is necessary for the water which is too analyzed. and the solution will discolour itself. Quality analysis data The searched ion The specific reactant The identification reaction The ion’s presence +5O → 10CO2 + 5H2O [5. If not the mentioned transformation will not happen. Table 5. and the solution will remain coloured in violet. In order to identify the organical substances.1. If the searched ions are find. The quality analysis data will be noted in the Table 5. it will be produce a well-known reaction. to be heated. and also some drops from the specific reactant solution.] 43 .10.Chemical and Structural Properties organic substance.Building Materials . Presuming the existence of oxalic acid. there are introduce 2 ÷ 3 ml of analysed water in a test tube.1.

Determination of water’s pH The determination is making in no more 4 hours after harvest tests. we put a drop of water. 44 [5. Usually are used the indicators (solutions as paper band). In the case of cement. like chemical impurities substances.] [5.Building Materials .2. an paper band and we will obtained a colour which is analysing on opposites faces of paper band. The values far of 7 value (neutrality) gives information about water contained. when the indicator’s colour may be physic influenced. concrete. precipitates with the name of ″cauldron stone”.] • Chlorines and sulphates (CaCl2.12. In order to select the indicators we must know the turning domain. In case of muddy waters.11. MgCl2. 5. MgSO4) which .3.Chemical and Structural Properties 5. Caso4. Water hardness Hardness represents the water concentration in calcium and magnesium chemistry salt. high concentrations and in this case are required to make quantitative chemical analysis. The main chemistry salt substances of the metals which are found dissolved in water are: • Bicarbonates which dissociate in carbonates when the water is heated and which have a smaller solubility then bicarbonates . Ca(HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Mg(HCO3)2 → MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O remain dissolved even when the water is heated.5 means that the water present a aggresivity type “general acid“. a pH < 6.

Building Materials .1n (until the 0 point). leads to a number of two categories of hardness: temporary hardness (Dt). German hardness degree (°dG) represents the content of chemistry salt substances equivalent with 10mg CaCO3 at 1000ml water. 45 [5.1n in the presence of methyl orange as indicator: it was filled a burette with a solution of HCl-o. Putting them together we get the total hardness (DT). with a solution of HCl0.Chemical and Structural Properties The different reactions of those two categories of chemistry salt substances at the heat. If the water contains alkaline chemistry salt substances it will become yellow. 5. in an Erlenmeyer ampoule its measured 100 ml of water for analyze and we ad 2-3 drops of orange methyl indicator. In Romania we use the german degree. . of the water. assigned by the bicarbonates and which disappears when the water is heated. DT = Dt + Dp which can have two significations: French hardness degree (°dF). Temporary hardness determination Water temporary hardness can be determinate by titrating a volume of water perfectly measured. represents the content of chemistry salt substances equivalent with 10mg CaCO3 at 1000ml water.13. permanent hardness (Dp).1.3. assigned by the chlorors and sulphates and which maintains when the water is heated too.] Water hardness is expressed in degrees of hardness (°d).

1valCaO = 28g.16. 1valHCl = 3.65g. read on the burette.1 ) ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯→ xgCaO 3.] • Because the .1n used in the titration.65 mg following the law of masses action.mlHCl− 0.65 • 10 −3 • 28 x = a• = a • 28 • 10 −3 gCaO = a • 28mgCaO 36.15. the volume of HCl-0. According to the law of masses action the substances react between them in equivalent proportions with their molecular masses.. 1molCaO = 56g . 1mol from a substance will react with 1mol from the other.5 react.] Knowing the solution titer of the solution of HCl-0.Building Materials .] In order to express the temporary hardness in degrees we [5. Considering “a” ml of solution of HCl-0. it results: 36.5g .with react. At the titration the following reaction take place: Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + 2CO2+ 2H2O Mn(HCO3)2 + 2HCl → MnCl2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O make the following reasoning: • We know the specific chemical sizes of the solutions 1molHCl = 36.1.a” ml of HCl have been used for titration of 100ml water and 1°dG represents 10mgCaO/1000ml of water extra poling we obtain in german degrees: 46 . 2HCl + CaO → CaCl2 + H2O is 3.] [5.Chemical and Structural Properties titrate the content of the ampoule with acid solution from burette until the colour of the water become orange (the indicator facing).17.with [5.1n used in the titration will react with CaO (instead of bicarbonates) .14.65 • 10 −3 gHCl(a. which [5.5gCaO (1molCaO ) ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯→ 28gCaO (1molCaO ) a • 3.

Chemical and Structural Properties Dt =a• 2. 47 . Total hardness determination After titration with HCl the bicarbonates acids are of 100 cm3 water transforming in chlorides which are added to the chlorides and sulphates which are already in the water.3.Building Materials . are taken 50 ml and introduce its into an Erlenmeyer phial.18. For these we use the solution of disodium salt of ethylenebiamino-tethraacetate acid in the presence of black eriochromiums indicator. introduce a pin of spatula ( about 0. for obtaining a pH of (8 ÷10). By the name of the titration substance the method is named complexonometryc titration.1 solution used at the titration corresponds 5.] So we can get to the conclusion that for every ml (cm3) of HCl-0.2-0.0°dF .1). according to 5.1n (for the determination of temporary hardness. Determination of total hardness is made by titration with a solution which would react with the chlorides and sulphates. the containing of the phial are boiled for 3 ÷ 4 min in order to eliminate the CO2 existent in the water.2. ♦ The determination is executed as it follows: from the water test titration with a solution of HCl 0.8 1000ml • = 2. after the cooling of the phial in the air and then in a water current.8 • a 10 100ml [°dG] [5. So the temporary hardness was transformed in permanent hardness which in fact transforms total hardness in the treated water.3 g ) and add 2 ml of tampon solution. 5.2.

from the burette until the colour turns from red to blue.0.01n used for the titration . as a difference between the total hardness (permanent type) from the water titrated with HCl and the temporary hardness. ♦ The calculation of the total hardness is made with the relation: DT = 2 .0. Permanent hardness The permanent hardness is calculated based on the relation [5.13. 0.0.Building Materials .2.1.5610dG in which: • V – the volume of solution of complexon III .561 solution Permanent hardness Dp (°d) Water category 1 2 3 100 100 100 50 50 50 48 . [5. read exactly the volume of solution of 0.1n.4.8 volume HCl 0. Table 5. Temporary hardness Probe’s a ml sol a 2.Chemical and Structural Properties we titrate.]. the contain of the Erlenmeyer phial with solution of complexon III .561 – the quantity in mg of CaO witch corresponds for 1 ml solution of complexon III .] complexon III - 5.3. immediately.1n used for titration of the water test • 0. Probe no.01n. V . determined in & 5.19.1n (ml) Probe’s volume (ml) Total hardness x ml 2n complexon 0.

Building Materials . (CO3H ) hydrocarbonates [mg / dm ] (Mg ) magnesium Alkali (Na2O) 2+ [mg / dm ]. - (CO3 ) carbonates. 223 3 3 + Admissibility conditions 5 ÷ 10 maximum maximum maximum 3 2000 2000 500 1000 500 600 500 3 [mg / dm ]. (SO4 ) sulphates. 3 3 3 maximum maximum maximum Organical substances [mg / dm ]. Loses at the burning of the insoluble substances [mg/dm ] 800 49 . [mg / dm ]. [mg / dm ]. Conditions for the water quality used to the mortars and concrete preparation to be pure. do not have pronounced taste and smells. pH Salt total contained [mg / dm ]. do not contain organic or inorganic suspensions. (Cl ) chloride.1.Chemical and Structural Properties Appendix 5. to correspond to the following characteristics: Characteristics H ions concentrations.

6. the volume which fills a space can be considerate like the real volume. in the liquid solvent.1. knowing that at the boiling temperature the gases’ solubility. whereas. The elimination of solid substances or liquid which were dissolved is made by distillation. without pores. the results are more or less exactly.1.1. 6.Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties MATERIAL’S DENSITIES The real or absolute density of a material represents the unit mass (m) of material volume. Liquids purity refers to solid substances and also at liquid ones. because of the measuring errors. gas holes or other discontinuities): m [g/cm3] Vr [6.1. named real volume (Vr). 50 . is null. The elimination of dissolved gases is made by liquid’s boiling. Liquids’ density For pure liquids. which forms that ρ= material without pores.] The density is calculated with four decimals and is expressed by rounding-off at three decimals. and at the gases which can contain it in dissolved state. Expedite methods Expedite methods can be applied with informative character.

it can be written the forces equality. At the diving equilibrium.3. The superior part of the densimeter which is smaller and 51 .). until it reaches the stamp. it results that liquid density is linear function (inverse) by densimeter volume which was immersed in liquid in equilibrium position. clean and dry (m1). that has a mass (m). The liquid density (ρL) will be: ρL = m2 − m1 VB [g/cm3] [6. weighting the calibrated flask with liquid (m2). filling of the calibrated flask with liquid which is to analyze.] ♦ Densimeter (aerometer) method resides in the immersion of the densimeter in liquid (Figure 6.1. lested at the inferior part.2. When it is immersed in liquid.] [g/cm3] [6.] However the densimeter mass (m) is constant. G = m • g = F = mL • g = VL • ρL • g from which results : ρL= m VL [6. equal to volume’s weight of dismounted liquid. with the volume (VB) resides in: weighting of a calibrated flask. liquid density being read directly on the densimeter scale.4. Densimeter is composed by a closed tube. the densimeter will be activated by his weight (G). but also by Arhimede’s force (F).Chemical and Structural Properties ♦ Determination method of net mass of liquid which fills a calibrated flask.Building Materials .

Determination principle with densimeter 6. the material grains don’t contain tight pores any more.Chemical and Structural Properties scaled permits a better precision.1. for density determination. Solid materials’ density (porous) ♦ In the case of solid materials. with grains smaller than 0. ♦ The solid porous materials contain in their volume pores.125 mm. that the material will become powder. the assay mass is measured when it is “dried at constant mass”. by variance’s intimation of the immersion volume.Building Materials .2. ♦ In order to get the material in atomization form. which have a volume that can’t be determinate. in the steel 52 . In order to determinate the real volume. We appreciate that at these dimensions. 1Kg) is triturated. it is imposed the structure’s destruction. reading level A – reading level for lyophilise liquid reading level B – reading level for lyophobe liquid Figure 6. we proceed in this way: the material (aprox. as petty as we can.

the errors come from necessity of measuring liquid volumes. is an informative method.125mm. we increase the detained material. we calculate the difference between masses obtaining the net mass (m) of the powder from the flask (m=m2-m1). being expeditive.1. having the capacity at least equal 53 . for each one we determinate the volumes. constituted of 10 ÷ 30g powder. by the quarters method. 0. but an approaching one. ♦ The burette method resides in the following succession of operations: we weight in a calibrated flask. for determination the volume of a powder assay. having the inscribed volume (VB). we fill in a burette until it reaches the mark 0. dry and clean (m1). in agate mortar. we mix the powder until it becomes homogeneous. 6. we introduce in the flask a quantity of (10…30) g of powder from the assay which is to analyze and we weight (m2). After drying at “constant mass” we bring out the determinations of the assays. The burette method The burette method.Building Materials .25 Kg) passes in the gauze with holes of 0.2. until the entire quantity (aprox.Chemical and Structural Properties we mix up the triturated material until it becomes homogenous and it halves its quantity. Like in the liquids’ case.

when the level of the reference liquid reaches the mark of the flask. the access of liquid will be eliminated throw the capillary that circulates through the plug or the capillary arm. it replaces the measures of volumes with weightings (at the analytical balance) and permits the total elimination of the air (desaeration) from the system “powder. this being permanently agitated (by circular moves) to eliminate the air.2. but without the volume mark. and having a thread plug. 6. being more exactly than the burette method. The pycnometer is like calibrated flask. with “reference liquid”. which is attached to the flask. we close the burette’s valve and we read the volume of the flowed liquid (VL). that it will be eliminate the 54 .5.Building Materials . we put the flask under the burette and we open the valve.]. The pycnometer method The pycnometer method is standardized. The powder volume (real) from the flask will result as the volume of the liquid which doesn’t get into the flask because it is occupied by the powder: Vr =VB-VL [cm3] [6.1.2. When the pycnometer is filled in with liquid and the plug is in.reference liquid”.] The material density will be calculated applying the relation from the definition [6.Chemical and Structural Properties to the flask’s volume. for the “reference liquid” to distil in the flask.

which will be used at the determination. by easy casting.Building Materials . we put the plug. in order to be rebring it at the initial mass (m1). we fill it in. 2/3 from the volume. we wipe on the outside with absorbent paper and we reweight it (m2). with aprox. ♦ The pycnometer method resides in the following succession of operations: we weight the pycnometer clean and dry (m1). until we got the temperature of 20°C. over the 55 . From the difference between masses an knowing the density of the reference liquid used (ρL) we obtain: The liquid volume that gets into the pycnometer: VL = m2 − m1 .Chemical and Structural Properties necessity to know the volume by reading the level of the liquid at the calibrated flask’s mark. (for desaeration). we let the pycnometer unmoved at the air. over the powder. and we put it on the sand bath and is boiled for 15 min. we complete the volume of the pycnometer with the reference liquid. we wipe it on the outside with absorbing paper and we weight it (m4). we introduce into the pycnometer the assay powder of (10…30) g and we reweight it (m3). we put the plug. we fill it in with the reference liquid. while the powder deposits and the reference liquid becomes clearly. ρL The material mass (powder) introduced in the pycnometer m=m3-m1 The liquid volume that gets into the pycnometer. the pycnometer with reference liquid. we empty the pycnometer and we dry it in the air oven.

The material density will be calculated by applying the relation [6.Chemical and Structural Properties powder: V1= m4 − m3 ρL The powder volume (the real volume of assay): Vr=VL-V1 All the weightings are effectuated with the analytical balance. anhydride gasoil a.Building Materials . In the case when we use a reference liquid that can’t be boiled.o.).].s. desaeration is realized by introducing the pycnometers into the vacuum exicator from which we extract the air for reaching the pressure of 20 mmHg . 56 . for desaeration (astral oil. until we observe the stopping of liberation of air bubbles in the exicator. with the precision of 10-3 g.1.

[g/cm3. In order to measure the apparent volume. kg/dm3. ρa= m Va discontinuities (pores.s. 57 . formed by the solid matter and from its a.Building Materials . we must determinate the material unit mass of volume which is at different humidity. vacuums. when it’s “dry at constant mass”.). depending by the form of the assays. The values which we obtain are used like estimate parameters of that characteristics. is calculated with four decimals and is expressed with three decimals.1. clefts. In order to determinate the apparent density. and it doesn’t represents the apparent density. the assay mass (m) is always determinate. t/m3] [7. There are situations when. in g/cm3. capillaries.o.] The density.Chemical and Structural Properties THE APPARENT DENSITY OF MATERIALS The apparent density of a material (ρA) represents the mass the apparent unit volume. we can implement and other methods. or for estimate the characteristic variations. for determination of other technical properties.

7.c). that for application in volume calculus formula. Apparent volume determination on the control cylinders and boring kernels In the case of assays with regulate geometrical form (kernels and control cylinders). as it follows: in the case of cubic assays (Fig. 7. every characteristic dimension will be calculated as a mean: n lj = i =1 ∑ li n 58 [7. in the case of cylindrical assays (Fig. 7.b). from small defections of dies a.Building Materials .1.2. it results. that it prismatic assays (Fig.1. the characteristic dimensions that are introduced in the calculus formula of the volume.). That’s way. on the same criteria like the prismatic assays. we adopt as arithmetic mean for other measuring.s.1. it counts will be measured the transversal the appearance of deviations from the linearity of long dimensions and at the half of the length (L).] . At the prosecution of measuring it must be counted the fact that the assay can have deviations from the theoretic geometrical form (deviations derived at the carving.Chemical and Structural Properties 7. we measured the perpendicular diameters from the bottoms. in the case of edges. but also from the meddle of the height (h).o. of the the simplest method and of the determination the apparent volume resides in direct measuring of characteristic dimensions geometric body application of the calculus formula of its volume. Thus. every characteristic dimension results as arithmetic mean of the four corresponding edges.a).1.

7. The method resides in the following operations: in a gradated cylinder we introduce a volume easily bigger then the assays’ volume. but appreciative. 59 . The gradated cylinder method The method is consigned.Building Materials . The error source of the method resides in using of some gradated cylinder with big diameter. the obtained values could be accepted as informative character. with reference liquid.1. The characteristic dimensions of the regular shapes 7.1. The apparent volume determination on assays with irregular form In order to determinate of an assays’ apparent volume with irregular geometrical form it is applied the principle of dislocated liquid volume.2.Chemical and Structural Properties b3 a3 b3 c3 a4 b2 a1 b1 b2 a2 b4 c1 c4 c2 a3 a2 c3 c1 d4 h3 h2 a4 a1 d2 b1 d3 h4 d1 h1 b4 c4 d6 d5 c2 a) cube b) prism c) cylinder Figure 7. to aloud the liquid assays introduction. in many other alternatives.2.

After the assay weight when is dry and at constant mass.2. the preparation for immersion can be realized in two variants: the assay saturations resides in assays’ immersion in a bath with the liquid which will be used as reference liquid. we introduce the liquid assay (it must be completely immersed) and (Figure 7. the assay paraffin-covering rides in the roofing of the assay with a paraffin layer.Building Materials . and maintaining as this for at least four hours. we have to prepared it first. to realize a impermeable thickness for the reference liquid.) we read the new indicated volume on the cylinder scale (V2). the difference between the volumes (V2-V1) will represent the dislocated liquid volume as assay.Chemical and Structural Properties and we read volume indicated on the cylinder scale(V1). that the absorption of the liquid by the material to be clogged (the apparent volume resides the material opened pores). The gradated cylinder method For the volume of dislocated liquid to represent the apparent volume of the assay.2. v2 Reference liquid v1 v2-v1 Figure 7. When we prepared the assay by saturation the dislocated 60 .

In order to determinate the paraffin volume.] . then we clamped it with the plier in other position and we immersed it again in paraffin. for a moment. the volume of dislocated liquid will represent the apparent volume (Va) plus the volume of the paraffin adherent layer (VP). for some times. in paraffin. which warmed until it melts (a higher temperature gets at big fluidity of the paraffin which gets to material penetration in the open pores).m). We repeat the immersion. we prepared a paraffin bath. At the immersion of the paraffin assay.3. For paraffin-covering. these must been broken with a needle which is easily warmed.Building Materials . we determine the mass of the adherent paraffin (mP). Knowing the paraffin density which is ρP=0. by weighing the paraffin assay (m1) and the difference between the mass of the assay that isn’t paraffin-covered (mP=m1.92 g/cm3 (we work with pure paraffin). we calculate the paraffin volume (VP) from the derivate formula of the density: VP = mP ρP [cm3] 61 [7.Chemical and Structural Properties liquid volume will express directly the apparent volume of the assay. approximated as 1mm thickness. The assay which is dried and cooled off at constant mass is clamped with a laboratory plier and is immersed. At every immersion we verify if the adherent layer of paraffin doesn’t contains air checks. until we realize a continuum paraffin layer. We wait until the paraffin’s adherent layer is solidified and cooled off.

which is collected (Va) is measured with an instrument with a better precision than if we would use a scaled cylinder with a big diameter (corresponding with the assay’s dimension).Chemical and Structural Properties that will be deducted from the dislocated liquid volume. and because of the leakage. one of them being shorter.3. which makes the liquid to react over the assay. being more precisely. Because of the Archimedes force (F). compare to scale cylinder method. The assay which was prepared. In the recipient we introduce the reference liquid and we wait. being necessary the (m2) mass.) is a technical one. to obtain the assay’s apparent volume. and for equilibrating it. The flowed liquid throw “too-fill”.2. We attach a collector recipient and we introduce the assay into the liquid. Exist an alternative for applying the method. the level of the liquid to be stabilized at the “too-fill”’s level. is weighing in air (m1) and after that we introduce the recipient with the reference liquid that the assay to be completely immersed in it. with a tolerant precision of the volume measures. the balance is unbalanced. to permit the assay’s hanging and it’s immersion in a bath with reference liquid. The hydrostatic balance method The hydrostatic balance method is standardized. The method resides in using a recipient with a big volume.Building Materials . which permits the determination on assays relative big.2. The hydrostatic balance (Figure 7. because the measures are effectuated through weighing. with two pans. which has a leakage “too-fill”. Knowing that the Archimedes force (F) is equal to the 62 . 7.

pursuant to the indications from 7. the apparent density is determinate. Determination on assays of granular material In the case of granular materials. which is expressed in grams.2. the assay is analyzed after minimal necessary mass criterion.2.Chemical and Structural Properties weigh of the dislocated liquid volume (VL).1. after the way we prepared the assay. Determination principle Hydrostatic balance’s photo Figure 7.3. on the same principle (of the dislocated liquid volume).Building Materials . The hydrostatic balance 7.3. results that the mass (m2). For being representative. after the maximum dimension 63 . and reported to the liquid density (ρL) will express this volume: F = VL • ρL • g = G = m2 and VL = m2 ρL [cm3] The apparent volume of the assay is determined.

After the drying at constant mass and determination of the mass (m). well haggard. at the immersion. The determination of the apparent volume is executed for all assays’ granules. When we use the hydrostatic balance. the assay is settled on a screen with holes’ dimensions smaller than minimal dimension of the granules and these are immersed in bath with reference liquid where is kept at least four hours.Chemical and Structural Properties of granules. We lift up the screen and we underpin it. to get the entire assay. If the granules are big enough. so from many granules. to permit the leakage of the water’s excess. we wait 30 min. we wipe them with wet rag. In the case of granules with small dimensions (< 7 mm).Building Materials . and it must be counted when we make the weighing and the determination of the necessary mass for the apparent volume calculus. in the way that every granule is introduced in the scale cylinder and we weigh them at the hydrostatic balance. Forasmuch the mass of the flue can’t be neglected in the air. 64 . this will have a net wire flue with a sufficient volume. to dry.

If the granules are covered by a binder.Chemical and Structural Properties CHARACTERISTICS OF BULKING MATERIALS bulk density. Tab. concretes). by filing up a volumetric flask. it will bind them forming artificial conglomerates (common mortar. for which we can calculate the volume with the knowing mathematical formulas.1. in layers or piles. so that the assay’s volume to be big enough to represent the entire bulking material (table 8.Building Materials . However we can’t form a pile with a perfect geometric form. so because of 65 .8. holes’ volume Bulking materials can form structures which are like some lattice of granules. we consider that the bulking material is forming a pile. for all the specific characteristics of bulking materials we must calculate the bulk volume. The dimension of the volumetric flask is chose after the maxim dimension of the granules.1.). To determinate the characteristics of those lattice. Volumetric flask for ρg determination Granulator ≤ ≤ > mm mm mm Vmin flask (dm3) 1 5 10 Interior dimensions (mm) Diameter Height 108 109 185 234 186 233 The setting way in the space of the granules differs after the rate of ramming of the granules in the flask.

by material. In order to obtain the refine state. when we considerate the volume of the holes between the granules to be maxim.Chemical and Structural Properties this we have two conventional states (reproducible) of the material in pile: the refine state. It must be done the scrapping of the excess material from one single move. because we mustn’t provoke shocks over the flask. 66 . follows the procedure: we introduce the bulking material (Figure 8.1. a. when we considerate the volume of the holes between the granules to be minim.1. fast enough. Setting up the bulked material In this time we mustn’t move or clap the flask. in the flask with a ladle lip by free falling. b). because we risk provoking the ramming of the bulking material. the ramming state. maintaining permanently the height of falling from about 10cm. the bulking c) Figure 8.1.Building Materials . when the flask is filled up. it is clean the flask on the outside. c). the material in excess is removed through scraping with a metallic ruler supported by the flask-wall and moved in a beveledmotion (Figure 8.

every round being followed by 50 knocks of the flask by a wood table. we fill the flask with bulking material and we sat it on the vibrating table and we shake it for 3 minutes. by free fall from about 5 cm. The bulk density Bulk density is a physical characteristic specific to granular materials (aggregates. etc. in three rounds of aprox.) defined by the ratio between the weight and the total volume occupied by a certain amount of material (the volume of voids between granules included). 8. which gets into a volumetric flask with a known volume (VV). in the flask. 67 . we clean the flask. powders. follows the procedure: we attach the extension collar at the volumetric flask. which is filled after the imposed refine state.Building Materials .] The method contains in determination of the dead weight (m) of the bulking material. by the material. g/cm3 ] [8.Chemical and Structural Properties In order to obtain the ramming state. on the outside.1. we remove the extension of the flask and we scrap the excess of material with the metal ruler. ρg = m Vv [kg / m3.1. if is necessary. 1/3 from his height. the bulking material is introduced. If we don’t have a vibrating table. completing in this time the volume with material. kg / dm3.

Chemical and Structural Properties Flask volume expresses the volume (Vg) from 8. it is weighted the volumetric flask when is empty. 8.] The principle of the method of determination contains in the estimation of the voids’ volume between the granules (Vvoids).Building Materials . The voids volume The voids volume (Vvoid) expresses the proportion in which the bulk volume. it is filled the flask with bulking material and we weight it (m2). where we also put the bulking material through the specific procedure of the refine state. it is calculated the dead weight of the bulking material (m).1 formula. Vvoid = Vvoids • 100 Vga [%] [8.2. is made by the voids between the granules. making the difference m2-m1. through the measurement of the reference liquid (VL) which is in a volumetric flask with a known volume (Vga). of a bulking material in refine state. clean and dry (m1). 68 . The determination consists in the following operations: it is dried at constant mass an assay of bulking material with a volume bigger then the volume of the flask which will be used. Like in the case of the apparent density the bulking material must be prepared to avoid the absorption of the measured liquid by the granules.2.

Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

The bulking material which has a volume bigger then the volume of the flask which will be used is sat on a classifying screen with the dimensions of the voids smaller then the minimal dimension of the granules and inserted in a reference liquid bath for 4 hours. We raise the classifying screen, to let-of the water excess and the granules to dry, for 30 minutes. The determination consists in the following operations: the assay of bulking material is introduced in the volumetric flask in order to obtain the refine state; it is scraped the material excess (with the metallic ruler), we introduce the reference liquid with a measured volume (with a calibrated flask), until we fill the flask with liquid. Another method for determination of the liquid volume if we know the reference liquid density (ρL), the volumetric flask, filled with the bulking material is weighted before we introduce the liquid (m1) and after we fill it with liquid (m2), the volume of the liquid being calculated with the formula: VL =
m2 − m1 ρL


The volume of the voids can be estimated, by calculus, if we know the bulk density in refine state (ρga) and the apparent density (ρa) of the bulking material.
Vgol = Vga − Va Vga m ρga Va ρa ×100 [%] =1− =1− =1− m Vga ρa ρga


where m is the assay mass, the same for the same assay.


Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

Compactness, humidity, water absorption, porosity, bulking of sand
The structural characteristic refers to the repartition mode of the matter and of the pores in the material apparent volume (in the structures of a material). Because, we can’t determinate all of them making measurements in the material structure, one of them are calculated using the technical characteristics.

9.1. Compactness
Compactness (C) represents the degree of a solid matter volume (Vr), filing of the sample’s apparent volume (Va). C=
Vr × 100 Va



Because the real volume (Vr) can be calculated only by destroying the material’s structure, we can calculate the compactness using the following formula:
m ρ V ρ = a × 100 [%] C= r = m Va ρ ρa


ρa = the material apparent density, determinates in accordance with ρ = Laboratory work no. 7; the material density, determinates in accordance

with Laboratory work no.6.

Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

9.2. Humidity
Humidity (W) represents a relative quantity of water (A) which is in the material content at a given moment. W= in which: mw = the mass of the humid material, at the given moment; m = the mass of the dry material, at a constant mass; it is weighed immediately the assay (mw); if we can’t weigh it the sample must be protected to keep its initial humidity (we introduce it in a polyethylene bag, good tied and closed); it is dried the sample at constant mass and we weigh it (m); it is calculated the humidity with the relation [9.3.].
A mw − m = × 100 m m


9.3. Water absorption
Water absorption (al) represents the maximum relative quantity of water (A) which a material may absorb (in the pores which communicates with the exterior, named open pores) at the given conditions (expressed by the characteristic factor “l”). The materials state when it contains the maximum quantity of water is called saturated state, and the relation of its definition is: al =
m −m ρ ρ A x L = sal x L ρH2O m ρH2O m

× 100


until the mass that we obtain at the last weigh doesn’t differs by previous one with more than 0. of weighing and wiping. we put the samples on a tray in which will introduce the reference liquid.Building Materials . 72 . After the boiling the samples are left into the water to cool up. When the liberation of air bubbles is stopped.Chemical and Structural Properties msat = the mass of the saturated sample. For the conditions from I =2 to saturate the samples we introduce them into a vessel with water (at normal temperature). m ρL = the mass of the dry sample at constant mass. We repeat the stages of holding them into the water bath. we shut off the vacuum pump and open up the exicator to get again the normal pressure. = the density of the reference liquid (if we use water ρL = ρwater =1g/cm3). and which is warmed up so that the boiling will start after 30 minutes and will last 3 hours. For the conditions from I =3 to saturate the samples we introduce them in a water bath. For the conditions from I =4 to saturate the samples we introduce them in a water bath. in 3 stages at every 24 hours (until ¼ of the samples height. at the given conditions “l”. The conditions of saturation are assigned in the table 9. which is in a steel recipient in which we pomp air to obtain a pressure of 15 N/mm2. until ¾ of the samples. which is into a vacuum exicator.1 and are satisfied as follows: For the saturation from condition I = 1.05%from it (the material is saturated). from which we extract air until we get a pressure of 20mmHg.

Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

Tab.9.1. Conditions of saturation height; minimal 2 cm over the samples) at every stage we overthrow the samples in the tray. After the last stage, at every 24 hours we take out the samples we wipe up it with Characteristic factor “l” 1 2 3 4 a humid rag and we weigh, after that we Conditions for saturation pressure Atmospheric Atmospheric 20 mm Hg 15 N/mm

introduce them into the bath. temperature 20°C Boiling 20°C 20°C

To determinate the water absorption we must follow the next operations: 1. the sample is dried at constant mass and we weigh (m) 2. than is saturated in the conditions from I = 1 and we weigh (msa1); if the condition s are other (I =2…4) the sample is saturated after the index in ascending order, we make the weigh for every state of saturation (msal). 3. it is calculated the water absorption using the relation [9.4.] The water absorption represents the highest value of humidity which the material can have.



9.4.1. Total porosity
The total porosity (Pt) represents the proportion in which the volume of pores (Vp) forms the apparent volume (Va) of the material.

Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

Pt =

Vp Va

× 100



Because the pores volume (Vp) can not be measured, the total porosity (Pt) is calculated with the following relation:
m Va − Vr Vr ρ Pt = =1 - C × 100 [%] = = 1− = 1− m Va Va Va ρa Vp


We must observe that total porosity (Pt), calculated like a complementary amount of the compactness, express the volume of pores (Vp) unconcerned of their type (closed or opened). 9.4.2. Apparent porosity (open) The character of the pores has a big influence over the material properties, especially in the case of durability; through the open pore (which communicates with the exterior) can get in the material structure, gasses, liquids, or liquid solutions which can produce phenomenon of expansion corrosion at freezing. That’s why is necessary to determinate the porosity which is formed from the open pores, called “open porosity” or “apparent porosity” (Pa). The apparent porosity (Pa) represents the proportion in which the volume of the open pores (Vpo) forms the apparent volume (Va) of the material: Pa = in which: Vpo=the volume of the open pores; Va = the sample apparent volume;

Vpd Va

msa − m m −m ρL = = sa Va Va • ρL

× 100


Building Materials - Chemical and Structural Properties

m ρL the

= the sample mass at constant mass and dry state; = the density of the reference liquid; of porosity provokes: the absorption of

ma = the mass of the saturated sample with condition I-1; In order to determinate, we apply the phenomenon which phenomenon reference liquid in the open pores. The determination resides in the following succession of operations: the material sample is died at constant mass and we weigh (m); the sample is saturated in the conditions from “I =1”and we weigh (msa); it is determinates the apparent volume (Va) using the method of hydrostatic balance; it is calculated the apparent porosity with the relation [9.7.]. The apparent porosity can be calculated using the water absorption (a1) and the apparent density (ρa) of the material, because: Pa =
m −m m msa − m m 1 = (msa − m) = sa • = a1 • ρa [%] m VA m Va Va


9.4.3. Closed porosity Closed porosity represents (Pt) represents the proportion in which the volume of closed pores (Vpc) forms the apparent volume (Va) of the material. Closed porosity is calculated doing the difference between the total porosity (Pt) and the apparent porosity (Pa), because: Pc =
Vpc Va = Vp − Vpo Vp Vpd = Pt - Pa = − Va Va Va



in refine state (ρb).Building Materials . Bulking of sand The hydrophilic materials can bind (through absorption) a layer of water which will act like a solid and will push on the grains between them. in a bowl it is introduced the material and over it we process resides in the following succession of cast 40 cm3 of water and then we’ll immix until the content gets a homogenous humidity.5. at the humidity variation. which corresponds for a humidity of 5 ÷ 8 %. • • it is determinate the bulk density. The thickness of water’s layer grows together with the material humidity until the thickness becomes approximately of 15 µm. The phenomenon is more intense if the material is smaller and its specific surface is bigger. Material in this case is considered The effect of this phenomenon can be measured after the variation of the unit mass of bulk volume. knowing that the water density (1 g/cm3). the humidity that we obtain becomes: W= 40 g × 100 = 2% 2000 g 76 [9. S S S Sand particles which absorb water separated and their volume will be greater than that of the dry sand.Chemical and Structural Properties 9. dried at constant mass and introduce it into a bowl. in refine state. At a bigger humidity the water in excess stays free.10. from the granular material (sand).] . The operations: • it is formed sample with a mass m = 2000 g. when are in bulk state. as liquid.

the mass of the bulked material will be modified and the calculated humidity wrong.). mixing to homogenize the sample and determination the unit of volume mass until the sample is flowed. During this operations we must take care of the sample because if we lose from material.Chemical and Structural Properties • • it is determinate the unit of volume mass of the the operations are repeated. of test Mbowl [kg] ρgW [Kg/m3] ρgW med [Kg/m3] Ii [%] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 77 . For every humidity that we obtain we make three parallel determinations of the unit of volume mass (Table 9.1.2. Bulking of sand W% No. and the medium values will be marked in a diagram fig. stages of 40 cm3. introducing the water in granular material (ρgW) for this humidity.2.Building Materials . 9. Table 9.

] 40 Bulking index 30 20 10 0 2 4 6 Humidity 78 8 10 . 1600 1500 Density 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 2 4 6 Humidity 8 10 For each humidity percent.Building Materials . if not we must repeat the last determination of ρgW.Chemical and Structural Properties We’ll follow the graphic to see if it indicates any uniform variation.11. we calculate the bulking index with the relation: Ii = ρga(100 + W%) ρgw − 100 [%] [9.

The size of the sample which must be sieved depends of the maximum dimension of the grains.5 1 or 2 7.5 1 5 15 25 50 following the . which remained between the two consecutive screens /sieves.2 or 0. The amount of material sieved during one determination. from the series of sieves is called sort.1 0. Table 10. The principle of this method resides in sieving of e certain amount of material on a series of sieves with standard holes. Modules of fineness 10.1 or 5 16 or 10 31.1 Granularity Granularity represents the relative content of grains with different dimensions which forms a bulked material.Building Materials .5 or 20 71 or 40 or 60 71 or 63 Determination of granularity is made succession of operations: The sample of material is dried at constant mass and we weigh 79 The sample’s weight [kg] 0.1 The maximum dimension of the grain [mm] 0.Chemical and Structural Properties GRANULARITY Granularity.

The bulked material with dimensions smaller than 1 mm.Chemical and Structural Properties (mtot). by attaching a box (at the bottom) and oscillating the entire set we made the sieve. sieve it for one minute. We form the series of sieves. if the calculated percent is smaller than 1%. it is calculated the percent of sieved material.2. before sieving. we remove it from the set and we weigh the amount of material which remains in it (m1). it is weighed the material which is kept by the sieve (mr). In proportion as we finished the sieving from every sieve from the top. and also the mass (m0) collected in the box from the bottom of the set of sieves. the sieving is continued until we fulfill this condition.Building Materials . To have an easily sieve. The masses (mi) kept by the sieves. is introduced and sieve with the next sieve from the set and we continue the sieving with the entire set of sieves. after homogenization. collected in the box from the bottom must be sieved. reported to the total mass of the kept material. % passed = mt • 100 mt + mr [10. To verify if the sieving from a sieve is finished we proceed to: take up the sieve from the set and we brought it over sheet of paper (big enough). we collect a sample of 80 . and after that we collect the passed bulked material and we weigh (mt). is notated in table 10.1] It is considered the sieving finished. If not. The material passed through sieve.

and the passing 81 . are resulted from table 10.∑mi + ∑Xi and ∆m ≤ 0. used at sieving (m71). with the following observations: if the loss (∆m) wasn’t released in atmosphere.Building Materials .2.5% the process is considered as failed and it is necessary the execution of another sieving. The sorts which are kept on every sieve are weighed (m0i) and extrapolated to mass (m0) from which they were separated. the mass remained on the biggest screen. The amount of all the masses which were kept on the sieves and screens must be equal with the sample total mass (mtot). or with a minus error of 5% from (mtot). 100 g ……… m0i m0 ……………. we would find it in the mass which passed through the finest sieve (in mass n0.005 • mtot In the case when (∆m) is bigger than 0.] The calculated masses Xi are noted in table 10. which will be sieved with the set of sieves. if we would sieved the entire quantity (m0) collected in the box from the bottom of the set of sieves. The error represents the mass of the dust which can be released when we sieved the sample.2 like masses which were kept on the sieves.2. on other sample of corning material.1). must be null (it mustn’t keep any granule) so that the passed mass (n71) to be equal to the total mass of the sample (mtot).Chemical and Structural Properties material of 100g. The percentage calculus (Pi) of sieving of the sorts through sieves and screens (I) used in the sets of sieving. ∆m = mtot .Xi Xi= m0 • m0i 100 from which results [10.

Numeric examples Screen/Sieve (mm) 71 31.3.2 n0.2.15 1 Sieves 0.Chemical and Structural Properties percentage (P71) to be 100%.3.1=∆m+x0 P31 P16 P7 P3 P1 P0. is presented a numeric example.1 n0.1 3.Building Materials .2+x0. with rounded-values to be easier to follow the calculus.1 X0 ∑mI+∑xi ∆m Sieving to sieve/screen PI(%) nI(g) n71=n31+m31 P71 n31=n16+m16 n16=n7+m7 n7=n3+m2 n3=n1+m1 n1=n0.2 0.15 1 0.2 P0.67 13.1 0 Total losses Remained (g) m71 m31 m16 m7 m3 m1 X0.1 - Table 10.50 4. Table 10.2 X0.2=n0.1 0 Total Remained (g) 0 2000 1500 1200 500 350 200 150 80 5980 82 Sieving to sieve/screen PI(%) nI(g) 6000 100 4000 2500 1300 800 450 250 100 66.67 41. In table 10.1 3. Granularity calculus Sieve (mm) 71 Screens 31.33 7.5 16 7.67 - .67 21.1+x0.17 1.2 0.5 16 7.

1) The system of coordinates is rectangular.10. respectively of the biggest screen. between the passing percentage through the finest sieve used and the ordinate of 100%.67=20(%)).Building Materials . 83 . The establishment of the proportion of granules smaller than an well known dimension.1 mm on the ordinate we mark the dimensions logarithm values.67% granules smaller than 7. On the ordinate. but the abscise scale is semi-logarithmic: until to dimension of 7. the obtained points being united by lines.67% granules smaller then 16 mm. The described representation permits the next interpretations for the granularity curve. between the dimensions of the finest sieve. (for example the material contains 41.37 – 21. used in sieving. and for bigger dimensions. It can be observed the development of the granularity curve: On the abscise. 21. we mark the passing percentages.1 mm …) The establishment of the proportion in which the sorts are forming the corning material (for example the material contains the sort 7.Chemical and Structural Properties Losses Granularity is 20 represented graphically through the granularity curve (fig. we mark the abscise line at the drawing scale. On the ordinate.1 – 16 mm in a proportion of 41.

Modules of finesse Granularity visualization through the granularity curve. more concave than graphic (2). the vertical through minimal abscise (lg0.1 [10. we can say that the granularity (1) “more poor in finest parts” or that the granularity (2) is “wealthier in finest parts”. To express the valor formula for the granularity curve.2 is represented the surface (S) which 84 .1) and the horizontal through the ordinate of 100% . in the Figure 10. after the appreciation of the graphic curve.3. closed by the granularity curve.] in which S = the surface. In Figure 10.2. permits us to appreciate the repartition of the component sorts. the graphic (1). will indicate a content proportional smaller for the smaller sorts than the coarse sorts. from the graphic.1 Granularity curve 10.Chemical and Structural Properties Figure 10. we calculate the modulus of finesse: m= S S = 100 lg 2 30.Building Materials . So.2.

and this impose to draw up the graphic at the following scales : • Ordinate scale to have 10 cm • The distance between the abscise 0.1 mm and 1 mm (in logarithmic scale) to have 10 cm. The Fineness Modulus 85 .Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties corresponds to the granularity expressed in the graphic (2). We’ll observe that a graphic with a bigger concavity suppose a less number of finest parts.1 ÷ 1mm. • The remnant of the abscise will follow the graphic scale from the segment 0. a bigger surface and implicit the modulus of finesse will have a bigger value. Surface (S) is determinate doing the amount of the trapezes surface. which are formed by the segments from the graphic having as bases the differences (100 – pi%) and the height equal with the distances between the segments abscises.

Building Materials .2 Calculus of finesse modulus 86 .Chemical and Structural Properties Figure 10.

expressed through the way in which the curve is bordered in the domain of granularity.15 47 22 34.and the Fig.1. In the Table 11. The imposed domain of granularity Curve Cmax Cmin Cmed Passes (% from mass) through screen/sieve (mm) 0.1. the bulked materials must fulfill conditions of granularity.5 100 95 100 71 100 100 100 11. The achievement of a mixed material with an imposed granularity We must form a quantity of 2000 kg of bulked material formed by the sorts: 0 ÷ 3. the optimal value is the dominium medium value.2 10 1 5.15 ÷ 7.5 1 32 10 21 3.Chemical and Structural Properties MIXTURES OF BULKED MATERIALS As a general rule. results that the 87 . Table 11. defined through maximal percentage (Cmax) and minimal (Cmin) which corresponds to the sorts’ dimensions.11.1 is represented one of these domains.5 7. The granularity utilizations permits to solve three types of problems.1.Building Materials .1.1 / 7.5 mm which must have a granularity contented in the domain from the table 11. which will be explained giving numerical examples.15 / 3.1 ÷ 16 / 16 ÷ 31. Like in every situation in which we must respect a domain.1 62 40 51 16 80 60 70 31.

0 = 30. after the granularity curve (Cmed).15 3.Building Materials .0 = 34. Table 11.165 x 2000 = 330 0. corresponding with the sorts limits of definition. In the second stage.Chemical and Structural Properties optimal granularity which we have to respect is expressed by the medium domain curve (Cmed).1 7. which are necessary to realize the total mixture of 2000kg (Table 11.5 = 16.0 100 Doses of mixtures [Kg] 0. using the differences passing percentages.0 – 34. col. Calculus of proportions and the sorts’ dosage Sort 0 ÷ 3.5 51.1 ÷ 16 16 ÷ 31. 03).5 TOTAL Mixture proportions [%] 34.2.15 ÷ 7. we calculate the dosage of sorts.5 70.300 x 2000 = 600 2000 Figure 11.0 100 – 70.1 Granularity domain 88 .0 = 19. using the mixture proportions. In first stage.0 – 51. we calculate the necessary proportions of sorts.345 x 2000 = 690 0.2.5 – 0.190 x 2000 = 380 0.

7 16 100 100 97.9 0.).31% aggregate which has the dimensions 100 smaller than 0.3 3.6 4.2 0 ÷ 3.1 2.4 6. Determination of granularity obtained by mixtures of real sorts At the verification of the available sorts.4 0.1 ÷ 16 16 ÷ 31.7 71 (100) (100) (100) 100 To solve the problem we must calculate the proportions which are introduced by every sort in the total aggregate and this is made doing the multiplication between the mixture proportion and the sorts’ percentage of granularity (table 11.1.Chemical and Structural Properties 11. the resulted granularities for each sort are those from table 11. Table 11.45 × 12.4 6. Example: ♦ the sort 0 ÷ 3.5mm will introduce in the total aggregate: 89 .2mm.5 12. We must find out the granularity of the total aggregate.5 2.15 3. ♦ the sort 7.1 ÷ 16.15 93.Building Materials . Granularity of the sorts Transition (% percentage from mass) SORT 0.3 through screen/sieve (mm) 3.15 ÷ 7.5% = 4.5 100 100 100 96.1 7.6 31.2.1 100 95.4 7.9 0. resulted from the mixtures of the sorts at the established proportions from & 11.15mm will introduce in the total aggregate: 3.4.5 7.2 0.2 1 60.

15 34.50 15. we can observe that it doesn’t match exactly over the curve we need (Cmed) but is laying into the imposed domain.22 1.68 0.74 1. with a granularity closed like value to the one we want.5 19.0% × 97.. Table 11. It is noticed that the necessity of introducing the transition percentage of 100% for dimensions bigger than the maximum dimension of every sort. 11.04 1.Building Materials . Optimal mixtures for the bulked materials In practice at a given moment we must mix different bulked materials and to obtain the maximum grade of utilization.50 16.1.22 0.5 34.50 16.00 Laying out the curve of the resulted granularity (Crez) in Figure 11.2 0 ÷ 3.49 1.3% = 18.00 29.21 51.86 16 34.15 ÷ 7.55 0.15 32.36 0. The real granularity of the mixture is calculated making the amount of the proportions each sort. The mixture real granularity Transition (% percentage from mass) SORT 0.91 0. operation which doesn’t modify the granularities of the sorts because the sort is smaller than the respective dimension.15 3.50 19.1 34.1 ÷ 16 16 ÷ 31.01 71 34.09 22.Chemical and Structural Properties 19.23 3.41 0.00 100.01 99.5 TOTAL 4.3.49 % 100 aggregate which has the dimensions smaller than 16mm. We have to bulked materials 90 (A and B) with the .90 through screen/sieve (mm) 1 20.1 7.17 0.06 4.4.50 18.57 31.5 16.31 0.00 30.63 7.4. like in the table 11.08 70.

91 .5 7.5 through screen/sieve (mm) 1 30 10 21 3.5 and we have to find out the characteristics of each bulked material so that.2 A B N 10 1 5. 11. to obtain a mixture with a necessary granularity (N). The amount method To solve it using the amount method we must follow the following steps: We calculate the percentage amounts of transition for the two sources of bulked materials and for the necessary mixtures. after a integral use.5. q . Table 11. ni – the percentage of transition.1 60 30 51 16 80 70 70 31.15 40 20 34. 3. The granularities of the material and mixtures Transition (% from mass) Material 0.5 100 95 100 71 100 100 100 420 326 382 Amount The proportion calculus can be made in two methods: The amount method. This amounts will be noted SA. resulted from the mixture of the two materials in the proportions p and q. 2.the proportion from material B which is necessary in the mixture. The method of the granularity’s index. SB and SN: Ex: SA = 10 + 30 + 40 + 60 + 80 + 100 + 100 = 420 Notations: 1.Chemical and Structural Properties granularities from the tab. p – the proportion from material A which is necessary in the mixture.Building Materials .

SB) + SB p= SN − SB X 100 S A − SB [%] and q= S A − SN × 100 [%] S A − SB For granularities from the table 11. 92 .Chemical and Structural Properties Could be written the following relations: p+q=1 ni = pai + qbi = pai + (1 + bi SN =Σni = pΣ(ai .p)bi = p(ai . the two ordinates are united with a line. we mark the ordinate which corresponds for the amount Sn.2) with the following stages: we mark on the corresponded coordinates of the materials A and B the amounts values.5.Building Materials . using a mixture diagram (fig.2 The amount method for two components The amount method of two components can be realized graphic + Σbi = p(SA . results: p= 382 − 326 × 100% 420 − 326 and q= 420 − 382 × 100 % 420 − 326 Figure 11. knowing that the calculus relation of the amount SN represents linear function.

5. The method of the granularity’s index The method of the granularity index operates with the remnant ordinates from the screens/sieves.Building Materials . 1 ∑ (100 − ai ) 100 where ai represents the transition percentage through screens or For the granularities from the table 11.6.the index is: IA = 1 ⎡(100 −10) + (100 − 30) + (100 − 40) + (100 − 60) + (100 −80) + (100 −100) + (100 −100) ⎤ ⎦ 100 ⎣ 1 ⎡(100 −1) + (100 −10) + (100 − 20) + (100 − 30) + (100 − 70) + (100 − 95) + (100 −100) ⎤ ⎦ 100 ⎣ 1 IN = ⎡ (100−5. we make the verification of the total aggregate. express the mixture proportions for this two bulked materials. respectively p= IN − IB × 100[%] I A − IB and q= IA − IN × 100[%] I A − IB There are calculated the mixtures proportions. results: I N = pI A + qI B = pI A + (1 − q) I B = p ( I A − I B ) + I B and.Chemical and Structural Properties The corresponding abscise for the intersection of the lines. The formula for the granularity index (Ii) is: IA = sieves.5) +(100−21) +(100−34.2 considering that the mixture is realized between two sorts (Table 11. after the method described at point 11. 93 .).5) +(100−51) +(100−70) +(100−100) +(100−100)⎤ ⎦ 100 ⎣ IB = Using a similar reasoning with the one we applied in the amount method.

74 12.41 97.Chemical and Structural Properties Table 11.91 3.43 100 Will be observed that the resulted granularity curve.66 28.Building Materials . Figure 11.40 6.04 21.57 38.96 0. but is coiling up on it.13 47.36 1 17. Material A B Crez Transition (% from mass) through screen/sieve (mm) 0.5 59.3 Optimal mixture graphs 94 .2 5.57 40.83 8. doesn’t match with the necessary curve (N).1 35.98 71 59.96 31.15 23.87 4.30 75.91 7.09 31.6.87 16 47.

1. cylinder). prism. The friction from the interface between the test rod and the pan. Rise rate of the force intensity (high speed and slow speed). We calculate the characteristically section for the attempt (A0).1. corresponding to the hypothesis oh the attempts which were programmed. The size of the test rod (cube with the edge of 100mm and 200mm).] . The compression resistance is calculated: RC = Fmax A0 [N/mm2] 95 [12.Building Materials . but prepared and kept in the same conditions. the maximum forces indicated by the press and the resulted resistances will be registered in Table 12.. We calculate the average values of the edges and the initial diameters of the rupture sections. The attempts will be executed by series of concrete test samples. The test samples will be marked and measured with a precision of 1mm. The values of the attempt parameters.Chemical and Structural Properties MECHANICAL TESTS (I) Compression Tests This subchapter has like purpose the practical demonstration of the factors which are influencing the material resistance to compression: The test rod form (cube. with different forms and dimensions.

2.] πd 4 2 Figure 12.1 The attempt of the tests at compression 96 . A0 = the characteristically initial section of the test sample (mm2) The characteristically section (A0).Chemical and Structural Properties in which: Fmax = the maxim force registered by the press (N). on which is distributed the force of compression is calculated: For cube and prism For cylinders A0 = a × b A0 = [12.3.] [12.Building Materials .

until the test rod is break. as follows: Figure 12.2 The samples shapes after the tests at compression 97 .Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties The attempt speed (v) is calculated: v= Fmax A0 • t [12. cylinder.] in which t = press’s pull-in time. prism) will failed. After the cracks’ rising (failure) the sample (cube.4.

Building Materials .Chemical and Structural Properties Results Table V [N/mm2s] No crt a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 (d1) (d2) (d3) (d4) (d5) (d6) b4 Fmax [N] t [s] Rc [N/mm2] A0 [mm2] Slides (diameters) mm a (d) [mm] b [mm] 0 1 2 3 Aver age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cube with the slide of 100 mm 11 12 13 14 15 Cube with the slide of 200 mm 1 2 3 Aver age Prism with the slide of the base of 100mm 1 2 3 Aver age Cylinder with the diameter by 100 mm 1 2 3 Aver age Cube with the slide of 100mm tried at high speed 1 2 3 Aver age Cube with the slide of 100mm tried at reduced speed 1 2 3 Aver age 98 .

as follows: ⇒ Cube with the side of 100 mm and 200 mm ⇒ Cube with the side of 100 mm and a prism with a square base and the slide of 100mm ⇒ Cube with the side of 100 mm and a cylinder with the base diameter of 100mm ⇒ Prism with the side of the base of 100 mm and cylinder with the base diameter of 100 mm ⇒ Cube with the side of 100 mm ⇒ Cube with the side of 100 mm tried at different speeds ⇒ Cube with the side of 100 mm. prism with the base of 100 mm. cylinder with the base of 100 mm 99 .Chemical and Structural Properties The resistance medium values are compared with the results from the Table 12.1 and are mentioned the conclusions.Building Materials .

Figure 13. Flexural tensile resistance The attempt from flexural tensile.1 The test from flexural tensile 100 .1. called opening and the force pres straight at the half of the opening (Fig. is effectuated on prismatic tests rod which have a square section.1).Chemical and Structural Properties MECHANICAL TESTS (II) The Flexural Test The Cleaving Extensions Test 13.13. The prism is settled on two supports at the distance (l) between them.Building Materials .

b1 b2 b3 b4 h1 h2 h3 h4 1 2 3 Medium resistance Fmax [N] Averages Rft b h [N/mm2] [mm] [mm] 101 . ⇒ h = the vertical dimension of the prism section [mm]. ⇒ l = the distance between presses supports [mm]. Figure 13. The test through flexural extension Dimensions [mm] No. crt.1.2 The sample’s shape after the flexural tensile test Table 13.Building Materials . ⇒ b = the horizontal dimension of the prism section [mm].1.Chemical and Structural Properties Flexural tensile resistance (Rti) is calculated with: R ft = 3 Fmax ⋅ l × 2 b ⋅ h2 [N/mm2] [13.] in which: ⇒ Fmax = the maximum force registered until the rupture [N].

PFL.) and have between them and the press’ supports a band of board. The resistance from cleaving extension The tests through cleaving extension are effectuated on cylindrical test rods which are settled on generating lines (Fig.13. Figure 13.2. for uniformly application of the action on the generating lines and to reduce the friction between test rod and the supports.2.3 The test from cleaving extension The supports’ action will be transmitted to the test rods like a charge uniform distributed on the generating lines.2. and the test rod will cleave after it. The bending stress from the vertical will go to extension stress perpendicular on the plan formed by that two generating lines and which will receive the force.Building Materials .] in which: 102 .Chemical and Structural Properties 13. The resistance to rupture through cleaving is calculated with: R ce = 2 Fmax π A0 [N/mm2] [13.

Figure 13.141592.4 The sample’s shape after cleaving extension test Table 13. A0= d × h = the surface of the cleaving plan.Building Materials .1. The test through cleaving extension Dimensions [mm] N o cr d1 d2 d3 h1 h2 t 1 2 3 Medium resistance 103 Fmax [N] Averages [mm] [mm] b h [mm2] A0 [N/mm2] Rce .Chemical and Structural Properties π = constant 3.

Proprietăţile betonului. Hîrhui I. M. Standarde şi normative în vigoare 104 . Editura Tehnică. Editura Tehnica. I. Bucureşti. Steopoe Al. 4. Editura Tehnică . Caracostea ş.a. I.a. 10. Editura Tehnică. ş. Bob Corneliu. Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 1975 . 6. . Neville A. vol.P. Teoreanu I. bazele fizicochimice ale studiului materialelor de construcţii. Bucureşti. Bucureşti. editura ROTAPRINT. Bucureşti. Tehnică. 5.Building Materials .a. M. Bucureşti.Durabilitatea betonului. Bliuc. Groll L. ş. Editura Tehnică. 1 şi 2.Chimia fizică a silicaţilor tehnici. 1982 A. Încercarea materialelor. editura ROTAPRINT. Bucureşti. 1982 3. ş. Teoreanu I.Materiale de construcţii. 1968 .Materiale de construcţii. laşi 1985 . Velica Paraschiva 2.P. 8. Solacolu S.Materiale de construcţii. 1979 . 9. Editura I. 1976 .Chemical and Structural Properties Bibliography 1.Caiet pentru lucrări la disciplina „Materiale de construcţii”.Bazele tehnologiei lianţilor. Budescu.a. 7. laşi 1985 . Groll L..