Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing

Appendix

C
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Medical-Surgical Nursing

Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in
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eference laboratory values can provide guidelines for the clinician to use when assessing clients with a wide variety of problems. The laboratory values given here are for reference only and are not absolute normal values. Remember, there is no sharp dividing line between normal and abnormal. Clients with only slightly elevated values may have apparent disease, whereas those with more elevated values may not. Trends in laboratory values are often much more important than the single value. When analyzing laboratory values, consider the following questions: complete explanation of the diagnostic study and its meaning is covered in the appropriate section (such as liver function studies in Chapter 49). This Appendix simply provides a convenient way to check the normal values for the most common diagnostic studies. For details concerning the meaning of the value, see the appropriate section in the textbook. The following abbreviations are used throughout the laboratory studies: g = gram kg = kilogram mg = milligram (10–3) µg = microgram (10–6) ng = nanogram (10–9) pg = picogram (10–12) L = liter ml = milliliter dl = deciliter (100 ml) fL = femtoliter mm = millimeter mm3 = cubic millimeter U = unit mU = milliunit µU = microunit mOsm = milliosmole mol = mole µmol = micromole nmol = nanomole pmol = picomole fmol = femtomole (10–15) mEq = milliequivalent µm = micrometer

• Is the value an expected abnormal finding? For example, creatinine is normally elevated in clients with renal failure. • Is the value an unexpected abnormal finding? For example, elevated blood glucose levels in a client without diabetes may signal a disease. • Is the value an unexpected normal finding? For example, a client with angina and probable myocardial infarction would be expected to have elevated isoenzymes. Normal levels may mean that the client has another cause of chest pain. • Is the value an expected normal finding? For example, a healthy client should have a normal complete blood count. Use the analytic technique as a guide to determine when to call the physician. Remember, the laboratory only reports findings; nurses help interpret their significance. Appendix C summarizes the common laboratory diagnostic studies for use as a quick reference. A

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5 to 1.5 to 5.4 million/mm 4500 to 11.75 to 8. RBCs) Males Females Children (varies with age) Leukocytes (white blood cells.0 min 5 to 15 min < 0.2 to 5.75 to 8.6 to 6.5 of normal < 10 mg/L 2.0 sec Negative Negative 26 to 34 pg/cell 80 to 96 fL 320 to 360 g/L 0.0 to 4.0 to 14.5% to 1.5 mg/L 0. WBCs). leukocyte Cell counts Erythrocytes (red blood cells.000/mm3 Absolute 0/mm 3 3 Conventional Units No hemolysis Total score 14 to 100 SI Units No hemolysis Total score 14 to 100 4.6 to 6.5 to 11.0 min 5 to 15 min < 0.000/mm3 25.0 g/L 60 to 70 sec 30 to 40 sec 11.5 to 4.000/mm3 (0.0 sec Negative Negative 2.20 to 1.0 to 14.65 g/L Table continued on following page 32 to 36 g/dl 20 to 165 mg/dl .2 to 5. activated (aPTT) Prothrombin time (PT) Coombs’ test Direct Indirect Corpuscular values of erythrocytes Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Haptoglobin 26 to 34 pg/cell 80 to 96 µm 3 2.0 60 to 70 sec 30 to 40 sec 11.2 million/mm3 4.0 × 109/L Absolute 0/L 150 to 400 × 106/L 3000 to 5800 × 106/L 1500 to 3000 × 106/L 300 to 500 × 106/L 50 to 250 × 106/L 15 to 50 × 106/L 150 to 400 × 109/L 25 to 75 × 109/L 4.5% of erythrocytes) 3 Coagulation tests Bleeding time (template) Coagulation time (glass tubes) D-Dimer Factor VIII and other coagulation factors Fibrin split products (Thrombo-Welco test) Fibrinogen International normalized ratio (INR) Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) Partial thromboplastin time.1 million/mm3 150 to 400/mm3 3000 to 5800/mm3 1500 to 3000/mm 300 to 500/mm3 50 to 250/mm3 15 to 50/mm3 150.000 to 75. differential Myelocytes Band neutrophils Segmented neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils Platelets Reticulocytes Percentage 0 3 to 5 54 to 62 25 to 33 3 to 7 1 to 3 0 to 1 4.5 µg/ml 50% to 150% of normal < 10 µg/ml 200 to 400 mg/dl 1.2 × 1012/L 4.5 to 5.1 × 1012/L 4.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-2 REFERENCE VALUES IN HEMATOLOGY* Test Acid hemolysis test (Ham’s test) Alkaline phosphatase.2 × 1012/L 4. total Leukocytes.000 to 400.

Pagana. Mosby’s diagnostic and laboratory test reference (6th ed.5 g/dl < 1.1 to 11.0 to 16.49 to 0. (2003).5 g/dl 11.0 to 18.2 mmol/L 7. depending on the method used. St.35 to 0.0% of total 0 to 5. plasma Methemoglobin Sedimentation rate (ESR) Wintrobe Males Females Westergren Males Females 0 to 15 mm/hr 0 to 20 mm/hr 0 to 15 mm/hr 0 to 20 mm/hr 0 to 5 mm/hr 0 to 15 mm/hr 0 to 5 mm/hr 0 to 15 mm/hr 13.40 to 0.2 to 12.05 of total 0.03 to 0. K.03 of total 0 to 3.).0 g/dl 12. fetal Hemoglobin A1C Hemoglobin A2 Hemoglobin.2 µmol/L 19 to 80 µmol/L 40 to 54 ml/dl 37 to 47 ml/dl 49 to 54 ml/dl 35 to 49 ml/dl 0.015 to 0.01 of total 0.49 volume fraction Conventional Units SI Units *For some procedures.54 volume fraction 0. reference values may vary.9 mmol/L 10.47 volume fraction 0. . Louis: Mosby.4 to 9.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-3 REFERENCE VALUES IN HEMATOLOGY* continued Test Hematocrit Males Females Newborns Children (varies with age) Hemoglobin Males Females Newborns Children (varies with age) Hemoglobin.2 to 16.1 mmol/L 7.0% of total 3% to 5% of total 1.5% to 3.0 g/dl 16.2 mmol/L < 0. & Pagana.0 mg/dl 30 to 130 mg/dl 8.54 volume fraction 0. T.0 to 10.5 to 19.37 to 0.

24 0.8 µmol/L 5. serum Anion gap. serum.1 to 19 µmol/L Table continued on following page 23 to 29 mEq/L 21 to 27 mEq/L 0. arterial blood.0 mg/dl 23 to 29 mmol/L 21 to 27 mmol/L 0.60 U/L 2 to 18 pmol/L 1 to 45 U/L 33 to 52 g/L 0.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-4 REFERENCE VALUES FOR BLOOD.60 U/L 10 to 80 pg/ml 1 to 45 U/L 3.4 mg/dl 0.76 to 3. calculated Bicarbonate Venous plasma Arterial blood Bile acids. SGOT) Base excess. serum Conjugated Total 0.0 U/L Conventional Units SI Units .3 to 5. serum Aldolase. serum (AST.3 to 1. serum (thymolphthalein monophosphate substrate) Adrenocorticotropin. plasma Standing Recumbent Alkaline phosphatase.11 to 0.7 to 6.23 0. serum (ALP) Adult Adolescent Child Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Ammonia nitrogen. serum (ALT.8 to 7. SGPT) Albumin. calculated Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Apolipoproteins Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-1) Males Females Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) Males Females Apo A-1/Apo B ratio Males Females Ascorbic acid. blood Aspartate aminotransferase.1 to 0.6 µmol/L 0.2 g/dl 0.0 U/L Negative 3 to 20 mg/L 0. PLASMA. plasma (ACTH) 8:00 AM Alanine aminotransferase.85 to 2.1 mg/dl 1.5 mg/dl 1 to 36 U/L 0 ± 2 mEq/L 23 to 85 µmol/L 1 to 36 U/L 0 ± 2 mmol/L 50 to 125 mg/dl 45 to 120 mg/dl 75 to 160 mg/dl 80 to 175 mg/dl 35 to 150 U/L 100 to 500 U/L 100 to 350 U/L < 40 ng/ml 10 to 50 µmol/L 25 to 125 U/L 8 to 16 mEq/L none 35 to 150 U/L 100 to 500 U/L 100 to 350 U/L < 40 µg/L 10 to 50 µmol/L 25 to 125 U/L 8 to 16 mmol/L none 5 to 30 ng/dl 3 to 10 ng/dl 140 to 830 pmol/L 80 to 275 pmol/L Negative 0.3 to 2.0 to 7.4 to 1.3 to 3. serum Bilirubin.11 to 0. AND SERUM* Test Acetoacetate plus acetone Qualitative Quantitative Acid phosphatase.0 to 7. serum Aldosterone.0 mg/dl 0. plasma Amylase.

423 pmol/L 230 to 440 mg/L 96 to 106 mmol/L < 22 U/ml < 38 U/ml < 37 U/ml < 35 U/ml 24 to 31 mEq/L 35 to 45 mm Hg < 5 ng/ml 60 to 260 µg/dl < 22 kU/L < 38 kU/L < 37 kU/L < 35 kU/L 24 to 31 mmol/L 35 to 45 mm Hg < 5 µg/L 1.0 to 18. blood (PCO2) Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) β-Carotene serum Catecholamines. CPK) Males Females Creatine kinase MB isozyme.4 to 10.0 ng/ml 145 to 540 ng/ml 6.25 mg/dl SI Units < 10 mg/L 2.0 to 4.1 to 8. total. plasma 8:00 AM 4:00 PM 10:00 PM Creatine. serum (CK. PLASMA. serum Fibrinogen. serum Males Females Creatine kinase or phosphokinase.5 mg/dl 0.8 to 41.65 mmol/L > 0.6 µmol/L Conventional Units < 1 mg/dl 8.2 to 0.55 to 4. serum Cancer antigens (CA) CA 15-3 CA 27.5 of 8 am value < 200 mg/dl 60 to 180 mg/dl > 45 mg/dl 70 to 140 µg/dl < 5. serum 55 to 170 U/L 30 to 135 U/L < 5% of total CK activity < 5% ng/ml by immunoassay Creatinine.29 CA 19-9 CA 125 Carbon dioxide.25 to 5.2 mg/dl 20 to 200 ng/ml 200 to 400 mg/dl 55 to 170 U/L 30 to 135 U/L < 5% of total CK activity < 5% ng/ml by immunoassay 50 to 110 µmol/L 20 to 200 µg/L 2. serum or plasma Cholesterol. serum Ferritin.75 mmol/L 11 to 22 µmol/L < 50 pg/ml 110 to 410 pg/ml 23 to 44 mg/dl 96 to 106 mEq/L < 273 pmol/L 650 to 2.05 to 1. serum Calcium. AND SERUM* continued Test C-reactive protein (CRP) Calcium.5 to 1.3 to 0.20 mmol/L 1.10 to 2.0 g/L 0. plasma Epinephrine (supine) Norepinephrine (supine) Ceruloplasmin.30 mmol/L .Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-5 REFERENCE VALUES FOR BLOOD. serum or plasma Carbon dioxide tension.9 mg/dl 15 to 40 µmol/L 25 to 70 µmol/L 6 to 23 µg/dl 3 to 15 µg/dl < 50% of 8 am value 170 to 630 nmol/L 80 to 410 nmol/L < 0. ionized. serum or EDTA plasma Desirable range Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) High-density lipoproteins (HDL) Copper Cortisol. plasma Folate Serum Erythrocytes 3. serum Chloride.65 mmol/L 1.0 nmol/L 330 to 1220 nmol/L Table continued on following page 0.6 mg/dl 4.

0 to 6.70 to 3. serum Total Saturation Lactate Venous blood Arterial blood Lactate dehydrogenase.55 640 to 1350 mg/dl 70 to 310 mg/dl 90 to 350 mg/dl 0.7 mmol/L 110 to 220 U/L 10 to 140 U/L 4.0 g/L 250 to 410 µg/dl 20% to 55% 45 to 73 µmol/L 0. serum IgG IgA IgM IgD IgE Insulin (fasting). room air Saturation (SaO2) Partial pressure (PaO2) pH.45 Table continued on following page 2 to 10 U/L 15 to 65 U/L 1 to 12 U/L 12 to 65 U/L 1. arterial.35 to 7. serum Osmolality Oxygen.0 mg/dl 110 to 220 U/L 10 to 140 U/L 400 to 800 mg/dl 0.05 mmol/L 275 to 295 mOsm/kg H2O 1 to 9 mU/ml 1 to 9 U/L 5.0 mg/dl 5.20 to 0.4 to 13.9 to 6. AND SERUM* continued Test Follicle-stimulating hormone. total.0 to 60 mg/L 0.3 to 2.90 to 3.5 g/L 0.0 to 430 ng/ml 5 to 25 µU/ml 75 to 175 µg/dl 6.65 g/L 4 to 14 µmol/L Conventional Units SI Units .35 to 7. blood.0 to 430 µg/L 36 to 179 pmol/L 13 to 31 µmol/L 4 to 25 mU/ml 4 to 30 mU/ml 40 to 250 mU/ml 5 to 38 U/L 5 to 40 U/L 0 to 110 pg/ml 70 to 110 mg/dl 0 to 6 ng/ml 26 to 165 mg/dl 4 to 14 µmol/L 4 to 25 U/L 4 to 30 U/L 40 to 250 U/L 5 to 38 IU/L 5 to 40 IU/L 0 to 110 ng/L 3. serum Gastrin.0 to 8. serum Luteinizing hormone.1 mg/dl 275 to 295 mOsm/kg H2O 2 to 10 U/L 15 to 65 U/L 1 to 12 U/L 12 to 65 U/L 0.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-6 REFERENCE VALUES FOR BLOOD. PLASMA. serum (LD.65 to 1.4 nmol/L 0 to 6 µg/L 0. LDH) Lipase.20 to 1. (fasting) serum Glucose (fasting).0 to 20.5 g/L 0. serum Lipids.6 to 2. serum (LH) Males Females Follicular phase Midcycle peak Luteal phase Postmenopausal Magnesium.0 mg/dl 0.2 mmol/L 0.1 g/L 0.6 to 1. plasma Iron. plasma (HGH) Haptoglobin. serum Homocysteine (Hcy) Immunoglobulins. plasma or serum Growth hormone.45 95% to 98% 80 to 100 mm Hg 7. serum Iron-binding capacity.0 to 15. arterial blood 95% to 98% 80 to 100 mm Hg 7. plasma (FSH) Males Females Postmenopausal Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) γ-Glutamyltransferase.

serum Vitamin B12.1 to 2. blood Sodium.6 nmol/L 1. & Pagana.0 to 8. . K.4 g/dl 0. serum Potassium. T.5 g/dl 0.5 to 12.0 µg/dl 40 to 150 mg/dl 70 to 190 ng/dl 25% to 38% uptake 10. resin (T3RU) Urate Males Females Urea.38 uptake 6.9 to 2. PLASMA.0 to 8. free. serum Prolactin.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-7 REFERENCE VALUES FOR BLOOD. serum (TSH) Thyroxine.0 to 16.8 × water 20 to 80 µg/dl 180 to 900 pg/ml 150 to 480 µmol/L 130 to 420 µmol/L 4.3 to 0.1 ng/dl 4.2 nmol/L 8.6 to 1.5 to 0.5 to 5.7 to 1. serum.4 to 1. (2003).80 µmol/L 133 to 664 pmol/L 300 to 1200 ng/dl 20 to 75 ng/dl 40 to 200 ng/dl 3 to 42 ng/ml 0.5 to 5.7 g/dl 0.6 nmol/L 0.9 nmol/L 0.9 g/dl 0.5 mmol/L 3. St.5 mg/dl 3.9 mg/dl 135 to 145 mEq/L 60 to 80 g/L 35 to 55 g/L 2 to 4 g/L 5 to 9 g/L 6 to 11 g/L 7 to 17 g/L 0.9 nmol/L 3 to 42 µg/L 0. serum Vitamin A.03 to 0.10 mmol/L 135 to 145 mmol/L 1 to 15 ng/ml 1 to 20 ng/ml 1 to 15 µg/L 1 to 20 µg/L Conventional Units < 2 mg/dl 3.4 to 4. plasma Males Females Pregnant Thyroglobulin Thyroid-stimulating hormone.0 to 4. Louis: Mosby. serum or plasma Urea nitrogen.4 to 1. depending on the method used. after 12 hr fast Triiodothyronine.2 to 0. serum or plasma (Blood urea nitrogen or BUN) Viscosity. AND SERUM* continued Test Phenylalanine. serum 2.5 to 5. Pagana.4 to 4.0 mEq/L SI Units 121 µmol/L 1.2 to 7. inorganic.5 g/L 1. serum Total Albumin α1-Globulin α2-Globulin β-Globulin γ-Globulin Pyruvate.0 mmol/L *For some procedures. serum Males Females Protein. serum (T4) Triglycerides.8 × water 0. serum (T3) Triiodothyronine uptake.4 nmol/L 1.0 to 1.8 µIU/ml 0.4 to 41.0 g/dl 3.0 mg/dl 2.0 mg/dl 24 to 49 mg/dl 11 to 23 mg/dl 1.1 g/dl 0. serum (FT4) Thyroxine.4 to 1.8 mIU/L 12 to 27 pmol/L 58 to 154 nmol/L 0.). serum or plasma Testosterone.4 to 6.25 to 0. serum (Guthrie test) Phosphate.7 to 2. Mosby’s diagnostic and laboratory test reference (6th ed.70 to 2.5 to 8. reference values may vary.

15 to 1.30 mmol/24 hr 0.2 to 1.5 µmol/24 hr 8.80 µmol/24 hr 27.5 to 22 µmol/24 hr Negative 10 to 31 µmol/24 hr Table continued on following page .2 µmol/24 hr 14 to 90 nmol/24 hr 18 to 360 nmol/24 hr < 250 mg/24 hr Negative 8. qualitative 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Males Females 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid Qualitative Quantitative 110 to 150 ml/min/1.8 mg/24 hr 4 to 25 µg/24 hr 5 to 100 µg/24 hr < 250 mg/24 hr Negative 3 to 9 mg/24 hr 2 to 8 mg/24 hr Negative 2 to 6 mg/24 hr 110 to 150 ml/min/1. qualitative Calcium (usual diet) Catecholamines Epinephrine Norepinephrine Total free catecholamines Total metanephrines Chloride (varies with intake) Copper Cortisol.73 m2 0.73 m2 0.01 to 0.3 to 7.0 to 0.0 mg/24 hr < 17 U/hr 0.01 to 0.6 mg/24 hr 110 to 250 mEq/24 hr 0 to 50 µg/24 hr 10 to 100 µg/24 hr 0 to 40 mg/24 hr 0 to 80 mg/24 hr 15 to 25 mg/kg/24 hr SI Units Negative Negative 0.5 to 8.1 µmol/24 hr 110 to 250 nmol/24 hr 0 to 0. total Males Females Glucose (as reducing substance) Hemoglobin and myoglobin.73 m body surface area) 2 Conventional Units Negative Negative 10 to 100 mg/24 hr 3 to 20 µg/24 hr 1.13–0.3 to 25 µmol/24 hr 5.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-8 REFERENCE VALUES FOR URINE* Test Acetone and acetoacetate.0 mg/24 hr 0.04 Negative < 6.3 nmol/24 hr < 55 nmol/24 hr < 590 nmol/24 hr 24 to 745 nmol/24 hr 0. qualitative Albumin Qualitative Quantitative Aldosterone δ-Aminolevulinic acid Amylase Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio Bilirubin.7 to 6.22 mmol/kg/24 hr Males Females Dehydroepiandrosterone Males Females Estrogens.73 m2 105 to 132 ml/min/1.04 Negative < 250 mg/24 hr < 10 µg/24 hr < 100 µg/24 hr 4 to 126 µg/24 hr 0.1 to 1.2 to 2.7 to 6. free Creatine Males Females Creatinine Creatinine clearance (corrected to 1.9 µmol/24 hr 0.3 to 55 nmol/24 hr 10 to 53 µmol/24 hr < 17 U/hr 0.6 to 276 nmol/24 hr 0.60 mmol/24 hr 0.73 m2 105 to 132 ml/min/1.0 to 0.

T.030 250 to 750 mg/24 hr 0.0 Negative 13 to 42 mmol/24 hr 8 to 22 mg/24 hr 6 to 15 mg/24 hr 6.4 mmol/24 hr 0.4 µmol/24 hr 0. Pagana.9 mg/24 hr 0.6 mg/24 hr 2.2 60 to 260 mmol/24 hr 1. St.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-9 REFERENCE VALUES FOR URINE* continued Test 17-Ketosteroids Males Females Magnesium Metanephrines (see Catecholamines) Osmolality pH Phenylpyruvic acid.0 mg/24 hr Negative < 9 µmol/24 hr 38 to 1.0 to 6.5 to 4.0 to 5.003 to 1.0 to 1.6 to 8. Louis: Mosby.4 to 1.2 60 to 260 mEq/24 hr 1. Mosby’s diagnostic and laboratory test reference (6th ed.400 mOsm/kg H2O 4.400 mOsm/kg H2O 4.6 to 10.3 g/24 hr 38 to 1. depending on the method used.6 to 3.6 to 8.0 to 8. & Pagana.1 µmol/24 hr < 7.0 mmol/24 hr Conventional Units SI Units *For some procedures.6 mg/24 hr 0.0 to 10 mEq/24 hr 28 to 76 µmol/24 hr 21 to 52 µmol/24 hr 3.003 to 1.0 mg/24 hr < 2.0 to 2.030 1.0 mg/24 hr 1 to 8 mg/24 hr Negative 10 to 150 mg/24 hr < 0.8 µmol/24 hr 5 to 40 µmol/24 hr 0.0 µmol/24 hr 50 to 250 µg/24 hr 10 to 30 µg/24 hr 25 to 125 mEq/24 hr 77 to 380 nmol/24 hr 12 to 36 nmol/24 hr 25 to 125 mmol/24 hr Negative < 2.5 mg/24 hr 0. (2003). .5 to 4. K.2 to 1. qualitative Phosphate Porphobilinogen Qualitative Quantitative Porphyrins Coproporphyrin Uroporphyrin Potassium Pregnanediol Males Females Proliferative phase Luteal phase Postmenopausal Pregnanetriol Protein Qualitative Quantitative Protein-creatinine ratio Sodium (usual diet) Specific gravity. random Urate (usual diet) Urobilinogen Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) (4-hydroxy-3methoxymandelic acid) Negative 10 to 150 mg/24 hr < 0.0 µmol/24 hr 8 to 33 µmol/24 hr 0.6 to 6.).0 Negative 0. reference values may vary.

total Absent 70 to 180 mm H2O 15 to 45 mg/dl < 8% of total protein < 14% of total protein 0.. (1997). (2000). Current diagnosis (9th ed.Appendix C: Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance in Medical-Surgical Nursing C-10 REFERENCE VALUES FOR CEREBROSPINAL FLUID Conventional Units Cells Electrophoresis Glucose < 5/mm 3 SI Units < 5 × 106/L All mononuclear Predominantly albumin 2.6 All mononuclear Predominantly albumin 50 to 75 mg/dl (20 mg/dl less than serum) IgG Children < 14 yr Adults IgG index CSF/serum IgG ratio CSF/serum albumin ratio Oligoclonal banding on electrophoresis Pressure.. Nurses’ manual of laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures (2nd ed. M. . W. Philadelphia: W. L.). Z.2 mmol/L (1.3 to 0. & Snyder. B.8 to 4.08 of total protein < 0.3 to 0.14 of total protein 0.. Saunders.. Saunders. 1235–1241). B.6 Absent 70 to 180 mm H2O 150 to 450 mg/L Modified from Conn. pp. M. R.1 mmol/L less than serum) < 0. Borer. B. Philadelphia: W. J. W. & McMorrow. and data from Malarkey. E. opening Protein.