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Westward Expansion 16/07/2007 07:27:00


No such thing as the Catholic Church until the


• There is a protest against the church at the time

leading to Protestantism

• Established Church

o state-sanctioned church

o taxes of the people go to support this church

o in England is the Church of England

 Henry VIII establishes the Church of

England and is now known as Anglican


• Non Anglican protestant

• John Wesley (Methodist/Quakers/Presbyterian)


• Calvinist

• French protestant
Anglo-Spanish relations

• they were often at wars

• Spanish was a well established commercial power

• England was a new comer to global trading and


• Henry VIII

o Launched England on its own reformation

when he wanted a divorce because the wife

could not bear a male child

• Mary Tudor daughter of Henry VIII

o remained with the past church and did not join

the Church of England

o she married Philip II

• the privateers and pirates are very closely related

o a privateer is a state-sanctioned pirates

o privateers would raid Spanish ships

 most famous is the Francis Drake

 to plunder Spanish ports and ships

 had a document that sanctioned him

 circled the globe and everywhere

there was a Spanish port he would

raid it

 sacked St. Augustine

• Phillip II sends the armada to protect from the


Richard Hakluyt

• to this day there is a very active society in England

• lived from about 1552 to 1616

• educated at oxford and trained as geographer

• he interviewed everybody he could to get their


o gathered a ton of documents, translating

• wrote key texts

Conquest and Plantation of Ireland

• varieties of Irish-ness

o native Irish = Gaelic Irish

o Anglo-Norman = old 4English

 catholic, adopted Gaelic Irish ways

• Tudor state formation

o Henry VII (1485 – 1509)

 to become the only power in England

 Tudor revolution in government

 strong bureaucracy

 encouraging the middle class and


 origins of the fiscal military state

 to build diverse multinational British

state comprised of England, Ireland,

and Scotland

 Ireland did not want to give up control

 sympathy of the Tudor rivals

 they looked into Spanish for help

 the English were afraid of the Spanish

reformation coming to England by

way of Ireland

• Earls of Kildare

• Surrender and Re-grant

o An Irish lord confronted with the power of the

Tudors would surrender their lands to Henry VII

and he would give the land back to the Irish

lord under an English Lordship name and the

lord was now part of the English side

• Church of Ireland (1537)

o Anglican church in 5Ireland

o All Irish people were supporting basically a

foreign church

• The New English

o The bureaucrats that came to England during

Henry VIII
o they were there to try to extend the Tudor

power and the church

The Shift to Colonization

• Plantation

o Piece-meal conquest

• Humphrey Gilbert

• Munster Rebellion (1570s – 1583)

• Earl of Desmond

• Walter Raleigh

• The O’Neill Rebellion (1595 – 1603)

• Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone

• Flight of the Earls (1607)

• The Ulster Plantation

o Derry > Londonderry

The Westward Enterprise

• An Irish laboratory

o Personnel

o Methods of colonization
 Subjugation of the native people

o Attitudes

 What was the purpose of English to be

doing what they were doing in Ireland

along with America?

 Not racism. Not yet.

 The English see themselves better than

the Gaelic Irish

 They saw the Irish Christianity as not

real Christianity

 The English say they were once as

uncivilized as the Irish are now, however,

they were civilized through the classical

roman empires and how they kept a lot of

their ideologies, even more so than the

 England was the new Rome, the center of

civilization and they were going to civilize

the Irish as they themselves were civilized


 The same kind of thinking was used for

colonizing America

Building an Atlantic Empire

• The Virginia company settle Jamestown in 1607

o Same moment as the flight of the earls out of


o No food, starve, froze. They were looking for

gold instead of focusing on feeding


o they were mostly city people and did not have

the experience to make farms.

o They believe it is beneath them to work the

lands so they get the natives to do it for them

• Tobacco plantations
Francis Bacon “Of Plantations”

• They should have sent industrial people instead of

condemned and scum of men to the new land

o He suggests that gardeners, plowmen,

laborers, fishermen . . .

o People that new how to do things instead of

just looking for gold

• Be patient, gold is going to take time to find

• Don’t be too ambitious at first, grow some simple


o You can have cash crops, but only after you

have established your food supply

• Don’t be too involved with politics

o The best scenario is to go to an empty place

and colonize it, rather than take the land from

16/07/2007 07:27:00
16/07/2007 07:27:00