Westward Expansion


16/07/2007 07:27:00

No such thing as the Catholic Church until the reformation • There is a protest against the church at the time leading to Protestantism • Established Church o state-sanctioned church o taxes of the people go to support this church o in England is the Church of England  Henry VIII establishes the Church of England and is now known as Anglican Dissenter/non-conformist • Non Anglican protestant • John Wesley (Methodist/Quakers/Presbyterian) Huguenot • Calvinist • French protestant

Anglo-Spanish relations • they were often at wars • Spanish was a well established commercial power • England was a new comer to global trading and Protestantism • Henry VIII o Launched England on its own reformation when he wanted a divorce because the wife could not bear a male child • Mary Tudor daughter of Henry VIII o remained with the past church and did not join the Church of England o she married Philip II • the privateers and pirates are very closely related o a privateer is a state-sanctioned pirates o privateers would raid Spanish ships  most famous is the Francis Drake  to plunder Spanish ports and ships

 had a document that sanctioned him  circled the globe and everywhere there was a Spanish port he would raid it  sacked St. Augustine • Phillip II sends the armada to protect from the privateers Richard Hakluyt • to this day there is a very active society in England • lived from about 1552 to 1616 • educated at oxford and trained as geographer • he interviewed everybody he could to get their stories o gathered a ton of documents, translating • wrote key texts Conquest and Plantation of Ireland • varieties of Irish-ness o native Irish = Gaelic Irish

o Anglo-Norman = old 4English  catholic, adopted Gaelic Irish ways • Tudor state formation o Henry VII (1485 – 1509)  to become the only power in England  Tudor revolution in government  strong bureaucracy  encouraging the middle class and trade  origins of the fiscal military state  to build diverse multinational British state comprised of England, Ireland, and Scotland  Ireland did not want to give up control  sympathy of the Tudor rivals  they looked into Spanish for help

 the English were afraid of the Spanish reformation coming to England by way of Ireland • Earls of Kildare • Surrender and Re-grant o An Irish lord confronted with the power of the Tudors would surrender their lands to Henry VII and he would give the land back to the Irish lord under an English Lordship name and the lord was now part of the English side • Church of Ireland (1537) o Anglican church in 5Ireland o All Irish people were supporting basically a foreign church • The New English o The bureaucrats that came to England during Henry VIII

o they were there to try to extend the Tudor power and the church The Shift to Colonization • Plantation o Piece-meal conquest • Humphrey Gilbert • Munster Rebellion (1570s – 1583) • Earl of Desmond • Walter Raleigh • The O’Neill Rebellion (1595 – 1603) • Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone • Flight of the Earls (1607) • The Ulster Plantation o Derry > Londonderry The Westward Enterprise • An Irish laboratory o Personnel o Methods of colonization

 Subjugation of the native people o Attitudes  What was the purpose of English to be doing what they were doing in Ireland along with America?  Not racism. Not yet.  The English see themselves better than the Gaelic Irish  They saw the Irish Christianity as not real Christianity  The English say they were once as uncivilized as the Irish are now, however, they were civilized through the classical roman empires and how they kept a lot of their ideologies, even more so than the Italians

 England was the new Rome, the center of civilization and they were going to civilize the Irish as they themselves were civilized once  The same kind of thinking was used for colonizing America Building an Atlantic Empire • The Virginia company settle Jamestown in 1607 o Same moment as the flight of the earls out of Ulster o No food, starve, froze. They were looking for gold instead of focusing on feeding themselves o they were mostly city people and did not have the experience to make farms. o They believe it is beneath them to work the lands so they get the natives to do it for them • Tobacco plantations

Francis Bacon “Of Plantations” • They should have sent industrial people instead of condemned and scum of men to the new land o He suggests that gardeners, plowmen, laborers, fishermen . . . o People that new how to do things instead of just looking for gold • Be patient, gold is going to take time to find • Don’t be too ambitious at first, grow some simple crops o You can have cash crops, but only after you have established your food supply • Don’t be too involved with politics o The best scenario is to go to an empty place and colonize it, rather than take the land from natives

16/07/2007 07:27:00

16/07/2007 07:27:00