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5333-001: IDENTITY AND POLITICS IN THE MIDDLE EAST
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE SPRING SEMESTER 2014 COURSE OUTLINE

Professor: Brent E. Sasley Class location: University Hall 455 Office: 412 University Hall Class time: Thursdays, 4:00-6:50pm Phone: 817-272-3980 E-mail: bsasley@uta.edu Faculty profile: https://www.uta.edu/mentis/public/#profile/profile/view/id/1934/ Office hours: Wednesdays, 9:30-11:30am; Thursdays, 2:30-3:30pm; by appointment Please note: The easiest way to reach me is by email.

COURSE CONTENT AND DESCRIPTION: Given Albert Einstein’s argument that the purpose of a university education is not to teach students just facts, but to teach them to think, the course will not necessarily provide definitive answers to relevant questions. Rather, it will provide the skills and knowledge necessary for students to think creatively about their own answers. To this end, the course will investigate specific aspects of contemporary Middle East politics, including an examination of relevant historical processes. It is not designed as an introductory course: students unfamiliar with the Middle East are strongly advised to first read through a general history of the region. The course seeks to advance our understanding of: how we study the Middle East, and the debates and controversies this engenders; processes of state building and political development; Arab nationalism; Islamist politics; authoritarianism (in the Arab world); the role of military/security forces in national politics; protests in the non-Arab world;) and prospects for change in the context of the Arab Spring. Underlying all of these topics is an emphasis on identity, and how it shapes contemporary politics. Students should keep up with current development in the Middle East; these will be part of the general discussions and used as examples to highlight particular points or issues. Students can follow developments on-line in all major media outlets—such as CNN, The New York Times, The Washington Post, BBC, and so on—as well as regional outlets (see the course’s library guide for links to these).

2 STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES: By the end of the course students will: • Be able to classify the main actors, ideas, institutions, and processes animating political processes in the Middle East today, in order to think about likely future trends and outcomes. • Be able to compare and contrast theoretical frameworks and conceptual tools in order to more effectively explain regional politics. • Be able to think critically about texts and arguments, in order to strengthen their graduate-school skills. OBLIGATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Both the professor and the students have obligations and responsibilities in this course. (Please see the course Blackboard for more on the DOs and DON’Ts of student interactions with the professor.) My responsibilities include making clear the objectives and material of the course; training students to think critically; returning assignments within a reasonable period of time with adequate comments and suggestions for improvement; treating students with respect and a willingness to hear their opinions and ideas; and keeping my own personal politics out of the classroom. Students’ responsibilities include taking seriously the purposes and assignments of the course; preparing themselves adequately for the class; handing their assignments in on time; treating each other and the professor with respect and a willingness to hear other opinions and ideas; and a readiness to think about the material with an open mind while keeping their own personal politics out of the classroom. (It is easy to take a stance on a given issue, but more difficult to defend that stance in a logical manner that rests on a judicious, nuanced, and open-minded foundation of understanding.) All cell phones, gadgets for listening to music, playing games, or contacting other people, and all similar devices must be turned off prior to the beginning of class. Students who engage in such activities will have to leave the class. Laptops and other electronic devices are acceptable for taking notes, but I reserve the right to prohibit their use if I determine they are being used for other activities. Please note that the syllabus and course content may change, depending on unforeseen circumstances. Any such changes are at the instructor’s discretion. If there are any changes, they will be announced in class; students then are responsible for knowing whether and when any changes have been made.

3 Attendance Policy: Students are responsible for their own attendance and participation in class; I will not call the roll. Students who do miss class are responsible for obtaining the material discussed in class from their colleagues. I will not provide notes from lectures or discussions, but I am happy to discuss the material with a student who has already obtained the information. Poor attendance and poor participation will reflect on your final grade. Communicating by E-mail: Outside of class, email is the best way to reach me. Note that students must use their UTA MavMail account when communicating by email with me; I will not respond to any correspondence sent by a non-UTA email account. Students are responsible for regularly checking their UTA accounts, for information and correspondence both from the university and from me regarding course matters. Please use standard polite greetings and address me not as a close friend but as your professor (i.e., Professor or Dr. Sasley) Please note that one-line comments or questions are not enough for me to know what you are trying to say: be sure your email provides enough detail and explains the context of your comment or question, including which course you are emailing about. Twitter and Blog Policy: The rapid expansion of social media—including its use by instructors in the classroom— has blurred the lines between public and privates lives of professors. Although I firmly believe in a strict separation between my personal preferences and what I teach in the classroom, I am active on Twitter and in blogging, two of the most prominent forms of social media. I consider it necessary, then, to set out a coherent guideline for these media. I use both primarily for analytical commentary, and students who are interested in more discussion and debate on issues related to international relations and Middle East politics are welcome, if they wish, to subscribe to my Twitter feed and blogs. Students are also welcome to respond to any tweets or blog posts. I expect respectful, reasoned responses or posts, without profanity; any violation of these guidelines will result in the student being blocked in the relevant method. I must emphasize that this is not mandatory—it is not even “optional” in the context of the course. I mention this as a general comment only, in the context of a public domain that now encompasses the university and the classroom. Students’ grades are not in any way connected to this.

4 Letters of Recommendation: I am happy to write letters of recommendations for students, but certain criteria must first be met. Please see the course Blackboard for specific information on what students must do in order to be eligible for a reference letter. Student Feedback Survey: At the end of each term, students enrolled in classes categorized as “lecture,” “seminar,” or “laboratory” shall be directed to complete an online Student Feedback Survey (SFS). Instructions on how to access the SFS for this course will be sent directly to each student through MavMail approximately 10 days before the end of the term. Each student’s feedback enters the SFS database anonymously and is aggregated with that of other students enrolled in the course. UT Arlington’s effort to solicit, gather, tabulate, and publish student feedback is required by state law; students are strongly urged to participate. For more information, visit http://www.uta.edu/sfs. REQUIRED READINGS: There are four sources of mandatory readings for this course:  A coursepack of readings, available for purchase at Bird’s Copies (208 S. East St). Coursepack readings will be referred to in the reading list below as (Coursepack).  Journal articles available on-line in pdf format, which must be searched for through the library’s catalogue. Library journal article readings will be referred to as (Library).  Journal articles and book chapters (in PDF form) available on e-reserves at the library. To access these, log in with your UTA NetID and password to the library’s website (“Catalog,” then “Course Reserves”). Library reserve readings will be referred to as (e-reserves).

 Specific URLs available on the course Blackboard. To access these, log in with your
UTA NetID and password at <https://elearn.uta.edu/webapps/login/>. Blackboard readings will be referred to as (Blackboard).

5 ASSIGNMENTS AND GRADE DISTRIBUTION: Participation. Because this course is a seminar, students are expected to: (1) Actively prepare for class by thinking about and evaluating the assigned readings, and (2) Actively participate in class discussion and debates. In fact, students should do most of the talking in class. Without students’ vigorous participation, the course will simply not work and everyone’s time will be wasted. Participation is worth 30% of the final grade. Students should expect that during the course of discussions about the readings and their own papers and essays, their work and their arguments will be critiqued by their colleagues and by me. This should be taken in the manner it is intended: as scholarly exchanges of ideas and an effort to improve. In other words, do not take critiques personally. Critical review essay. Students will write one critical review essay, 3-6 pages in length, excluding title page and bibliography; going under or over this range will result in a penalty, as the purpose is to learn how to make an argument in a specified amount of space. The review essay is worth 15% of the final grade. The topic will be assigned in the first class. The essay should only discuss the readings for a particular class/topic. Students should not repeat or summarize the readings; everyone else will have read the material. Rather, students should focus on drawing out general themes and common (or disparate) threads, taking a position on a major point raised in the readings (and be prepared to defend that position), highlighting strengths or weaknesses of the readings, and so on. In short, the essay is meant to be a criticalanalytical evaluation of the material and how it relates to that class’s topic and the course materials more generally. In order to facilitate the critiques of these essays, critical review essays must be emailed to the professor by 10:00pm on the Sunday before the scheduled class/topic on which the essay is based. The professor will then post the essay to the course Blackboard, with the expectation that everyone will read and be prepared to discuss it. Students will also present their essay to the class, in the form of an oral presentation, about 10-12 minutes long, on the day of that topic. Students should feel free to be as creative as they wish in presenting their material—including the use of short films, websites, slides, charts, fictional dialogue, or any other format they wish to use to impart their analysis. There is no deferral or make-up presentation; students who do not hand in their essay on time and present on their scheduled day will receive a zero on this assignment. Essays must be emailed in—hard copies will not be accepted. Papers will be returned to students’ UTA accounts by email, with comments in the text through the Track Changes feature in Word as well as an attached page of remarks. Note that all papers will be reviewed by a plagiarism-detection program: this is not due to a presumption of guilt but rather is used as a teaching tool.

6 Essays must be typed or word-processed, with Times New Roman and 12-point font; double-spaced; and margins of 1 inch all around. Papers must have the standard format required of a university paper, including title page, proper and consistent citation style, bibliography, and page numbers. The only citation/bibliography style that will be accepted is MLA format. Citations and bibliography must include page numbers. Students should also be sure to keep a copy of their assignments for themselves. Essay critique. Students will critique one critical review essay (to be assigned in the first class). Similar to the critical review essay, this assignment is composed of both a presentation and a written element. The essay critique should be 3-4 pages in length, excluding title page and bibliography. The essay critique is worth 15% of the final grade. The critique is based only on the critical review essay it is addressing; outside research is not necessary, though it can be incorporated. In the critique students must analyze and assess a critical review essay. The critique should point out problems, weaknesses, flaws, inconsistencies, implications, and so on in the essay’s arguments. It should not summarize the essay or highlights its strengths; the assignment is meant to be a critical evaluation. The essay critique should not focus on the critical review’s writing style, essay structure, grammar, or anything like that: it should focus only on the substance of the review’s evaluation. The essay critique should engage directly with the readings as it does so. Critiques must be emailed in before the beginning of the class in which they will be presented—hard copies will not be accepted. Students will present their critique after the critical review essay is presented, and should take no more than 10 minutes. There is no deferral or make-up presentation; students who do not email in their critique on time and present on their scheduled day will receive a zero on this assignment. Critiques must be typed or word-processed, with Times New Roman and 12-point font; double-spaced; and margins of 1 inch all around. Papers must have the standard format required of a university paper, including title page, proper and consistent citation style, bibliography, and page numbers. The only citation/bibliography style that will be accepted is MLA format. Citations and bibliography must include page numbers. Students should also be sure to keep a copy of their assignments for themselves. Short research project. Students will write and present one short research project, 1012 pages in length, excluding title page and bibliography; going under or over this range will result in a penalty, as the purpose is to learn how to make an argument in a specified amount of space. The research project is worth 20% of the final grade. Projects must be emailed in—hard copies will not be accepted. In order to facilitate the discussion of these projects, the papers must be emailed to the professor by 10:00pm on the Sunday before the scheduled class on which the paper will be presented. The professor will then post the paper to the course Blackboard, with the expectation that everyone will read and be prepared to discuss it.

7 The research project will be specifically about the Arab uprisings. Each student will be assigned one Arab country. Each project must answer four specific questions: (1) When did the uprising begin in your country? (2) Why did it begin? (3) What shape has it taken? (4) What are the implications, in your view, for the country and the region? Keep the paper very condensed, explicit, to the point, and be sure to directly and only answer these four questions. It is not mandatory, but students are strongly encouraged to confer with the professor about their papers on a regular basis, including regarding the specific topic, the paper’s content, style/structure, bibliography, and so on. I am also happy to read over a draft or several drafts (however long or short) of the paper and provide comments, so long as the paper is given to me with enough time to go through it before the due date. These are research papers, and so research must be based on scholarly sources, which means journal articles, books, and academic reports from well-known research institutes (some of the latter are listed on the library guide for the course). Students must use at least four books and four journal articles in their research for each paper (none of which can be on the course reading list). Dictionaries, lecture notes, encyclopedias (including Wikipedia), and many websites are not acceptable; students are strongly advised to consult with the professor first to find out if a source is suitable or not. Sources containing basic background information (e.g., the CIA World Factbook) and media reports are not scholarly sources; but they are useful for providing empirical evidence for an argument. All papers are due at the beginning of class; a paper that is emailed in after class begins will be considered late. Late papers will not be accepted without penalty, unless there is a valid medical excuse and doctor’s note or evidence of another serious and unavoidable reason. Common but invalid excuses include (but are not limited to): computer, printer, or car troubles; being sick the day the assignment is due; visiting friends or relatives; having other work. Documentation is always required and is subject to verification. Papers emailed in after class begins, but on the same day the assignment is due, will be penalized one percentage point per day off the mark received out of the total worth of the assignment, with an additional percentage point taken off for each additional day the report is late (i.e., 1% per day off whatever grade is given out of 20%). Any requests for an extension must be made before the due date of the assignment. Papers will not be accepted after 3 calendar days after the due date; students will then receive a zero on the assignment. Papers must be typed or word-processed, with Times New Roman and 12-point font; double-spaced; and margins of 1 inch all around. Papers must have the standard format required of a university paper, including title page, proper and consistent citation style, bibliography, and page numbers. The only citation/bibliography style that will be accepted is MLA format. Citations and bibliography must include page numbers. Students should also be sure to keep a copy of their assignments for themselves. Papers must be emailed in—hard copies will not be accepted. Papers will be returned to students’ UTA accounts by email, with comments in the text through the Track Changes feature in Word as well as an attached page of remarks. Note that all papers

8 will be reviewed by a plagiarism-detection program: this is not due to a presumption of guilt but rather is used as a teaching tool. Final exam. A final take-home exam, worth 20% of the final grade, will be written at the end of the course. Students will have one week to write the exam: It will be posted on the course Blackboard and accessible at the end of the final class on May 1, and due by Thursday, May 8, 7:00pm. Exams will not be accepted after that time, and a grade of zero will be assigned to any exams not emailed in. The exam will be cumulative, taking into account everything studied from the beginning of the course (class discussions, readings, and any other materials covered in the course). The format of the final exam is a single essay question. Students should not conduct any outside research; their focus should be on the course materials. There will be no make-up exam, barring a very serious development or illness. Common but invalid excuses include (but are not limited to): computer, printer, or car troubles; visiting friends or relatives; having other work. If there is an illness, students will have to provide a medical note—not one in which a doctor writes that the student confirms he/she was sick, but a detailed note explaining that the doctor knows for a fact that the student was sick and could not be expected to write the exam. Documentation must be provided for a missed exam within three days after the missed exam, regardless of the reason, and is subject to verification. Any requests for a deferral must be made before the date of the exam in order to be considered, and are at the professor’s discretion. A missed exam must be made up within three school days after the date of the original scheduled exam. No make-up will be allowed after three school days, and a zero will be assigned for that grade. Students are expected to use proper format, structure, grammar, and citations in all of their assignments; how students make their arguments is as important as what they argue. If a student hands in an assignment that does not meet these standard university requirements, she will be asked to re-submit the assignment with the requisite changes and a penalty. For technical material, see Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), sixth edition or later; the course Blackboard and the library course guide also have links on citations and bibliographies. Students may also consult the professor for further help. Please note that no extra credit work is provided or allowed, regardless of circumstances. Please also note that not completing an assignment and instead reweighting the worth of other course assignments is not an option.

9 AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT: The University of Texas at Arlington is on record as being committed to both the spirit and letter of all federal equal opportunity legislation, including the Americans with Disabilities Act. All instructors at UT Arlington are required by law to provide “reasonable accommodations” to students with disabilities, so as not to discriminate on the basis of that disability. Any student requiring an accommodation for this course must provide the instructor with official documentation in the form of a letter certified by the staff in the Office for Students with Disabilities, University Hall 102. Only those students who have officially documented a need for an accommodation will have their request honored. Information regarding diagnostic criteria and policies for obtaining disabilitybased academic accommodations can be found at www.uta.edu/disability or by calling the Office for Students with Disabilities at (817) 272-3364. DROPPING THE COURSE: Students may drop or swap (adding and dropping a class concurrently) classes through self-service in MyMav from the beginning of the registration period through the late registration period. After the late registration period, students must see their academic advisor to drop a class or withdraw. Undeclared students must see an advisor in the University Advising Center. Drops can continue through a point two-thirds of the way through the term or session. It is the student's responsibility to officially withdraw if they do not plan to attend after registering. Students will not be automatically dropped for non-attendance. The last day to drop the class is March 28. For more information, contact the Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships (http://wweb.uta.edu/ses/fao). STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES: UT Arlington provides a variety of resources and programs designed to help students develop academic skills, deal with personal situations, and better understand concepts and information related to their courses. Resources include tutoring, major-based learning centers, developmental education, advising and mentoring, personal counseling, and federally funded programs. For individualized referrals, students may visit the reception desk at University College (Ransom Hall), call the Maverick Resource Hotline at (817) 272-6107, send a message to resources@uta.edu, or view the information at www.uta.edu/resources. EMERGENCY EXIT PROCEDURES: Should we experience an emergency event that requires us to vacate the building, students should exit the room and move toward the nearest exit. When exiting the building during an emergency, one should never take an elevator but should use the stairwells. Faculty members and instructional staff will assist students in selecting the safest route for evacuation and will make arrangements to assist handicapped individuals.

10 ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: Students enrolled in this course are expected to adhere to the UT Arlington Honor Code: I pledge, on my honor, to uphold UT Arlington’s tradition of academic integrity, a tradition that values hard work and honest effort in the pursuit of academic excellence. I promise that I will submit only work that I personally create or contribute to group collaborations, and I will appropriately reference any work from other sources. I will follow the highest standards of integrity and uphold the spirit of the Honor Code. UT Arlington faculty members may employ the Honor Code as they see fit in their courses, including (but not limited to) having students acknowledge the honor code as part of an examination or requiring students to incorporate the honor code into any work submitted. Per UT System Regents’ Rule 50101, §2.2, suspected violations of university’s standards for academic integrity (including the Honor Code) will be referred to the Office of Student Conduct. Violators will be disciplined in accordance with University policy, which may result in the student’s suspension or expulsion from the University. Participation: Critical review essay: Essay critique: Research project: Final exam: GRADING SCALE: A B C D F 80-100% 70-79% 60-69% 50-59% 0-49% 30% (Throughout the course) 15% (Due the day of that topic) 15% (Due the day of that topic) 20% (Due the day of that topic) 20% (Due Thursday, May 8, 7:00pm)

11 COURSE SCHEDULE: * See the end of the course schedule for a list of questions to consider for each week’s readings and topics. These are for class discussions only; they are not to be used as the basis for review essays or essay critiques. Thursday, January 16: No readings. Thursday, January 23: Politics of the study of Middle East politics Introduction to course

Edward W. Said, Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979: pp. 1-9; 12-14; 201-225. (Coursepack) Martin Kramer, Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2001: Chapters 2 (27-43); 4 (31-83); 6 (104-119). (Hard copy on reserve at the library.) F. Gregory Gause III, “Who Lost Middle Eastern Studies: The Orientalists Strike Back,” Foreign Affairs 81, no.2 (March/April 2002): 164-168. [Review of Kramer] (Library) Lisa Anderson, “Scholarship, Policy, Debate, and Conflict: Why We Study the Middle East and Why It Matters,” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 38, no.1 (June 2004). (e-reserves) Campus Watch, “About Campus Watch.” (Blackboard) Laurie A. Brand, “Middle East Studies and Academic Freedom: Challenges at Home and Abroad,” International Studies Perspectives 8, no.4 (November 2007): 384-395. (Library) Richard K. Betts, “Freedom, License, and Responsibility,” International Studies Perspectives 8, no.4 (November 2007): 401-409. (Library) Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004: Chapter 7 (215-267). (Coursepack)  Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.  Robert Irwin, Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and Its Discontents. Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press, 2006.  Robert D. Kaplan, The Arabists: The Romance of an American Elite. New York: Free Press, 1993.

12 Thursday, January 30: State formation in the Middle East

Iliya Harik, “The Origins of the Arab State System,” in The Foundations of the Arab State, ed. Ghassan Salamé, 19-46. London: Croom Helm, 1987. (Coursepack) Lisa Anderson, “The State in the Middle East and North Africa,” Comparative Politics 20, no.1 (October 1987): 1-18. (Library) Haim Gerber, The Social Origins of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1987: pp. 91-111; Chapter 8 (179-185). (Coursepack) David Waldner, State Building and Late Development. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999: Chapters 2 (19-52). (Coursepack) John Waterbury, “From Social Contracts to Extraction Contracts: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism and Democracy,” in Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa, ed. John P. Entelis, 141-176. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. (e-reserves) Cyrus Schayegh, “1958 Reconsidered: State Formation and the Cold War in the Early Postcolonial Arab Middle East,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 45, no.3 (August 2013): 421-443. (e-reserves) Nazih N. Ayubi, Over-stating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 1995: Chapter 12 (447-459). (Coursepack)  Lisa Anderson, The State and Social Transformation in Tunisia and Libya, 1830-1980. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. Thursday, February 6: Identity politics and state development

Keiko Sakai, “Tribalization as a Tool of State Control in Iraq: Observations on the Army, the Cabinets and the National Assembly,” in Tribes and Power: Nationalism and Ethnicity in the Middle East, eds. Faleh Abdul-Jabar and Hosham Dawod, 136-161. London: Saqi, 2003. (Coursepack) Joseph Kostiner, The Making of Saudi Arabia 1916-1936: From Chieftaincy to Monarchical State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993: pp. 3-11. (Coursepack) Rosemarie Said Zahlan, The Making of the Modern Gulf States. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989: Chapter 2 (12-23). (Coursepack) Raymond A. Hinnebusch, Authoritarian Power and State Formation in Ba‘thist Syria: Army, Party, Peasant. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990: 156-177; 189-192. (Coursepack)

13 Rex Brynen, “Palestine and the Arab State System: Permeability, State Consolidation and the Intifada,” Canadian Journal of Political Science 24, no.3 (September 1991): 595-621. (Library) Nurith Gertz, “From Jew to Hebrew: The ‘Zionist Narrative’ in the Israeli Cinema of the 1940s and 1950s.” In Search of Identity: Jewish Aspects in Israeli Culture, eds. Dan Urian and Efraim Karsh, 175-199. London: Frank Cass, 1999. (Coursepack) Ayşegül Aydingün and İsmaіl Aydingün, “The Role of Language in the Formation of Turkish National Identity and Turkishness,” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 10, no.3 (Autumn 2004): 415-432. (e-reserves)  Joel Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. Thursday, February 13: Legitimacy and authority

Michael C. Hudson, Arab Politics: The Search for Legitimacy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977: 1-7; 16-28; 33-55; 82-106; 165-166; 230-234; 310-312; 392-404. (Coursepack) F. Gregory Gause III, Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994: pp. 1031. (Coursepack) Lisa Anderson, “Dynasts and Nationalists: Why Monarchies Survive,” in Middle East Monarchies: The Challenge of Modernity, ed. Joseph Kostiner, 53-69. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000. (Coursepack) Nazih Ayubi, “Arab Bureaucracies: Expanding Size, Changing Roles,” in Beyond Coercion: The Durability of the Arab State, eds. Adeed Dawisha and I. William Zartman, 15-34. London: Croom Helm, 1988. (Coursepack) Sultan Sooud al Qassemi, “Thriving Gulf Cities Emerge as New Centers of Arab World,” Al Monitor (October 3, 2013). (Blackboard) Thursday, February 20: Nationalist politics

Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970: pp. 260-263; 270-279; 282-289; 291-297; 300-304; 307312; 315-318; 319-323. (Coursepack) Nazih N. Ayubi, Over-stating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 1995: Chapter 4 (135-163). (Coursepack)

14 Walid Kazziha, “The Impact of Palestine on Arab Politics,” in The Arab State, ed. Giacomo Luciani, 300-318. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. (Coursepack) Michael N. Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998: Chapter 2 (25-53). (Coursepack) Rex Brynen, “Permeability Revisited: Reflections on the Regional Repercussions of the al-Aqsa Intifada,” in Persistent Permeability? Regional, Localism, and Globalization in the Middle East, eds. Bassel Salloukh and Rex Brynen, 125-148. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004. (Coursepack) Edmund Ghareeb, “New Media and the Information Revolution in the Arab World: An Assessment,” Middle East Journal 54, no.3 (Summer 2000): 395-418. (Library) Marc Lynch, “Beyond the Arab Street: Iraq and the Arab Public Sphere,” Politics & Society 31, no.1 (March 2003): 55-91. (e-reserves) Morten Valbjørn and André Bank, “The New Arab Cold War: Rediscovering the Arab Dimension of Middle East Regional Politics,” Review of International Studies 38, no.1 (January 2011): 3-24. (e-reserves)  Fouad Ajami, The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice Since 1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.  George Antonius, The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement. New York: Capricorn Books, 1965.  Marc Lynch, Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq, al-Jazeera, and Middle East Politics Today. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. Thursday, February 27: Islamist politics

Mark Tessler, “The Origins of Popular Support for Islamist Movements: A Political Economy Analysis,” in Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa, ed. John P. Entelis, 93-126. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. (e-reserves) Mark Tessler, “Religion, Religiosity and the Place of Islam in Political Life: Insights from the Arab Barometer Surveys,” Middle Eastern Law & Governance 2, no.2 (August 2010): 221-252. (e-reserves) Ugur Akinci, “The Welfare Party’s Municipal Track Record: Evaluating Islamist Municipal Activism in Turkey,” The Middle East Journal 53, no.1 (Winter 1999): 75-94. (e-reserves) Glenn E. Robinson, “Hamas as Social Movement,” in Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach, ed. Quintan Wiktorowicz, 112-139. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004. (Coursepack)

15 Jodi Nachtwey and Mark Tessler, “Explaining Women’s Support for Political Islam: Contributions from Feminist Theory,” in Area Studies and Social Science: Strategies for Understanding Middle East Politics, ed. Mark Tessler, 48-69. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. (Coursepack) Gudrun Krämer, “The Integration of the Integrists: A Comparative Study of Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia,” in Democracy without Democrats? The Renewal of Politics in the Muslim World, ed. Ghassan Salamé, 200-226. London: I.B. Tauris, 1994. (e-reserve) Anoushiravan Ehteshami, “Islam, Muslim Polities and Democracy,” Democratization 11, no.4 (August 2004): 90-110. (e-reserves) Janine Clark, “Islamist Movements and Democratic Politics,” in Beyond the Arab Spring: Authoritarianism & Democratization in the Arab World, eds. Rex Brynen, Pete W. Moore, Bassel F. Salloukh, and Marie-Joëlle Zahar, 119-146. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2012. (Coursepack)  Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori, Muslim Politics, 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.  M. Hakan Yavuz, Islamic Political Identity in Turkey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.  James Piscatori, “Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle in the Middle East,” International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (2000). Thursday, March 6: Explaining authoritarianism (in the Arab world)

Mark Tessler, Amaney Jamal, and Michael Robbins, “New Findings on Arabs and Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 23, no.4 (October 2012): 89-103. (ereserves) Lisa Anderson, “Searching Where the Light Shines: Studying Democratization in the Middle East,” Annual Review of Political Science 9 (June 2006): 189-214. (Library) James A. Bill and Robert Springborg, Politics in the Middle East, 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2000: Chapter 4 (101-130). (Coursepack) John L. Esposito and James P. Piscatori, “Democratization and Islam,” Middle East Journal 45, no.3 (Summer 1991): 427-440. (Library) Eva Bellin, “Coercive Institutions and Coercive Leaders,” in Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance, eds. Marsha Pripstein Posusney and Michele Penner Angrist, 21-41. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005. (Coursepack)

16 F. Gregory Gause III, “Regional Influences on Experiments in Political Liberalization in the Arab World,” in Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Volume 1, eds. Rex Brynen, Bahgat Korany, and Paul Noble, 283-306. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995. (Coursepack) United Nations Human Development Programme, Arab Human Development Report 2004: Towards Freedom in the Arab World (2005): Chapter 3: (81-103). (Blackboard)  Jill Crystal, “Authoritarianism and Its Adversaries in the Arab World,” World Politics 46, no.2 (January 1994): 262-289.  Rex Brynen, Bahgat Korany, and Paul Noble, eds. Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Volume 1 (1995) and Bahgat Korany, Rex Brynen, and Paul Noble, eds. Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Volume 2 (1998). Boulder: Lynner Rienner Publishers. Thursday, March 13: Thursday, March 20: Spring Break—No class Explaining authoritarianism (in the Arab world), cont.

Michael Herb, “Princes and Parliaments in the Arab World,” Middle East Journal 58, no.3 (Summer 2004): 367-384. (Library) Larbi Sadiki, “Popular Uprisings and Arab Democratization,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 32, no.1 (February 2000): 71-95. (Library) Augustus Richard Norton, Civil Society in the Middle East: Volume 2. Leiden: Brill, 1996: Introduction (1-16). (Library—as an eBook) Daniel Brumberg, “Liberalization Versus Democracy: Understanding Arab Political Reform,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Working Papers, 2003: 3-20. (Blackboard) Alan Richards, “Democracy in the Arab Region: Getting There from Here,” Middle East Policy 12, no.2 (Summer 2005): 28-35. (Library) Ellen Lust-Okar, “Divided They Rule: The Management and Manipulation of Political Opposition,” Comparative Politics 36, no.2 (January 2004): 159-179. (Library) Ofra Bengio, Saddam’s Word: Political Discourse in Iraq. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998: Chapter 5 (69-85). (Coursepack) Lisa Wedeen, Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999: pp.1-24. (Coursepack) Thursday, March 27: No class

17 Thursday, April 3: Middle Eastern militaries

SIPRI, Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2012 (April 2013): p.2; search by keyword “Middle East” and read relevant information. (Blackboard) The Guardian, “Datablog: Military Spending,” April 16, 2012. (Blackboard) Steven A. Cook, Ruling But Not Governing: The Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria, and Turkey (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press): Chapter 2 (pp.14-31). (Coursepack) Oren Barak and Assaf David, “The Arab Security Sector: A New Research Agenda for a Neglected Topic,” Armed Forces & Society 36, no.5 (October 2010): 804-828. (e-reserves) Brent E. Sasley, “The Price Israel’s Pays for Its Poor National-Security Decision Making,” The Atlantic (June 10, 2013). (Blackboard) Theodore McLauchlin, “Loyalty Strategies and Military Defection in Rebellion,” Comparative Politics 42, no.3 (April 2010): 333-350. (e-reserves) International Journal of Middle East Studies, “Roundtable: Rethinking the Study of Middle East Militaries,” 43, no.3 (August 2011): 391-407. (e-reserves) Thursday, April 10: Protest and change in the non-Arab Middle East

Mehdi Khalaji, “Who’s Really Running Iran’s Green Movement,” Foreign Policy (November 4, 2009). (Blackboard) Kevan Harris, “The Brokered Exuberance of the Middle East: An Ethnographic Analysis of Iran’s 2009 Green Movement,” Mobilization 17, no.4 (December 2012): 435-455. (Library) Sylvaine Bulle, “J14 and the Movement for Social Justice in Israel,” Open Democracy (April 7, 2012). (Blackboard) Brent E. Sasley, “The Future of J14,” Mideast Matrix (November 4, 2011). (Blackboard) Brent E. Sasley, “Analyzing the Turkish Protests,” Mideast Matrix (June 4, 2013): Follow the links to read: Hugh Pope, Aaron Stein, Zeynep Tufekci, Alexander Christie-Miller, Justin Vela, and Steven Cook. (Blackboard) Thursday, April 17: Predicting reform & uprising in the Arab world

Anoushiravan Ehteshami, “Reform from Above: The Politics of Participation in the Oil Monarchies,” International Affairs 79, no.1 (January 2003): 53-75. (Library)

18 Raymond A. Hinnebusch, “Calculated Decompression as a Substitute for Democratization: Syria,” in Political Liberalization & Democratization in the Arab World: Volume 2, eds. Bahgat Korany, Rex Brynen, and Paul Noble, 223-240. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998. (Coursepack) Emma C. Murphy, “Legitimacy and Economic Reform in the Arab World,” Journal of North African Studies 3, no.3 (Autumn 1998): 71-92. (e-reserves) Michael McFaul and Tamara Cofman Wittes, “The Limits of Limited Reform,” Journal of Democracy 19, no.1 (January 2008): 19-33. (Library) Emma C. Murphy, “Agency and Space: The Political Impact of Information Technologies in the Gulf Arab States,” Third World Quarterly 27, no.6 (September 2006):1059-1083. (Library) Marc Lynch, “Taking Arabs Seriously,” Foreign Affairs 82, no.5 (September/October 2003): 81-94. (Library) Eva Bellin, “Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring,” Comparative Politics 44, no.2 (January 2012): 127-149. (e-reserves) F. Gregory Gause, III, “Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring,” Foreign Affairs 90, no.4 (July/August 2011): 81-90. (e-reserves) Karl Sharro, “The Arab Uprisings and Self-Determination – The Missed Opportunity,” Karl reMarks (December 16, 2013). (Blackboard) Marc Lynch, “Did We Get the Muslim Brotherhood Wrong?” Foreign Policy (April 10, 2013). (Blackboard) POMEPS, POMEPS Briefing 12: Arab Uprisings: New Opportunities for Political Science (June 12, 2012): Memos by: Eva Bellin, Nathan J. Brown, Rex Brynen, Michael Herb, Quinn Mecham, David Siddhartha Patel, Ann Mariel Peters, and Curtis Ryan. (Blackboard)  Barry Rubin, The Tragedy of the Middle East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Thursday, April 24: The Arab uprisings: Explanations & implications

Student papers; to be posted on Blackboard. Thursday, May 1: The Arab uprisings: Explanations & implications, cont.

Student papers; to be posted on Blackboard. Thursday, May 8: Final exam due by 7:00pm

19

POLS 5333 (Spring 2014) Questions to consider:
January 23: Politics of the Study of Middle East Politics • What are some of the issues/controversies in the study of the Middle East? • Why do we need academic freedom? • Is it legitimate to keep an eye on scholarly trends and publications? • What do these debates do to the study of the region? Do they really threaten the study of the Middle East? January 30: State Formation in the Middle East • What were the main events and processes that led to the formation of Middle Eastern states? • Are these similar to historical developments in other regions? • Have these processes finished, or they are still ongoing? • What are the implications of these historical processes for the Middle East today? February 6: Identity Politics and State Development • How does identity influence state formation and development? • What were some of the key identities? • Why did different states rely on different identities? • Were these identity politics successful or not? • What are the implications of these processes for Middle Eastern states today? February 13: Legitimacy and Authority • What is legitimacy? What constitutes authority? • How do states generate legitimacy? • Has the effort worked in the Middle East? February 20: Nationalist Politics • What does it mean to be an Arab state? • Are there alternatives to Arab identity? (Think back to previous class topics.) • What is the role of public opinion in the formation of Arab identity? • How have the Arab uprisings changed these institutions and processes? February 27: Islamist Politics • Who is an “Islamist”? • What makes for Islamist politics? • How can we explain the success or failure of Islamist politics? • Could have we expected Islamist parties to perform the way they did in the aftermath of the Arab uprisings?

20 March 6 & March 20: Explaining Authoritarianism (in the Arab World) • What are the main explanatory variables for the persistence of autocracy in the Arab world? • Compare and contrast them with each other. April 3: Middle Eastern Militaries • Why are militaries so relevant for understanding politics in the Middle East? • What is the consequence of that involvement? • Are there different forms of involvement in different countries? • How does the army’s involvement in politics affect the contours of the Arab uprisings? April 10: Protest and Change in the Non-Arab World? • What was happening in the non-Arab world even as the Arab uprisings were set in motion? • What was similar or different in the protest movements between Turkey, Iran, and Israel? • What was similar or different in the protest movements between the non-Arab countries and the Arab states? • Why did protest movements have such an effect in the Arab world but not elsewhere in the Middle East? April 17: Predicting Reform and Uprisings in the Arab World • Could we have anticipated the onset of the Arab uprisings? • What does previous experience tell us about the likelihood and success of such popular uprisings? • Why were the Arab regimes able to prevent, buy off, or repress popular uprisings in the past, but not this time? • How well did political science help us understand the likelihood, causes, contours, and outcomes of the Arab uprisings?