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Dr. Bülent Yılmaz

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**Short-time Fourier Transform
**

• The short-time Fourier transform (STFT), or alternatively short-term Fourier transform, is a Fourier-related transform used to determine the sinusoidal frequency and phase content of local sections of a signal as it changes over time.

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which records magnitude and phase for each point in time and frequency. and the complex result is added to a matrix. • w(t) is window function. 4 2 . • Each chunk is Fourier transformed.STFT • The function to be transformed is multiplied by a window function which is nonzero for only a short period of time • The Fourier transform of the resulting signal is taken as the window is slid along the time axis. resulting in a two-dimensional representation of the signal. commonly a Hann window or Gaussian "hill" centered around zero 3 Discrete STFT • Data to be transformed could be broken up into chunks or frames (which usually overlap each other).

sonar/radar.Spectrogram • The spectrogram is the result of calculating the frequency spectrum of windowed frames of a compound signal. and in the fields of music. 5 Spectrogram Format • In the most usual format. It is a three-dimensional plot of the energy of the frequency content of a signal as it changes over time. to analyse the cries of animals. the horizontal axis represents time. and the intensity of each point in the image represents amplitude of a particular frequency at a particular time. etc. the vertical axis is frequency. 6 3 . • Spectrograms are used to identify phonetic sounds. speech processing.

in the time domain. is broken up into chunks. 7 Spectrogram Calculation • Spectrograms are usually calculated from the time signal using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT). which usually overlap • Fourier transformed to calculate the magnitude of the frequency spectrum for each chunk. • Each chunk then corresponds to a vertical line in the image. • Digitally sampled data. 8 4 .A spectrogram of an FM signal. a measurement of magnitude versus frequency for a specific moment in time. • The spectrums or time plots are then "laid side by side" to form the image or a threedimensional surface.

Spectrogram of a male voice saying "tatata" 9 Spectrogram of a Japanese woman saying "minato" 10 5 .

56FF + 11.44 > 0 normal beat RR – 5. • Unsupervised Pattern Classification – We are given a set of feature vectors with no categorization or classes attached to them.44 <= 0 ectopic beat 12 6 .56FF + 11. These are the techniques to characterize the boundaries that separate the classes. 11 Application: Normal versus Ectopic ECG Beats 1. 8.Pattern Classification • Supervised Pattern Classification – We are provided with a number of feature vectors with classes assigned to them. RR – 5. 4. 2. No prior training information is available. 3. 5. • Proper filtering of ECG Pan-Tompkins to detect each beat Select QRS-T interval from the sample 160 ms before the peak of the Pan-Tompkins output to the sample 240 ms after the peak Compute RR interval and FF and use them as the features Find mean of normal and ectopic beats Equations of the straight line joining the two prototype vectors and its normal bisector were determined Optimal decision function 7.44 = 0 decision function If RR – 5.56FF + 11. 6.

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