CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 59 (2010) 307–310

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CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology
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Twist revisited: Twist phenomena in single point incremental forming
J.R. Duflou (2)a,*, H. Vanhove a, J. Verbert a, J. Gu b, I. Vasilakos b, P. Eyckens c
a b c

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.U.Leuven, 3001 Heverlee-Leuven, Belgium Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions, VUB, 1050 Brussels, Belgium Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, K.U.Leuven, 3001 Heverlee-Leuven, Belgium



Keywords: Incremental sheet forming Deformation Twist

Twist phenomena in incrementally formed parts have been observed both in the domain of single and two point incremental forming. In the reported experiments the resulting twist direction typically corresponds to the toolpath direction and can be explained by the monotonous tangential force component exerted on the workpiece when using unidirectional toolpaths. When processing parts with high drawing angles, however, twist deformations corresponding to in-plane shear in opposite toolpath direction have been observed by the authors. In this paper this phenomenon is documented and explained by means of strain measurements and FEA results. The role of asymmetric, cumulative, extended strain effects, resulting in severe thinning, and reinforced when stiff, semi-vertical rib features are present in the part geometry, is demonstrated by means of a detailed deformation analysis. ß 2010 CIRP.

1. Introduction 1.1. Conventional twist Twist as an unwanted deformation phenomenon occurring in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) has been observed by a number of authors [1–3]. The substantial twist (up to 308) observed by Matsubara in Two Point Incremental Forming (TPIF) was found to be caused by uncontrolled pivoting of the workpiece around the hemispherical support structure as a result of tangential forces exerted on the workpiece by the tool [1], and is visible in the obtained geometry when producing non-rotational parts. The twist phenomenon observed in Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) by Jadhav [2] can also be explained by tangential forces, which induce in-plane shear into the workpiece (Fig. 1). Tests performed by the authors allowed to conclude that this type of twist deformation can not only be observed in rotational part geometries, but is also present in, for example, pyramidal structures (Table 1). As illustrated by Aerens et al. in [4], ceteris paribus the tangential force component in the tool–workpiece interaction in SPIF is approximately constant in function of the drawing angle (a). In combination with a reduced residual wall thickness in function of the drawing angle for a constant blank thickness, the increase of the in-plane shear in function of a, and the corresponding twist angle (u) increase in the lower drawing angle range, can be explained (Table 1). The location of the contact zone between the tool and workpiece, as documented based on a detailed, multi-scale FEA in [4], extends over the tool tip zone, explaining why friction

cannot be totally avoided by rotating the tool. Neither a setup with a freewheeling nor a programmed rotating tool can in consequence substantially contribute to elimination of tangential forces and avoidance of the resulting twist phenomenon. While in TPIF the already formed zone of the workpiece can be displaced in the case of rotational support structures, resulting in residual twist effects measurable in the part geometry [1], in the case of SPIF the self-correcting nature of the incremental forming process continuously eliminates the effects of the twist displacement in the not yet processed zone of the sheet. The described twist phenomenon in SPIF in consequence does not significantly affect the shape of the part. Both in the case of SPIF and TPIF accumulating twist can be prevented by alternating the toolpath direction [1,3]. However, an alternating toolpath is typically composed of consecutive 2D contours, separated by a discrete, incremental step in the tool axis direction, and results in clear surface quality deterioration at the location of the contour transition. Therefore a spiralling toolpath is often preferred, which however obstructs the alternating direction strategy. The remainder of this article is dedicated to the study of part quality affecting, twist related phenomena, as induced by unidirectional toolpaths in SPIF. 1.2. Observed twist at high drawing angles A phenomenon that clearly deviates from the twist occurring under the above described conditions can be observed when processing materials at drawing angles close to the formability limit (as identified with a cone forming test for a given sheet thickness [2,5]). Parts formed under these conditions, using backing plates with a clearance of 1 mm between the outer part surface and the supporting edge, show clear twist in the direction opposite to the toolpath (Fig. 2). This counter intuitive twist phenomenon is present both in conical and pyramidal shapes.

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: (J.R. Duflou). 0007-8506/$ – see front matter ß 2010 CIRP. doi:10.1016/j.cirp.2010.03.018

in red a line of the twisted grid pattern. / CIRP Annals .228 Pyramid followed by a twist reversal in the counter toolpath direction (Fig.328 0.R. Details of the measurement setup used for this purpose can be found in [6]. with close up illustrating the initial twist in toolpath direction (A) and counter toolpath twist (B). 2. 3. 4). The following process parameter settings were used for this purpose: step size 0. For truncated pyramids characterised by a polygonal basis with a varying number of sides. 3A).128 0. no tool rotation. Twist observed in different parts at near failure drawing angles. 4. Twist angle (u) in function of the horizontal angle (b. see also Fig. Table 1 Twist angles in SPIF formed parts (Al3103. As documented in Fig. In order to clarify the underlying forming mechanism. Twist (u) in the toolpath direction observed at lower drawing angles in the SPIF process. While with an increased stepsize between contours a higher rate of twist was observed. the tool diameter. Fig. and the forming speed.5 mm. 5). The material used for the reported tests was Al3103 with a thickness of 1. 3.Manufacturing Technology 59 (2010) 307–310 Fig.5 mm. tool diameter 10 mm. 1. In order to better understand the cause of the asymmetric strain patterns. thickness 1. Observed strain patterns in the outer surface for a 708 truncated cone (left) and pyramid (right). .308 J. the degree of twist could be determined and the corresponding in-plane strains could be qualitatively observed in different zones of the test parts. continuous lubrication. The part clamping conditions were verified not to affect the stiffness of the experimental setup.612 mm. Fig. tool diameter 10 mm. the twist angle u shows a decreasing trend in function of the horizontal angle of the rib features (Fig. Thickness distribution for a 708 pyramid wall with a nominal blank thickness of 1. 5. The presented results were obtained on a rigid 3-axis milling machine. Experimental observations By means of grid patterns printed on the outer surface of the workpiece. Part shape Cone Drawing angle (a) 308 508 308 408 508 Height (h) 40 mm 80 mm 40 mm 55 mm 80 mm Twist angle (u) 0. a number of detailed strain measurements were conducted.398 0. These severe strains correspond to similarly asymmetric thickness measurements (Fig.5 mm. Within the flanges of the produced truncated pyramids a clear asymmetry can be observed. detailed in-process strain measurements were performed by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. the average twist angle corresponding to the counter toolpath direction twist phenomenon is clearly larger for pyramidal workpieces. as illustrated in the next sections. 3B) and an approximately constant twist angle over the remaining height of the part. For the tested materials the twist phenomenon was found to be independent of the rotation speed of the tool. In all produced parts an initial twist in the toolpath direction could be observed over a depth of approximately 15 mm (Fig. Fig. 2. no tool rotation). The obtained results are analysed in the next section and have been enhanced with finite element analysis results presented in Section 4. compared to a cone and for equal drawing angles. Duflou et al. 2) of the rib features. In blue a vertical reference line. More extreme eyy strains occur in the area of the flanges processed first by the tool during every contour. backing plate adjusted to the outer workpiece dimensions with a clearance of 1 mm. step size 0.612 mm.468 0. Fig.

Incremental equivalent plastic strain for contours 7. An isotropic elastic–plastic material behaviour was assumed for the AA3003-O alloy. with both the A and B-like stress situation (Fig. 7. The tangential strain exx is negligible.Manufacturing Technology 59 (2010) 307–310 309 Fig. B and C see Fig. Cumulative tangential Lagrange strain exx (starting from contour 82) for a 708 truncated pyramid wall. 9 contains results of a simulation of a 408 FE pie model of a 738 truncated cone formed by a tool of 10 mm diameter at a 0. Cumulative Lagrange strain eyy (starting from contour 82) for a 708 truncated pyramid wall. 6. The cumulative strains were monitored from the 82nd contour onwards. 9. This extended straining mechanism corresponds well with FE simulation results showing a distributed necking phenomenon when forming at a near failure angle.R. respectively. 7). representing the workpiece by means of three layers of brick elements. 4.2 mm initial sheet thickness.224 (MPa). once initiated. Strain history in function of the number of contours (for the initial location of the measurements points A. the residual reverse twist effect can be understood. Extended straining leads to further reduction of the wall thickness.J. . except for local bending effects occurring at the locations of the tool passage through the corner rib features. 10 shows the von Mises equivalent stress distribution on the inner surface of the pie segment model described above. 10. Fig. and comparison with the thickness distribution in the corresponding workpiece area. initial sheet thickness 1. 10) occurring as part of a single tool contour. Duflou et al. Fig. Abaqus/Standard was used as FEM platform for this purpose. 8) illustrates that most of the eyy strain is built up over a substantial number of tool contours after the tool passage. with the von Mises yield criterion and a Swift-type hardening law s = 184(e + 0. till the final shape was obtained. In a conical part every point located in the already formed wall undergoes a complete stress cycle. with in comparison less material pulled into the wall below the wall area characterised by Observation of the extended straining patterns outside the tool contact zone. 23.7 higher than the lowest values measured at the same level in the wall. Strain analysis Figs. 15. 6 and 7 contain plots of the cumulative exx and eyy Lagrange strains. This strain pattern corresponds to a limited. The figure shows the incremental equivalent plastic strain in the mid plane of the pie segment as caused by a single toolpath contour (additional strain between contours n À 1 and n) in different stages. with maximum strain values approximately a factor 1. Finite element analysis Fig. 31 and 39 in a AA3003-O 738 truncated cone with 1. Fig. Further details of the modelling approach can be found in [7]. contributes to a high local equivalent stress level in a growing workpiece area above the tool contact zone.2 mm). 8.5 mm stepsize. Instantaneous asymmetrical straining is therefore continuously Fig. over a range of 100 contours. Fig. clarifies the self-supporting nature of the phenomenon. With similar effects occurring in every processed pyramid wall. The results demonstrate a clear asymmetry in the stress field. This extended straining outside the direct contact zone affects the material drawn into the wall in the tool workpiece contact zone underneath the affected area. which. higher eyy strains. The eyy strain plot in Fig. von Mises equivalent stress for contour 22 in a 738 truncated cone (0.00196)0. 3. / CIRP Annals . 8 shows the clearly asymmetric pattern observed earlier. as measured in the wall of a four sided truncated pyramid. The FE model was also used to study the stress distribution in the workpiece area outside the tool contact zone in order to better understand the asymmetry in the observed strain patterns in the case of the pyramidal structures.5 mm incremental step size. The strain history for different points at the same initial contour level in a flange (Fig. approximately constant material displacement per contour in the counter toolpath direction over the entire wall.

401–409. This asymmetry is likely to be further reinforced by specific strain conditions in the vicinity of the rib features bounding the pyramid walls. 11. Van Houtte P (2007) Forming Limit Predictions for Single-Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming. continued plastic straining at a significant distance from the tool contact zone contributes to a better understanding of deformation phenomena occurring in already processed workpiece zones when applying SPIF. non-local. 11A) however seem to qualitatively confirm the suitability of the model approximation. Journal of Engineering Manufacture 215(7):959–966. which results in a reduced inverse twist effect and a homogeneous final eyy strain over every horizontal contour. The presence of semi-vertical rib features in parts to be manufactured by SPIF has an important influence on the observed strain patterns and can trigger excessive continued straining in combination with severe thinning.-Ing. Duflou JR (2010) Force Prediction for Single Point Incremental Forming Deduced from Experimental and FEM Observations. This is illustrated in Fig. Acknowledgements The authors would like to recognize the support of the Research Foundation . Henrard C. the observed. the TTS angle gxz necessarily equals 0 at the pie model edges (Fig. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 46(9–12):969–982. [5] Ham M. compensated. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 56(1):277–280. thus reinforcing the reverse twist phenomenon. For industrial applications when confronted with high drawing angles in the direct vicinity of semi-vertical rib features. [7] Van Bael A. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Sheet Metal.310 J. with little or no TTS occurring immediately after the tool direction change in the semi-vertical edge features and a slow build up towards the central zone of the wall. this continuous correction is not occurring in the vicinity of the semi-vertical rib features. In non-rotational structures. Gu J. Verbert J. Bramley A. Due to imposed symmetry boundary conditions at the 08. allows to understand the counter intuitive twist phenomenon occurring in SPIF at high drawing angles in different part geometries. . Micari F. Van Bael A. [2] Jadhav S (2004) Basic Investigations of the Incremental Sheet Metal Forming Process on a CNC Milling Machine. Duflou J. Eyckens P. the beneficial effect of unidirectional spiralling toolpaths on surface quality on the one hand. Hirt G. Dr. Belkassem B. the rotating stress field assures equal alternating exposure to increased straining to all areas in the workpiece. [3] Jeswiet J. resulting in a homogeneous. Dissertation. Jeswiet J (2007) Forming Limit Curves in Single Point Incremental Forming.Manufacturing Technology 59 (2010) 307–310 Fig. the more pronounced this effect.Flanders (FWO). Eyckens P.R. Allwood J (2005) Asymmetric Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal. 11B). axisymmetrical strain field. University of Dortmund. The lower the corner angle of the rib feature. and the excessive thinning effects on the other should be carefully considered. The symmetry imposing boundary conditions used for the FE model only approximate the vicinity of the stiff corner features of the pyramidal structures. / CIRP Annals . 11 by means of the FE simulation results for a 408 pie model of a 508 truncated cone (details of the model can be found in [7]).and 408-sections. Duflou et al. Duflou JR (2009) Investigation of Deformation Phenomena in SPIF Using an In-Process DIC Technique. Birmingham. Significant extended straining outside the tool contact zone also forms a major obstacle for any single step adaptive forming strategy. Sol H. While in pyramidal structures the asymmetry in the deformation patterns is not compensated during consecutive contours. with low initial levels and a high gradient towards the end of the toolpath trajectory. [6] Vasilakos I. However the build up of TTS over the 408 pie model shows a clear asymmetry. [4] Aerens R. in combination with the simulated asymmetric stress levels. Through Thickness Shear (TTS) in the x–z-plane is believed to vary over the pyramid wall. such as the pyramidal parts studied. Bouffioux C. Conclusions The observed continued eyy strain accumulation. He S. Proceedings of the 10th ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming. the Belgian Science Policy Office and the Innovation by Science and Technology Agency (IWT). Independent of the twist phenomenon discussed in this article. Habraken AM. Duflou J. As such the controllability of the process is affected. The observed asymmetric thinning effects (marked zone in Fig. 309–314. Thickness strain ezz (A) and through thickness shear angle gxz (degrees) (B) after contour 40 in a 508 truncated cone (shown in original blank location). 5. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 54(2):623–650. References [1] Matsubara S (2001) A Computer Numerically Controlled Dieless Incremental Forming of a Sheet Metal. in rotational part geometries.

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