=
+ +
3 2 1 4
R R R R =
Advantage of
Wheatstone Bridge
It can be used as a resistance sensor that
eliminates the supply voltage offset or
changes.
The null still maintains The null still maintains
Galvanometer detector
Galvanometer is used as a null detector in
the Wheatstone bridge to detect the
condition of the Wheatstone bridge
And it is required to determine the current And it is required to determine the current
offset instead of voltage offset
Galvanometer detector
Galvanometer is represented as an
resistance R
G
The equivalent circuit of the Wheatstone
bridge with Galvanometer is bridge with Galvanometer is
Galvanometer detector
The current offset is determined by
Where
th
G
th G
V
I
R R
=
+
( )( )
3 2 1 4
1 3 2 4
1 3 2 4
1 3 2 4
Thevanin eqivalent voltage of the Wheatsone bridge
Thevanin eqivalent resistance of the Wheatsone bridge
th
th
V
R R R R
V
R R R R
R
R R R R
R R R R
=
=
+ +
=
= +
+ +
Bridge resolution
The resolution of the bridge is determined
by the resolution of the detector
We can convert the resolution of the
detector to find the smallest resistance detector to find the smallest resistance
change in the bridge
Example
A bridge circuit has resistance of R
1
= R
2
=
R
3
= 2.00 k and R4 = 2.05 k and a 5.00
V supply. If the galvanometer with a 50.0
internal resistance is used for a
detector, find the offset current. detector, find the offset current.
Example
A bridge circuit has R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= R
4
=120.0 resistance and a 10.0 V supply.
Clearly, the bridge is null. Suppose a 3
digit DVM on a 200 mV scale will be used
for the null detector. Find the resistance for the null detector. Find the resistance
resolution for measurements of R
4
.
Lead Compensation
In many process control, the bridge circuit
may be located at far distance
The resistance are chosen to compensate
the resistance of the lead the resistance of the lead
Current Balance Bridge
Current balance is
the way to obtain a
null in a quick
time.
Electronic nulling
with fixed resistor
One arm of the
Wheatstone
Bridge is modified
as following
The resistance is splited into R
4
and R
5
The current is fed into R
5
We want the current to flow to R
5
predominantly by select
5 4
R R >>
Now, the voltage at point b is
4 5
5
2 4 5
( )
b
V R R
V IR
R R R
+
= +
+ +
5 4
R R >>
Thus, the offset voltage is
( )
4 5
3
5
1 3 2 4 5
a b
V V V
V R R
VR
IR
R R R R R
=
+
=
+ + +
Which shows that the null can be achieved
by adjusting magnitude and current I
Example
A current balance bridge has resistors R1
= R2 = 10 k , R4 = 950 , R3 = 1 k, R5
= 50 and a high impedance null
detector. Find the current required to null
the bridge if R
3
changes by 1 . The the bridge if R
3
changes by 1 . The
supply voltage is 10 V
Potential Measurement using
Bridge
The bridge can be
used to measure
potential
The potential to be The potential to be
measured is
placed in series
with the detector
as shown in the
figure
The voltage at point C is
The voltage appearing across the null
detector is
c x a
V V V = +
The potential Vx can be measured by
varying the bridge till null and solve for Vx
c b x a b
V V V V V V = = +
3 4
1 3 2 4
0
x
RV VR
V
R R R R
+ =
+ +
The current balance bridge can also be
used for potential measurement
( )
4 5
3
5
1 3 2 4 5
0
x
V R R
VR
V IR
R R R R R
+
+ =
+ + +
Example
A bridge circuit for potential measurement
nulls when R1 = R2 = 1 k, R3 = 650
and R4 =500 with a 10 V supply. Find
the unknown potential
AC bridge
The bridge concept can be applied to the
impedance match
The bridge offset is
where
( )( )
3 2 1 4
1 3 2 4
Z Z Z Z
E E
Z Z Z Z
=
+ +
1 2 3, 4
sine wave excitation voltage
, , bridge impedance
E
Z Z Z Z
=
=
Example
An ac bridge employs impedance as
shown. Find the value of Rx and C
x
when
the bridge is nulled
Bridge Application
Convert variations of
resistance into voltage
The relationship of the
bridge is non linear for bridge is non linear for
large scale range of R
Linear near the null
condition
RC Filter
To eliminate unwanted noise signals from
measurement, it is needed to use filter
circuit
A filter is a circuit that is
designed to pass signals
with desired frequencies
and reject or attenuate
others.
Filters
Background:
. Filters may be classified as either digital or analog.
. Digital filters Digital filters are implemented using a digital . Digital filters Digital filters are implemented using a digital
computer
or special purpose digital hardware.
. Analog filters Analog filters may be classified as either passive or
active and are usually implemented with R, L, and C
components and operational amplifiers.
Filters
Background:
. An active filter active filter is one that, along with R, L, and
C
components, also contains an energy source, components, also contains an energy source,
such
as that derived from an operational amplifier.
. A passive filter passive filter is one that contains only R, L, and
C components. It is not necessary that all three be
present. L is often omitted (on purpose) from
passive filter design because of the size and cost
of inductors and they also carry along an R that
must be included in the design.
Passive Analog Filters
Background: Four types of filters Four types of filters   Ideal Ideal
lowpass lowpass highpass highpass
bandpass bandpass bandstop bandstop
Background: Realistic Filters: Realistic Filters:
lowpass lowpass highpass highpass
Passive Analog Filters
bandpass bandpass bandstop bandstop
Passive Analog Filters
Low Pass Filter
Consider the circuit below.
R
C V
I
V
O
+
_
+
_
_
1
( ) 1
1 ( ) 1
O
V jw jwC
V jw jwRC
R i
jwC
= =
+
+
Low pass filter circuit
Passive Analog Filters
Low Pass Filter
0 dB
Bode
.
3 dB
1
0
1/RC
1/RC
Linear Plot
x
0.707
Passes low frequencies
Attenuates high frequencies
Passive Analog Filters
High Pass Filter
Consider the circuit below.
C
R
V
i
V
+
+
_
R
V
i
V
O
_
_
( )
1
( ) 1
O
V jw jwRC R
V jw jwRC
R i
jwC
= =
+
+
High Pass Filter
Passive Analog Filters
High Pass Filter
0 dB
.
3 dB
Bode
Passes high frequencies
.
0
1/RC
1/RC
1/RC
1
0.707
Linear
Attenuates low frequencies
x
Passive Analog Filters
Bandpass Pass Filter
Consider the circuit shown below:
C L
R
V
i
V
O
+
+
_
R
V
i
_
_
Passive Analog Filters
Bandpass Pass Filter
We can make a bandpass from the previous equation and select
the poles where we like. In a typical case we have the following shapes.
0 dB
3 dB
. .
Bode
0
3 dB
lo
hi
.
. .
.
1
0.707
Bode
Linear
lo
hi
RLC Band stop Filter
Consider the circuit below:
R
L
C
+
V
O
+
_
V
i
= ) (s G
v C
_
= ) (s G
v
V
i n
V
O
C
R
fb
+
_
+
_
R
in
Basic Active Filters
Low pass filter
Basic Active Filters
R
i n
C
V
in
R
fb
V
O
+
_
+
_
High pass
Basic Active Filters
V
in
R
1
R
1
C
1
C
2
R
2
R
2
R
fb
R
i
V
+
+ _
Band pass filter
V
O
_
Basic Active Filters
R
1
R
1
C
1
R
fb
Band stop filter
V
i n
C
2
R
2
R
i
V
O
+
_
+
_
Lowpass RC filter
The simple circuit for lowpass filter is
shown below
It passes low frequency and rejects high
frequency
The frequency response of the lowpass
filter is shown below
The critical frequency is the frequency for
which the ratio of the output to the input
voltage is 7.07
The output to input ratio is determined by
1
2
c
f
RC
=
The output to input ratio is determined by
1/ 2
2
1
1
out
in
c
V
V
f
f
=
(
 
( +

(
\
Design Method
To design a filter is to find fc satisfied the
criteria
Select a stand capacitor value in the F to pF
range range
Calculate the required resistance value, if R <
1 k or R > 1 M, pick another capacitor
Consider device tolerance
If exact value is required, use trimmer resistor
Example
A measurement signal has a frequency <
1 kHz, but there is unwanted noise at
about 1 MHz. Design a lowpass filter that
attenuates the noise to 1%. What is the
effect on the measurement signal at its effect on the measurement signal at its
maximum of 1 kHz?
Highpass RC Filter
Highpass filter passes high frequencies
and rejects low frequencies.
The circuit for RC highpass is shown
below below
The ratio of output voltage to input voltage
of the high pass filter is
1/ 2
2
c
out
f
f
V
V
 

\
=
(
1/ 2
2
1
in
c
V
f
f
=
(
 
( +

(
\
Example 2.12
Pulses for a stepping motor are being
transmitted at 2000 Hz. Design a filter to
reduce 60 Hz noise but reduce the pulses
by no more than 3 dB.
RC Filter Consideration
Very small resistance should be avoided because
it can lead to large current and loading effect
If input impedance of the circuit fed by the filter is
low, a voltage follower circuit is needed low, a voltage follower circuit is needed
The output impedance of the filter must be much
less than the input impedance of the next stage
circuit
Example
A 2 kHz data signal is contaminated by 60
Hz of noise. Compare a singlestage and
a two stage highpass RC filter for
reducing the noise by 60 dB. What effect
does each have on the data signal? does each have on the data signal?
Example
Suppose we require the first stage of the
last example to use a capacitor of C =
0.001 F. Find the appropriate value of
resistance, R. Suppose these same
values are used for the second stage. values are used for the second stage.
How much further attenuation occurs at 2
kHz because of loading? What output
impedance does the series filter present?
Assume V
in
source resistance is very
small.
Bandpass Filter
Bandpass filter passes frequencies in a
certain band and rejects frequencies
below and above the band
The ratio of output to input voltage is
( )
2
2
2 2
1
out H
in
H
H L L H
L
V f f
V
R
f f f f f f
R
=
(
 
+ + +
( 
\
where
H H
L
L L
H
C R
f
C R
f
2
1
2
1
=
=
Example
A signalconditioning system uses a
frequency variation from 6 kHz to 60 kHz
to carry measurement information. There
is considerable noise at 120 Hz and at 1
MHz. Design a bandpass filter to reduce
the noise by 90%. What is the effect on
the desired passband frequency.
Bandreject Filter
Bandreject filter blocs specific range of
frequencies
Normally, it is difficult to realize the band
reject filter with passive RC elements
The design of active circuit is easier
One special RC bandreject filter is notch
filter
The notch frequency is determined by
The frequencies for which the output is down 3
dB from the pass band are given by
( ) RC f f f
c c n
2 / 1 where 785 . 0 = =
c H
c L
f f
f f
57 . 4
187 . 0
=
=
Example
A frequency of 400 Hz prevails aboard an
aircraft. Design a twinT notch filter to
reduce the 400 Hz signal. What effect
would this have on voice signal at 10 to
300 Hz? At what higher frequency is the 300 Hz? At what higher frequency is the
output down by 3 dB
Operational Amplifier
A active device integrated R, L, C,
transistor, diode into single IC chip
An op amp is an active circuit element
designed to perform mathematical designed to perform mathematical
operations of addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, differentiation, and
integration.
Op amps are commercially available in
integrated circuit packages
A typical one is the eightpin dual inline
package (or DIP),
The circuit symbol for the op amp is the
triangle as shown,
The op amp has two inputs and one
output. The inputs are marked with minus
() and plus (+) to specify inverting and
noninverting inputs, respectively. noninverting inputs, respectively.
The equivalent model for opam is shown
2 1 d
v v v =
o d
v Av =
Ideal Inverting Amplifier
Consider the circuit in figure
With feedback
The summing point voltage is equal to the (+)
op amp input level.
No current flow through the op amp input
terminal because of infinite impedance
The current at the summing point is
By Ohms law
1 2
0 I I + =
0
in out
V V
R R
+ =
Thus, the response of the op amp is
1 2
0
R R
+ =
2
1
out in
R
V V
R
=
Design Rules
Rule 1 Assume that no current flows
through the op amp input terminals that
is, the inverting and noninverting terminals
Assume that there is no voltage difference Assume that there is no voltage difference
between the op amp input terminals
Non Ideal Effect
Final openloop gain. The gain is defined
as the slope of the voltagetransfer
function
2 V V
=
For typical op amp, Vsat ~ 10 V, V ~ 100 V,
so A ~200,000
( )
2 1
2
out sat
V V
A
V V V
=
Non Ideal Effect
Finite input impedance
Nonzero output impedance
The summing current at the summing
point gives point gives
1 2 3
0 I I I + + =
Nodal voltage law on the summing point
gives
The output voltage related to op amp gain
is
1 2
0
in s o s s
in
V V V V V
R R z
+ =
is
Combine the two equation
2
o s
o s o
V V
V AV z
R
 
=

\
2
1
1
1
o in
R
V V
R
 
=

\
Where
2 2
2 1
2
1 1
o
in
o
z R R
R R z
z
A
R
   
+ + +
 
\ \
=
 
+

\
Typically, is very small compared to unity.
Op Amp in Instrumentation
Voltage follower
Inverting amplifier
Noninverting amplifier
Differential instrumentation amplifier Differential instrumentation amplifier
Voltagetocurrent converter
Currenttovoltage converter
Integrator
Differentiator
Linearization
Voltage Follower
The figure shows the voltage follower
circuit.
The input impedance of the voltage
follower is high
Inverting Amplifier
Inverting amplifier gives reverse polarity at
the output
Variation of inverting amplifier is summing
amplifier amplifier
2 2
1 2
1 3
out
R R
V V V
R R
(
= +
(
Noninverting Amplifier
Noninverting Amplifier gives the output in
the same polarity with the input
1 2
0
in in out
V V V
R R
+ =
2
1
1
out in
R
V V
R
(
= +
(
Example
Design a highimpedance amplifier with a
voltage gain of 42.
Differential Amplifier
Can be used to measure the difference
between two voltages
( )
out d a b
V A V V =
Where A is the
differential gain and both
Va and Vb are voltage
with respect to the
ground
Common Mode Rejection
Common mode signal is the signal that
common to both inputs
A good differential amplifier should amplify
only the differential input. only the differential input.
( )
2
a b
out a b c
V V
V A V V A
+
 
= +

\
The common mode rejection ratio is the
ratio of the differential gain to the
commonmode gain
d
c
A
CMRR
A
=
The larger CMRR, the better the
differential amplifier
The output voltage of the differential
amplifier is
( )
2
2 1
1
out
R
V V V
R
=
Example
A sensor output a range of 20.0 to 250 mV
as a variable varies over its range.
Develop signal conditioning so that this
become 0 to 5 V. The circuit must have
very high input impedance very high input impedance
Instrumentation Amplifier
Differential amplifier with high input
impedance and low output impedance
One disadvantage of this differential circuit
is that changing gain requires changing 2
pairs of resistors
A more common differential amplifier that
the gain can be changed is shown below
The gain can be changed by adjusting R
G
The output voltage is given by
( )
3 1
2 1
2
2
1
out
G
R R
V V V
R R
  
= +
 
\ \
Example
A bridge circuit for which R
4
varies from
100 to 102 . Show how an
instrumentation amplifier could be used to
provide an output of 0 to 2.5 V. Assume
that R
2
= R
3
= 1 k and that R
1
= 100 k that R
2
= R
3
= 1 k and that R
1
= 100 k
VoltagetoCurrent Converter
Signals are normally transmitted as a
current, specifically 420 mA
The circuit should sink the current into
different load without losing voltage different load without losing voltage
information
The circuit of voltagetocurrent is shown
below
The output of the current related to input
voltage then is
Provided that
2
1 3
in
R
I V
R R
=
( )
1 3 5 2 4
R R R R R + =
The maximum load resistance is
where
( )
4 5 3
3 4 5
sat
m
ml
V
R R R
I
R
R R R
(
+
(
=
+ +
maximum load resistance
op amp saturation on voltage
maximum current
ml
sat
m
R
V
I
=
=
=
Example
A sensor outputs 0 to 1 V. Develop a
voltagetocurrent converters so that this
becomes 0 to 10 mA. Specify the
maximum load resistance if the op amp
saturates at 10 V saturates at 10 V
CurrenttoVoltage Converter
At the receiving end of the process
control, the current is converted back to a
voltage
out
V IR =
Integrator
The configuration is shown below
0
1
in out
out in
V dV
C
R dt
V V dt
RC
+ =
=
If the input voltage is constant (Vin = K),
the output will be linear ramp voltage
out
K
V t
RC
=
Example
Use an integrator to produce a linear ramp
voltage rising at 10 V per ms
Differentiator
The differentiator is shown below
0
in out
in
out
dV V
C
dt R
dV
V RC
dt
+ =
=
Linearization
Op amp can be used to linearize the
relationship between input and output by
placing the non linear element in the
feedback feedback
The summation of the current is
( )
0
in
out
V
I V
R
+ =
( )
input voltage
input resistance
nonlinear variation of current with voltage
in
out
V
R
I V
=
=
=
Solve for Vout
in
out
V
V G
R
 
=

\
( )
Inverse funtion which is a linear function
in
out
V
G I V
R
 
=

\
If a diode is placed in the feedback
then
( )
0
out
V
out
I V I e
=
V
0
0
0
0
1
ln
out
out
V
in
V
in
in
out
V
I e
R
V
e
RI
V
V
RI
+ =
=
 
=

\
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