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Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Opening Doors

1.1 Overview of Biometric Technology
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Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System
Identification of humans is a goal as ancient as humanity itself. As technology and services have developed in the modern world, human activities and transactions have proliferated in which rapid and reliable personal identification is required. Examples include passport control, computer login control, ban automatic teller machines and other transactions authori!ation, premises access control, and security systems generally. All such identification efforts share the common goals of speed, reliability and automation. "he use of biometric indicia for identification purposes requires that a particular biometric factor be unique for each individual that it can be readily measured, and that it is invariant over time. #iometrics such as signatures, photographs, fingerprints, voiceprints and retinal blood vessel patterns all have significant drawbac s. Although signatures and photographs are cheap and easy to obtain and store, they are Impossible to identify automatically a person with assurance, and are easily forged. Electronically recorded voiceprints are susceptible to changes in a person$s voice, and they can be counterfeited. %ingerprints or handprints require physical contact, and they also can be counterfeited and marred by artifacts. &uman iris on the other hand is an internal organ of the eye and is well protected, from the external environment. 'et it is easily visible from within one meter of distance ma es it a perfect biometric for an identification system with the ease of speed, reliability and automation. In this pro(ect, we are going to experiment, implement, and most importantly, loo into the theory behind an Iris )ecognition *ystem, which is not only related to the field of personal identification, and more specifically to the field of automated identification of humans by biometric indicia. #iometric authentication has been receiving extensive attention over the past decade with increasing demands in automated personal identification.

1.2 Objectives
"he main aim of our pro(ect is to build an application based on I)I* of a particular individual. "his application will help to the faculty of college+institutes to maintain the attendance of the students easily. "his pro(ect will also easily monitor the monthly attendance for each student and will reduce the teachers$ efforts.

1. !n"tomy of #$m"n Iris%
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Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System
"he iris is a thin circular diaphragm, which lies between the cornea and the lens of the human eye. A side view of the iris is shown in %igure 1.1. "he iris is perforated close to its centre by a circular aperture nown as the pupil. "he function of the iris is to control the amount of light entering through the pupil, and this is done by the sphincter and the dilator muscles, which ad(ust the si!e of the pupil. "he average diameter of the iris is 1, mm, and the pupil si!e can vary from 1-. to /-. of the iris diameter. "he iris consists of a number of layers0 the lowest is the epithelium layer, which contains dense pigmentation cells. "he stromal layer lies above the epithelium layer, and contains blood vessels, pigment cells and the two iris muscles. "he density of stromal pigmentation determines the colour of the iris. "he externally visible surface of the multi1layered iris contains two !ones, which often differ in colour. An outer ciliary !one and an inner pupillary !one, and these two !ones are divided by the collarette 2 which appears as a !ig!ag pattern.

&ig$re 1.1 ' Anatomy of the human eye. %ormation of the iris begins during the third month of embryonic life. "he unique pattern on the surface of the iris is formed during the first year of life, and pigmentation of the stroma ta es place for the first few years. %ormation of the unique patterns of the iris is random and not related to any genetic factor. "he only characteristic that is dependent on genetics is the
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Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System
pigmentation of the iris, which determines its colour. D$e to the e(igenetic n"t$re of iris ("tterns) the two eyes of "n in*ivi*$"l cont"in com(letely in*e(en*ent iris ("tterns) "n* i*entic"l twins (ossess $ncorrel"te* iris ("tterns.

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Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System

Chapter ,

+RO,-CT D-&INITION

Getting Started

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7 *89 *erver 7. 2..1 5* Access . 2. capture the eye image of a student...t"tement #uilding an application for managing students$ attendance using Iris )ecognition.. !((ro"ch 1..2 . . 2. :. "a e the eye image of a student from a digital camera. 4atabase provider . Currently this application will support images ta en from a digital camera. . 4ata fetch 5odules which are not in scope0 1.1 +roblem . 6racle .co(e "he modules to be covered by this application are as under0 1. Connectivity :. In real time. "his application is no applicable to videos. *tore bit pattern for all the students. 7. generate the iris code for it and compare it with the existing database. 6 .enerate the iris code and store it in the database for that particular student. 3elcome screen .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System 2..

"he premises will also have a digital camera with minimum capacity of 7 mega pixels. mar the attendance of that student otherwise as him to register. If the result of comparison is true.=E" framewor 7. 7 .< installed in the machine.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System <./ !ss$m(tions "n* Constr"ints !ss$m(tions% End user will have 5icrosoft . 2. Constr"ints% Camera should be properly mounted or its user should properly ta e the eye image of the student.

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter 7 B!C01ROUND R-.-!RC# 8 .

"he process of capturing the iris image is not intrusive. "he iris is different for any two individuals even for identical twins@ 4=A is not unique among identical twins. which are widely used. . can be forged ?gummy fingers>.1 2otiv"tion %or verification of a person various parameters are used such as identity card.2 -3isting 4or5s 9 . "he failure to enroll rate ?%"E> is the rate at which a biometric system fails to enroll a sub(ect$s biometric sample. "hese are some of the reasons that ma e the iris recognition technology suitable for applications in which the user is cooperative. .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System The motivation to work ahead . hand1written signatures can be forged. etc. "he face changes over a period of time. and it$s ac nowledged that iris recognition is more accurate than any other biometric technique. %ingerprints. although there are some concerns regarding enrollment failure rates ?capturing the initial iris image to be used as a template for comparing with other images>. hand geometry is not distinctive enough to be used in large scale applications. "he process of enrolling a sub(ect for the first time requires some training. #iometrics provides an alternative to these methods. even with the best algorithms face recognition ?for faces ta en one year apart> has error rates of about :7 to <. or they can be used in combination multimodal>. Iris images can be computer matched more accurately than a face image..

their irises are scanned.--.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System • #rea through wor to create the iris1recognition algorithms required for image acquisition and one1to1many matching was pioneered by Aohn .7 million iris codes. "oday. 6#E ?Cniversity of Cambridge Computer 9aboratory>.registrations per day. "o date. • 6ne of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardi!ed by ICA6 for use in future passports ?the other two are fingerprint and face recognition> • Iris recognition technology has been implemented by #ioI4 "echnologies *A in Ba istan for C=&C) repatriation pro(ect to control aid distribution for Afghan refugees. All foreign nationals who possess a visa to enter the CAE are processed through iris cameras installed at all primary and auxiliary immigration inspection points. 4augmanEs algorithms are the basis of almost all currently ?as of .H7 to 1-H:.overnment of Ba istan. • Iris . "he database has more than 1. and they are paid for their travel. "hese were utili!ed to effectively debut commerciali!ation of the technology in con(unction with an early version of the Iris Access system designed and manufactured by DoreaEs 9. "o ma e sure people do not get paid more than once.--1.--F> commercially deployed iris1recognition systems.7 million iris code templates and around :--.. Electronics. "he one1to1many iris comparison ta es place within 1. the Iris Code false1re(ect rates are comparable to the most accurate single1finger fingerprint matchers. when the CAE launched a national border1crossing security initiative. In tests where the matching thresholds areGfor better comparabilityGchanged from their default settings to allow a false1accept rate in the region of 1. Iris Recognition vers$s Other Biometric Technologies 10 . all of the CAEEs land.uard$s &omeland *ecurity #order Control has been operating an expellee trac ing system in the Cnited Arab Emirates ?CAE> since . air and sea ports of entry are equipped with systems. )efugees are repatriated by C=&C) in cooperation with . the system has apprehended over 77-. and the system will detect the refugees on next attempt. . 4augman$s.< seconds against 1.persons re1entering the CAE with fraudulent travel documents. Bh4.

dryness and scarring.. and something you are ?biometric>. #iometric technology has advantages over both of the other factors in that the user does not need to remember anything or possess a physical to en in order to be identified. %ingerprinting hardware is generally less expensive than that for iris recognition. 6ther physical biometric technologies include fingerprinting. and facial scanning and hand geometry. A biometric is only susceptible to forgery.> #oth biometric methods can be used to verify that a person is who he or she claims to be and to identify a person by comparing the current biometric input to a large set of data that was previously recorded. &owever. fingerprints can be more difficult to verify as a person ages.. and passwords and BI=s can be forgotten or compromised. #oth biometric technologies are reliable and very accurate.had not resulted in a single false acceptance of an iris. "o ens and cards can be lost.. According to the =C*C. %ingerprints can be affected by dirt.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System "hree factors can be used for security0 something you now ?password or BI=>.--.: #oth fingerprints and iris are stable physical characteristics that do not change with age..< External factors can cause errors in both fingerprinting and iris recognition. Iris recognition falls into the physical biometric category as opposed to behavioral biometrics such as signatures. #iometrics can be used alone or in con(unction with one of the other factors to strengthen the security chec . #oth technologies are 11 . Iris recognition can be affected by lighting. spea er recognition. which can be extremely difficult. "ests conducted through 4ecember . since older people tend to have drier s in. "he =ational Center for *tate Courts ?=C*C> published information comparing these physical biometric methods.1 &ere are some highlights from both groups$ findings. ?"he =C*C defines error rate as the crossing point of the graphs of false positives and false negatives of a particular biometric. but iris recognition has a much lower error rate ?1 in 171. something you have ?smart to en or access card>. depending on the biometric...---> than fingerprinting ?1 in <--I>.. but recent technology is lowering costs of iris recognition devices. false positives and false negatives are difficult to produce for both fingerprinting and iris recognition."he =C*C data is substantiated by a similar comparison table found at the IEEE Computer *ociety.  &inger(rinting Iris recognition shares many characteristics with fingerprinting. retinal scanning.7 %alse acceptance rates are extremely low for iris recognition..

6pinions seem to differ on which feature. Although sophisticated fingerprinting technology is designed to detect false fingers. a person$s finger can be cut off or used for a mold much easier than an eyeball could be extracted and used for impersonation. more appealing to those concerned with hygiene than is fingerprinting. but they are very different biometric technologies. unless you have glaucoma or diabetes. it is commonly believed to be stable.compared to the iris recognition error rate of 10171. #oth retinal and iris technologies are extremely accurate and reliable and have very low false acceptance rates. the iris from a person$s extracted eye would not be usable for more than a few seconds. 12 . the iris template is created without any physical contact with the person whose iris is encoded. L"he iris is harder to map as an image because it fluctuates based on the si!e of the pupil. %ingerprinting requires physically touching a device each time the finger is presented for verification.c"nning )etinal scanning is often confused with iris recognition. iris or retina.. "he error rate for retinal scanning is 101-.J "his rating may be due to the requirement to ma e physical contact with a fingerprinting device. therefore. the iris is not fully shaped until about eight months of age. In fact. and drug or medicinal use.--.---.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System reasonably well accepted by the user population. "he retina is located at the bac of the eye and contains distinctive vascular patterns that can be used for identification and verification. In contrast. .M. )etinal scanning is the only biometric that is more reliable than iris recognition.K Iris recognition devices can also detect the dilating pupil to ensure that the eye is live. According to Aohn 5arshall of )etinal "echnologies. but fingerprinting was rated more intrusive than iris scanning.F "rue. is more reliable to use throughout life. but after that age. "here are some health related advantages of iris recognition over fingerprinting.. %orgery is not as much of a ris with iris recognition as with fingerprinting. "he iris recognition process is. %ingerprinting may also carry some negative connotations due to its historical use in criminal investigations.---./ "he retinal scanning process is different from iris recognition and does not involve an IrisCode. and age.  Retin"l . "he retina stays constant throughout your life.

"he =B9 tests revealed difficulty in enrolling a blind person$s iris because the system required both eyes to be enrolled. but they can remain in place for verification without causing difficulty. comparing to a previously stored template for a person. false negatives are easy to produce.7. spea er recognition ran s highest in user acceptance. =either technology has been inexpensive in the past. )etinal scans are probably most appropriate for applications that require the highest levels of security. spea er recognition is much less accurate than iris recognition.77  &"ci"l Recognition *imilar to iris recognition. whereas iris recognition can be accomplished with the sub(ect at a distance of up to about . and the errors can occur due to noise and colds. with the eye at a distance of no more than 7 inches from the scanner. enrollment of two eyes using retinal scanning might also be prohibitive. 3ith an error rate of 1 in <-. but is not recommended for identification. #oth technologies are non1intrusive. but they differ in that the sub(ects in facial recognition need not now their identity is being captured on camera. facial recognition requires a sub(ect to present his or her face to a camera. =o =B9 data was reported for retinal scans of blind eyes. "his aspect can be beneficial in areas where it is important to confirm identity without the sub(ect$s nowledge. or is required by law to succumb to the scan. Iris recognition is recommended for both verification and identification. L5inority )eport. and is easier to use and less expensive than iris recognition.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System As depicted in the movie. but recent developments are bringing prices down for both iris recognition and retinal scanning. Beople wearing glasses must remove them for a retinal scan.71 4epending upon the nature of the blindness. feet from the camera. %or iris recognition. but the anonymity with which a facial image can be captured also raises a privacy issue that is not 13 . where the sub(ect is very cooperative and patient.M retinal scanning is a much more intrusive process than iris recognition.7.  .(e"5er Recognition 6f the physical biometric technologies discussed in the =C*C comparison. the =ational Bhysical 9aboratory ?=B9> tests found that glasses can ma e enrollment more difficult. *pea er recognition could be used to verify a person$s identity. A retinal scanning sub(ect must stay very still.

Iris recognition is more reliable than facial recognition. Another drawbac of hand geometry technology is that it is relatively easy to produce a false negative. "he error rate for hand geometry is 1 in <-.--.for iris recognition. but it is not as accurate as either iris recognition or retinal scanning.compared to 1 in 171. hand characteristics could change over time due to scars and growth patterns. 14 . million for iris recognition. "herefore.for facial recognition versus 101. Cnli e the iris.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System present with iris recognition.7: "he =B9 study cites a false accept rate of 101-. since hand features are not distinctive..  #"n* 1eometry "he =C*C chart lists hand geometry as one of the easier to use biometric technologies. It should wor well enough for verification as long as the device can recogni!e a fa e hand. &and geometry has the same hygiene issue as fingerprinting. the technology is not well suited for identification.

.UR7-8 15 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter : 6IT-R!TUR.

> without ma ing false matches. 1) 2992. Robert.. over the iris.4 &ilbert transform> to extract pertinent information from iris texture. C.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Expanding horizon /. #ow iris recognition wor5s. enabling real1time decisions about personal identity with extremely high confidence. +erson i*entific"tion techni:$e $sing h$m"n iris recognition.. Algorithms developed by the author for recogni!ing persons by their iris patterns have been tested wherein they deal in combinatorial complexity of phase information across different persons who spans about .1 Rese"rch of 7"rio$s !$thors% . All these image1processing algorithms have been validated on noised real iris 16 . Intern"tion"l Conference on 7ision Interf"ce) C"n"*") 2992. 2"rtin) 6. "his paper examines a new iris recognition system that implements ?I> gradient decomposed &ough transform + integral1differential operators combination for iris locali!ation and ?II> the Lanalytic imageM concept ?. D"$gm"n. Torres) 2. "he high confidence levels are important because they allow very large databases to be searched exhaustively ?one1to1many identification mode. bits+mm.:F degrees of freedom and generates discrimination entropy of about 7. despite so many chances. Tisse) 6. +rocee*ings of 2992 Intern"tion"l Conference on Im"ge +rocessing) 7ol.

In this paper. CO2< 1) No. eyelid and reflection are three main noises. "he representation differs from established techniques in that the code elements are locali!ed in spatial frequency as well as in space. #. -l<-sber) &.+IT 2992) 2"rr"5esh. Iris recognition $sing circ$l"r symmetric filters N"tion"l 6"bor"tory of +"ttern Recognition) Instit$te of !$tom"tion) Chinese !c"*emy of . "he first and second condition handles separable and multiple eyelashes respectively. !*el son. D"o$5) 6.> non1 informative condition and 7> connective criterion. 4. !l !l"o$i) Iris Recognition) I--I. !cc$r"te iris segment"tion b"se* on novel reflection "n* eyel"sh *etection mo*el. Eyelash. a threshold detects strong reflection points and the wea reflection points around the strong points are determined by connective criterion and statistical test.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System images database. 0ong) D..h"ng.Tr"ns"ctions on Comm$nic"tions) 7ol. /) 1=> "hey describe a technique for image encoding in which local operators of many scales but identical shape serve as the basis functions. I--. 0"mmo$n "n* 2. . C. D. . +rocee*ings of 2991 Intern"tion"l . "o determinate a pixel in an eyelash. "he proposed innovative technique is computationally effective as well as reliable in terms of recognition rates. their model follows the three criterions0 1> separable eyelash condition.ym(osi$m on Intelligent 2$ltime*i") 7i*eo "n* . !. 4"ng) T.(eech +rocessing) #ong 0ong) 2991. 6. Eyelid had been solved by traditional eye model@ however. T"n. !. The l"(l"ci"n (yr"mi* "s " com("ct im"ge co*e. 17 . a novel noise detection model is proposed for accurate segmentation of an iris. 2") 8. &ere the authors deal in a ban of circular symmetric filter is used to capture local iris characteristics to from a fix length feature vector for iris recognition. %or reflection. "he last criterion avoids misclassification of strong iris texture as a single and separable eyelash. +. B$rt) -. eyelash and reflection are not been regarded.ciences) 2992.

+ro(erties of cortic"l cells. .1 -*ge Detection Edge detection is a well1developed field on its own within image processing. we determine finally whether two irises are similar. )ecent theoretical investigations along this line have provided many insights into the visual response properties in the early visual system.abor wavelets. computation in the visual system should be optimi!ed for such regularities.egment"tion 18 . 6ee. Rel"tions between the st"tistics of n"t$r"l im"ges "n* the res(onse. and the recent development in theoretical models to explain this relationship. In this article we review both the nown statistical regularities of natural images. =atural images are not random@ instead. &iel*. Im"ge re(resent"tion $sing 2D 1"bor w"velets. Assuming that our vision is designed for tas s on natural images. one needs closed region boundaries. a Canny Edge 4etection scheme and a Circular &ough "ransform. "his paper extends to two dimensions the frame criterion developed by 4aubechies for one1dimensional wavelets. Edge detection techniques have therefore been used as the base of another segmentation technique. D. #y comparing the quanti!ed vectors using the &amming 4istance operator.o$rn"l of the O(tic"l . /.4 .2.2 . a novel technique is developed to create an Iris )ecognition *ystem. /. 19) 1==?. "o segment an ob(ect from an image however. "hey deal in a fusion mechanism that amalgamates both. 1>) No. the extent to which low1level vision might be adapted to them.2. "he edges identified by edge detection are often disconnected. "his is followed by the application of the &aar wavelet in order to extract the deterministic patterns in a person$s iris in the form of a feature vector.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System In this paper. )egion boundaries and edges are closely related. T.Tr"ns"ctions of +"ttern !n"lysis "n* 2"chine Intelligence) 7ol. they exhibit statistical regularities.2 2etho* Use* &or Im(lement"tion% /. I--. since there is often a sharp ad(ustment in intensity at the region boundaries.ociety of !meric") 1=>@. to detect the iris$ boundaries in the eye$s digital image. and it computes the frame bounds for the particular case of .

"he me*i"n filter is a nonlinear digital filtering technique. %or an even number of entries.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System In computer vision. image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain visual characteristics. "he goal of segmentation is to simplify and+or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analy!e. /. there is more than one possible median. segment"tion refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments ?sets of pixels. "he result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image. %or 14 signal. often used to remove noise. Image segmentation is typically used to locate ob(ects and boundaries ?lines. "he pattern of neighbors is called the NwindowN.4 ?or higher1 dimensional> signals such as images. which slides. 5edian filtering is very widely used in digital image processing because under certain conditions. the most obvious window is (ust the first few preceding and following entries. it preserves edges whilst removing noise. /. intensity. over the entire signal. curves. 5ore precisely. or texture. such as color. etc. entry by entry. Ad(acent regions are significantly different with respect to the same characteristic?s>. Each of the pixels in a region is similar with respect to some characteristic or computed property. edge detection on an image>.2. it is often desirable to be able to perform some ind of noise reduction on an image or signal./ Thinning 19 . *uch noise reduction is a typical pre1processing step to improve the results of later processing ?for example.2.> in images. "he main idea of the median filter is to run through the signal entry by entry. more complex window patterns are possible ?such as NboxN or NcrossN patterns>. whereas for . or a set of contours extracted from the image ?li e edge detection>. also nown as super pixels>. replacing each entry with the median of neighboring entries. then the median is simple to define0 it is (ust the middle value after all the entries in the window are sorted numerically. 2e*i"n &ilter In signal processing. =ote that if the window has an odd number of entries.

3e consider only the type O. result of nth iteration depends on result of ?n11>th iteration as well as pixels already processed in the nth iteration. Thinning is one of the preprocessing methods. *equential thinning algorithms . In thinning. the image regions are reduced to one1pixel width characters.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System 6ptical scanning of the roc inscription yields an image ?file of pixels> that forms the raw input to the 6ptical Character )ecognition *ystem. An effective thinning algorithm is one that can ideally compress data. Breprocessing is the first phase of document analysis.. "here are two types of thinning algorithms 1. *hape analysis could be done easily. changing them to white points> along the edges of the pattern until it is thinned to a line. It ma es the subsequent phases of image processing li e recognition of characters easier. "hinning algorithms should perform thinning effectively by successive deletion of dar points ?i. #ut the ey goal is to retain significant features of the pattern.P algorithms here. eliminate local noise without introducing distortions of its own. "hinning is an image preprocessing operation performed to ma e the image crisper by reducing the binary1valued image regions to lines that approximate the s eletons of the region. "hinning cleans the image so that only reduced amount of data needs to be processed in the next image processing stage.e. "he purpose of preprocessing is to improve the quality of the image being processed. Barallel thinning algorithms In O1P. "he output is the set of recogni!ed characters.P. 20 . deletion of pixels in of nth iteration depends only on the result that remains after ?n11>th iteration. In O.

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter < R-AUIR-2-NT .+-CI&IC!TION 21 .

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System All that system needs B. mar the attendance of that student. "his iris code is compared with those in the database. Beh"vior% "he iris is extracted from the eye image and its iris code is generated. 22 . In($t% "he input given to the system will be the eye images of the student. O$t($t% If iris pattern matched.1 &$nction"lity Re:$irements "he system is built to ease the management of students$ attendance.

)B5 hard dis .. 5icrosoft 3indows RB .&! CBC. #A"& ?Broduced #y Cniversity of #ath> 7. 4igital Camera with minimum resolution of < mega pixels. K. C#I)I* . 7. *89 *erver ./-x1-. 5inimum0 1.7- B. )ecommended0 .oftw"re Re:$irements 1. . 1-.&! or higher CBC. . CA*IA ?Chinese Academy of *ciences 4atabases> .=E" %ramewor 7.: 5# or more )A5. ..:xKJ/ display. 1-.$((orte* O(er"ting ..$((orte* D"t"b"ses 1.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System B. +rogr"mming -nvironment Re:$irements .: display.--< . "urbo C+CII 7.. <:-.2 #"r*w"re !n* . <1..ystems 1. . 5icrosoft 3indows Qista 6"ng$"ges 23 .)B5 or higher hard dis .J . 5# )A5.-. 1.< Qersion number 1 :<-J..oftw"re Re:$irements #"r*w"re Re:$irements 1.

-CT +6!NNIN1 24 . C 7.. CII Chapter J +RO.< .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System 1. CS 7.

N"me of .1 !ctivity +l"n .r.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Laying the foundation ?. No. of ho$rs &rom D"te To D"te 25 .$b mo*$le No.che*$ling 1C Re:$irement 1"thering .

"n$"ry) 19 1Bth 2"rch) 19 9th . of ho$rs 9= 19 &rom D"te >th .r.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System 1 2 6iter"t$re .t$*y of !lgorithm D-3isting IrisC 2C Re:$irement !n"lysis . 1 2 N"me of .$rvey . of ho$rs 9= 129 &rom D"te 1=th .oftw"re Testing 26 .$b mo*$le .t$*y No.co(e Definition &e"sibility .t$*y of !lgorithms Im(lement"tion of !lgorithms Design of 1UIEs .e(tember) 9= 9 /> 1>th !$g$st) 9= 2>th !$g$st) 9= 9th!$g$st) 9= 1Bth .t$*y of Connectivity Testing the system on *ifferent im"ge form"t No. No. 1 2 N"me of .e(tember) 9= C ."n$"ry) 19 >9 B 12th &ebr$"ry)19 1st 2"rch)19 2>th &ebr$"ry)19 >th 2"rch)19 / B /9 12th 2"rch)19 2>th 2"rch)19 ? @ Other !s(ects U26 Design 9 9= 1Bth &ebr$"ry) 19 ?th ."n$"ry) 19 /C .$b mo*$le .e(tember)9= Bth .e(tember)9= To D"te 1/th .e(tember) 9= 19th .e(tember) 9= 1>th December) 9= To D"te 11th October) 9= 2Bth . No.r.ystem Design .

I1N 27 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter K D-.

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Expressing ideas @.1 Design Overview Bloc5 Di"gr"m 28 .

1 Use C"se Di"gr"m 29 .2 U26 Di"gr"ms @.1 Bloc5 Di"gr"m @.2.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re @.2.

.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re @.1 Use C"se Di"gr"m @.e:$ence Di"gr"m 30 .2 .2.

e:$ence Di"gr"m @.2.2 . . Comm$nic"tion Di"gr"m 31 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re @.

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re @.B De(loyment Di"gr"m 32 . ./ De(loyment Di"gr"m &ig$re @./ Comm$nic"tion Di"gr"m @. .2.

8. ay it goes! 33 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter / #O4 .T-2 4OR0.

1 %ill the details of the student 7.ystem Overview "he entire system wor s (ust li e any other application using navigation controls.1.enerate the iris code and store in database :. 34 . If recognition is selected :. .1 . for this purpose the students have to register themselves.7 ..7 . Capture his image 7.< Else as him to register.enerate the iris code and compare with the database :.. <. "he end user can navigate from one page to another and can view image and other details of the entered roll number as he wishes. "he application spans the following pages in accordance with the end user selection0 1. :. Capture the image :.1 Enter the roll number to be verified.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System >.1 Registering " st$*ent Initially the database of the students has to be prepared. Qiew the attendance sheet of the whole class. 7. >..: If verified 2 mar the attendance :. 3elcome Bage *election of the required tas 2 register+recognition If register is selected 7.

E1mail id. :. . <. J. #rowse the photo of the student whose information is filled. Bress the L*ubmitM button. "hus the iris code will be generated for the eye image of that student and will be stored with his personal information. . Address. Bress LCreate irisM.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System "he steps for registering a student are 2 1. "a e the eye image of the student with the specified camera. 35 . )oll number. Contact number. %ill the details of that student including his =ame. #ranch. "he iris code will be generated. 7..o to &ome page  Computer 4epartment  )egister. 'ear. K.

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System >. Enter the roll number of the student you want to recogni!e. . 36 .2 RecogniFing " st$*ent %or recogni!ing a student for mar ing his attendance 2 1. .. Bress L)ecognitionM.1.o to &ome page  Computer 4epartment  )ecognition. 7.

the result will be displayed. If the image is already stored. then it as s to L)egisterM. "he student information will be displayed. Attendance mar ed. According to the. K. 37 . <. Bress LCreate irisM.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System :. 1-. then is shows LQalid *tudent. Bress LverifyM. J. F.M If not. /. Bress L#rowseM to select the recent image of the student. "he iris code will be generated.

election of the re:$ire* t"s5 ' registerGrecognition Bage =ame 0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment Input 6utput >.2 . 0 Clic on )egister+ )ecognition 0 )egister+)ecognition Bage . "he user can enter to the student attendance system using the tab in LComputer 4epartmentM. "he user can view the contents of the various tabs provided.1 6ogin +"ge "he welcome page consists of various tabs that allow a user to navigate through the website. >.2 4or5ing of the system >.electing " (ro(er ste(% 38 .2.2.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System >.2.

>. 0 Bage with details of the student.2. >. 39 . .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System >. Reselection of ./. =ame./ 0 Clic on )egister 0 Iris code is generated and information is stored in the database.2 C"(t$re the im"ge Capture the image of the student using the digital camera as specified.1 If register is selecte* < %ill the details of the student Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )egister Input 0 )oll no. 'ear. Contact.2.2 C"(t$re his im"ge Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )egister Input 6utput 0 Eye image. . Address.1 If recognition is selecte* < Enter the roll number to be verified. .2.2. 1ener"te the iris co*e "n* store in *"t"b"se Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )egister Input 6utput >./. E1mail id.te(1 >.2. >. 0 )egister =ew Cser window appears.2. Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )egister Input 6utput 0 #utton clic to select recognition of the specified roll number..

/. .B 7iew the "tten*"nce sheet of the whole cl"ss. >.o$rce co*e 2o*$les% IC . Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )ecognition  Attendance *heet Input 6utput 0 Clic on 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )ecognition  Attendance *heet 0 Attendance *heet for whole class is appearing. Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )ecognition Input 6utput 0 Image for recognition. >.2. 0 Iris code for the new image is generated and is compared with the database./. 1ener"te the iris co*e "n* com("re with the *"t"b"se Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )ecognition Input 6utput 0 *elect on the current image ta en and clic o . 0 =ot verified.B -lse "s5 him to register. >. >. )egister if not present in the database. 0 Qerified and attendance mar ed.2.2.egment"tion 40 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System >./ If verifie* ' m"r5 the "tten*"nce Bage =ame0 3elcome  Computer 4epartment  )ecognition Input 6utput 0 Image for recognition./.2.

(W-.countW-@ for?iW-@iX#96CD*@iII> for?(W-@(X#96CD*@(II> V avgW-@ countW-@ for?xW?iT3I=>@xX?iT3I=>I3I=@xII> for?yW?(T3I=>@yX?(T3I=>I3I=@yII> avgWimageOxPOyPIavg@ avgWavg+?3I=T3I=>@ for?xW?iT3I=>@xX?iT3I=>I3I=@xII> for?yW?(T3I=>@yX?(T3I=>I3I=@yII> 41 .yW-.avgW-.xW-.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System +T %unction name 0 segmentUimage?> input output 0 17T17 bloc of the input image in an array form 0 "he entire bloc flagged to be used for further calculations or left to be neglected further. T+ void segmentUimage?> V int iW-.

or .or .<< depending upon its intensity output 0 17T17 array with each value either as .1> V for?xW?iT3I=>@xX?iT3I=>I3I=@xII> for?yW?(T3I=>@yX?(T3I=>I3I=@yII> imageOxPOyPW.<<@ [ [ [ IIC Bin"rise Im"ge +T %unction name 0 binariseUimage input 0 17T17 bloc of the image array 4escription 0 Each pixel is either mar ed as .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System V if??imageOxPOyPY?avg11->>ZZ?imageOxPOyPX?avgI1->>> countII@ [ if?countY1.<< 42 .

yW-.(W-.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System T+ void binariseUimage?> V int iW-.upperUboundW-@ for?iW-@iX#96CD*@iII> for?(W-@(X#96CD*@(II> V for?xWiT3I=@xX?iT3I=>I3I=@xII> for?yW(T3I=@yX?(T3I=>I3I=@yII> V numOupperUboundPWimageOxPOyP@ upperUboundII@ [ midUvalueWsort?upperUbound>@ for?xWiT3I=@xX?iT3I=>I3I=@xII> for?yW(T3I=@yX?(T3I=>I3I=@yII> V if?imageOxPOyPXmidUvalue> imageOxPOyPW-@ 43 .xW-.midUvalueW-.

midUvalueW-.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System else imageOxPOyPW.yW-.<<@ [ midUvalueW-@ upperUboundW-@ [ [ IIIC 2e*i"n &ilter +T %unction name 0 medianUfilter?> input output T+ void medianUfilter?> V int xW-.upperUboundW-@ for?xW1@xX7--@xII> for?yW1@yX7--@yII> V upperUboundW-@ 44 0 17 T 17 bloc array of the input image array 0 17 T 17 bloc array with noise eliminated using median filtering .

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System numOupperUboundPWimageOx11POy11P@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOx11POyP@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOx11POyI1P@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOxPOy11P@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOxPOyP@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOxPOyI1P@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOxI1POy11P@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOxI1POyP@ numOupperUboundIIPWimageOxI1POyI1P@ upperUboundII@ midUvalueWsort?upperUbound>@ imageOxPOyPWmidUvalue@ [ [ 45 .

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter F 46 .

with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate.1 . so that it wor s as expected and can be implemented with the same characteristics. "his includes. but is not limited to. 47 . It can also be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a software program+application+product meets the business and technical requirements that guided its design and development.TIN1 Learning from mistakes =.oftw"re Testing *oftware "esting is an empirical investigation conducted to provide sta eholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System T-.

input. Initially the term was derived from the product of wor created by automated regression test tools. test procedure. In most cases. a series of steps ?also nown as actions> to follow. Test *"t" "he most common test manually or in automation is retesting and regression testing. Clinically defined a test case is an input and an expected result. "oday.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System =. and actual result. Test (l"n 48 . or a combination of both.2 Testing "rtif"cts *oftware testing process can produce several artifacts Test c"se A test case in software engineering normally consists of a unique identifier. preconditions. whereas other test cases described in more detail the input scenario and what results might be expected. "he test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. expected result. output. "his can be as pragmatic as Efor condition x your derived result is yE. All the test values and changeable environmental components are collected in separate files and stored as test data. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. automated. multiple sets of values or data are used to test the same functionality of a particular feature. and test data. requirement references from a design specification. and descriptions of the following tests. Test scri(t "he test script is the combination of a test case. events. Test s$ite "he most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. test scripts can be manual. It is also useful to provide this data to the client and with the product or a pro(ect.

n"(shots 49 .ystem ($t to Test =. Test h"rness "he software. .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System A test specification is called a test plan. samples of data input and output.1 Testing . "he developers are well aware what test plans will be executed and this information is made available to the developers. =. "his ensures that the developer$s code is not passed through any surprise test case or test plans. "his ma es the developers more cautious when developing their code. and configurations are all referred to collectively as a test harness. tools. .

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re =. 50 . .1.1 Test C"ses.

2 R$n Test. .1. 51 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re =.

2 Testing Re(ort 52 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System &ig$re =.1. . =. 7"li*"tion Test. .

-+-:+1Ty(e% 5A=CA9 1. *tep . *tep . Chec the feed bac in the %eed bac is accepted in the web page. 53 -3(ecte* Res$lt of 6nly numbers are accepted.te( N"me Descri(tion -3(ecte* Res$lt *tep 1 #rowsing through the web 3hen the web site name is pages. *tep < Clic ing on Contact Cs tab.2 Register New . given in the address bar the home page is opened.1 *teps . characters are not allowed.te( N"me Descri(tion *tep 1 Entering )oll =umber student. *tep J *tep K Clic ing on department Computer 3hen clic ed on N Computer departmentN "ab "wo sub parts are opened.t"t$s% 4esign Designer% admin Cre"tion D"te% . *tep 7 Clic ing on Infrastructure tab.$bject% 9ogin . Characters are allowed. 1. *tep : Clic ing on Blacement Cell 3hen clic ed on N Blacement tab. Entering =ame of student. .-+-:+1Ty(e% 5A=CA9 1. 3hen clic ed on N InfrastructureN "ab Infrastructure page is opened..t$*ent . CellN "ab Blacement Cell page is opened. Clic ing on About 5AE tab.$bject% 9ogin .1 *teps . 3hen clic ed on NAbout 5AEN "ab home page is displayed. 3hen clic ed on N Contact CsN "ab Contact Cs page is opened..1.1 !$thentic"tion .t"t$s% 4esign Designer% admin Cre"tion D"te% . web page.$bject 1 Browsing thro$gh the website 1.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System .

Entering Address of student .t"t$s% 4esign Designer% admin Cre"tion D"te% .1 +roce*$res . -3(ecte* Res$lt "he dialog box for choosing the image is displayed. 54 .$bject% *chema4etails . *tep : Bress submit.-+-:+1Ty(e% 5A=CA9 .1 *teps . "he eye image is displayed. student.chem" Det"ils 2. *tep : *tep < 2 . recognise. "he generated iris code along with the entered information of the student is inserted into the database.$bject% *chema4etails . "he address of the student is accepted. *tep .te( N"me Descri(tion *tep 1 Bress browse in the registration web page.1.1 *teps .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System *tep 7 Entering E1mail id of student. *elect particular eye image of the respective student.t"t$s% 4esign Designer% admin Cre"tion D"te% . "he processing of selected eye image ta es place and iris code is generated. *tep 7 Bress create iris code.te( N"me Descri(tion -3(ecte* Res$lt *tep 1 Enter the )oll number to be "he entered information of the recognised and pressed give roll number is displayed... 6nly the E1mail ids accrding to 4=* system are accepted otherwise displays the error msg.-+-:+1Ty(e% 5A=CA9 . Entering Contact no of the 6nly =umbers can be entered. 2.7.2 Recognition of " st$*ent .

"he iris code for the newly given eye image is generated and compared with the already existing entries. 55 . "he dialog box for selecting a particular eye image is displayed. displayed.te( N"me Descri(tion *tep 1 "est the database.$bject% *chema4etails . Bress Qerify.t"t$s% 4esign Designer% admin Cre"tion D"te% . *tep . Qiew the present status of the Bresent *tatus of the student is student.-+-:+1Ty(e% 5A=CA9 .Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System *tep . -3(ecte* Res$lt database is opened and attendance sheet is displayed.1 *teps . 7iew the tot"l "tten*"nce .. 2. *tep 7 Bress #rowse.7.

As a website.bmp. and other formats. . this system can be uploaded on the internet and can be viewed as a website. 56 . "hus.(peg. "his system is also built up to show the total attendance of the students. in total this system can be described as1 !$tom"te* 2 As it successfully monitors the attendance.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter 1- CONC6U.ION Leap towards the new "eginning "he system for attendance management wor s efficiently for various types of image such as .

57 .ec$re* 2 #uilt in A*B. A$ic5 2 As the response time of the system is very less.=et ma es it secured website.Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System . &le3ible 2 As it can run on different image format.

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System Chapter 11 &UTUR. .. 7. :. Iris recognition using a real time video. "he developed application should be able to support a large database. "his concept of iris recognition for still images can be further extended to 1 1. #uilt a complete product to ma e it as fully fledged software. "he response time for the system supporting large database should be very less.CO+- Thinking out of the "ox 3e have wor ed sufficiently on still images for iris recognition of a person and applied it for managing the attendance.. 58 .

Automation System for Students’ Attendance using IRIS Recognition System At last. Identification. 59 . the unique biometric identification technique of I)I* recognition should be applicable to a variety of real time systems for Qerification. *ecurity and *afety purposes.