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Procedia Engineering 41 (2012) 1502 – 1506

International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors 2012 (IRIS 2012)

The Effect of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes on different welding parameters
Izzatul Aini Ibrahim1, Syarul Asraf Mohamat1, Amalina Amir1, Abdul Ghalib1
1

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 40450 Selangor

Abstract

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process is leading in the development in arc welding process which is higher productivity and good in quality. In this study, the effects of different parameters on welding penetration, microstructural and hardness measurement in mild steel that having the 6mm thickness of base metal by using the robotic gas metal arc welding are investigated. The variables that choose in this study are arc voltage, welding current and welding speed. The arc voltage and welding current were chosen as 22, 26 and 30 V and 90, 150 and 210 A respectively. The welding speed was chosen as 20, 40 and 60 cm/min. The penetration, microstructure and hardness were measured for each specimen after the welding process and the effect of it was studied. As a result, it obvious that increasing the parameters value of welding current increased the value of depth of penetration. Other than that, arc voltage and welding speed is another factor that influenced the value of depth of penetration. The microstructure shown the different grain boundaries of each parameters that affected of the welding parameters. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Centre of Humanoid Robots and Bio-Sensor (HuRoBs), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA.
Keywords: Depth of penetration, Hardnessn Microstructural, Welding Parameters

Nomenclature u velocity in the direction of (m/s) A radius of (m) B position of C further nomenclature continues down the page inside the text box Greek symbols stoichiometric coefficient boundary layer thicknesses(m) Subscripts r radial coordinate 1.0 Introduction Welding techniques back in the recently years, the GMAW process leading in the development in arc welding process which is higher productivity and good in quality. A Metal Inert Gas (MIG) also called GMAW is the process that included of heating, melting and solidification of parents metals and a filler (wire electrode) material in restricted fusion zone by transient heat source to form a joint between the parents metals [2]. The continuous wire electrode from an automatic wire feeder and fed through the contact tip inside the welding torch is melted by the internal resistive power and heat transferred from the welding arc. Heat determined from the end of the melting electrode to molten weld pools and by

1877-7058 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.342

The best possible welding conditions are determined by combination the factors like the types of base metal. wt (%) Element Wt (%) Base Metal Wire Electrode C 0.15 Si 0. Table 1. the specimens will etched using 2% nital to clearly the metal zone of welding.15 Ni 0. the geometry of welded parts and the welding process [4]. / Procedia Engineering 41 (2012) 1502 – 1506 1503 the molten metal that transferred to weld pools [5].06-. welding current and welding speed. 150 and 210 A approximately.025 S 0.80-1. arc voltage. The chemical composition of the specimens.204 0. welding speed. free wire length. GMAW welding operations were performed by means of an OTC Almega AII-B4 welding robots. The investigation of GMAW process and relationship between process variables and bead geometry was carried and the results showed the arc current has the greatest effects on bead geometry. The depth of penetration will measure and microstructural will observed on the etched specimens by optical microscopy 10x magnification. The variables that choose in this study are arc voltage. From the previous study with an MIG or GMAW welding process.143 0.0 Experimental For the experimental studies. productivity and cost of welding joint. 2.0085 0. The spectrometric analysis of the specimen was done by using Spectromax and the chemical compositions of base metal and wire electrode were given in the Table 1. the torch angle is 5°. the specimens will cut perpendicular to the welding direction by using a cut-off machine to cut the specimens and polished with different grades of emery sheets.40-1. 100% percentage CO2 was used as a shielding gas protect.85 P 0. 26 and 30 V and 90.081 0. These parameters consists of arc welding current. The arc voltage and welding current were chosen as 22. for the Vickers Hardness values for HAZ. welding position and direction and lastly the flow rate of gas [1]. The GMAW welding parameters influence the quality. Investigation in the weld deposit area and presented that the effects of electrode polarity. torch angle. The relationship between the bead geometry and process parameters began investigation in the mid 1900s and the regression analysis was applied in the welding geometry research in 1987. travel speed and flux on the weld deposit area [3]. power source setting. nozzle distance. The perfect arc will be achieved if all the welding parameters in conformation. diameter and extension.012 0.65 1. welding current.15 Mn 0. nozzle to work distance is 12mm and only one pass on weld plate. 1.Izzatul Aini Ibrahim et al. the mild steel having the 100mm x 100mm x 6mm sizes were used as the base metal. Then. The welding speed was chosen as 20. arc voltage. A OTC Almega AII-B4 welding robots . Figure 1. the 1kg load applies up to 20second on the specimens [1] [2] [5]. it observed that the depth of penetration increased when the welding current is increased but decreased with decrease in voltage and the penetration increased when arc travel rate decreased until it attained a minimum value depends on the arc power [5]. Lastly.15 After done with the welding process for all those of arc welding process.2mm diameter of electrode wire (AWS classification ER70S-6).035 Cr 0.231 0. 40 and 60 cm/min.

Penetration vs welding parameter Penetration (mm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 90 90 150 210 150 210 90 150 welding current (A) 210 speed 60 cm/min speed 40 cm/min speed 20 cm/min arc voltage (V) 22 26 30 Figure 2. The highest penetration is 3. Welding Current diagram for 20 cm/min welding speed In Figure 2.79 mm at 26 V and 210 A.98 mm at 22 V and 210 A. 3.26 mm at 22 V and 210 A. welding speed as constant as 40 cm/min and the value of penetration was increased by increasing the value of welding current 90. The highest penetration is 2.1504 Izzatul Aini Ibrahim et al. At 20 cm/min. 150 and 210 A. welding speed and arc voltage the grain size of microstructure also different from one point to another point. The Figure below shown at the arc voltage 22 V. The change in the value depth of penetration is similar at voltage of 26V and 30V. In Figure 2. The welding speed as constant as 60 cm/min and the value of penetration was increased by increasing the value of welding current 90. The increased welding current. the large grain boundaries have shown but at 40 cm/min. welding current and welding speed were performed and the hardness. / Procedia Engineering 41 (2012) 1502 – 1506 3. welding speed as constant as 20 cm/min and the value of penetration was increased by increasing the value of welding current 90. 3. Penetration vs. The changes in gas metal arc welding parameters are influence the affect of the microstructure of weld metal. 210 A welding current and different value of welding speed 20 cm/min. penetration value was measured and also the microstructure for all cases.0 Results and discussion The total 27 experiments with different variables parameters which are arc voltage.1 The effect of welding current on penetration The effect of welding current on penetration was present in Figures 2. the grain boundaries become smaller than 20 cm/min and at 60 cm/min it is smallest and form more martensite than others. The highest penetration is 2. 40 cm/min and 60 cm/min present the different phase of grain boundaries. 150 and 210 A. . 150 and 210 A.2 Microstructural These microstructural changes have been shown in Figures 3.

Welding Current and arc voltage diagram Hardness values under the different welding parameters were plotted in Figure 4. 22V. 22V.Izzatul Aini Ibrahim et al. the specimens will etched using 2% nital to clearly the metal zone of welding. Hardness traverses of current and voltage Hardness (HV) weldin… 300 200 100 0 speed 20 cm/min 90 90 210 150 210 150 90 150 210 speed 40 cm/min speed 60 cm/min arc voltage (V) 22 26 30 Figure 4. The hardness values are determined and performance in Figure 6.3 Vickers Hardness Test The specimens will cut perpendicular to the welding direction by using a cut-off machine to cut the specimens and polished with different grades of emery sheets. it noticed that hardness was increased at 90 A and slowly decreased to 150 A but at 210 A it greater than 150 A. / Procedia Engineering 41 (2012) 1502 – 1506 1505 210 A. 60cm/min 3. the material will loses its original strength by strain hardening effect in the fused zone area during the solidification. Microstructure of welded parts 210 A. . In studying the hardness graphs that produced from different welding parameters. In that Figures. at the fusion zone that content the formation of bainite or martensite phase and that were increased the hardness of metal [5]. Hardness vs. Then. 20cm/min 210 A. 22V. it represents the welding current versus hardness value at weld bead. voltage of 26V expose the highest hardness because of the faster the speed at medium voltage reveals the best formation of martensite grain. Normally. the 1kg load applies up to 20second on the specimens. In the low alloy steel or carbon steel. 40cm/min Figure 3. Hardness at speed of 60cm/min. The Vickers Hardness values for HAZ.

Arivazhagan and A. Impact Energy and Bead Penetration of AA6061 joints Produced by robotic MIG Welding.S.S. 2010. P.Kim. / Procedia Engineering 41 (2012) 1502 – 1506 4. 3. Selangor Malaysia. Welding current is factor that will determine the penetration. the good value of penetration for three various welding speed is 22 V at 210 A. B. The value of depth of penetration increased by increasing the value of welding current 90. 189-199. A Prediction of Welding Process Parameters by Prediction of Back-Bead Geometry.Kim and O. Lee and K.Y.M. Material Processing Technology 108 (2000) 106-113. The grain boundaries of microstructure changes from bigger size to smallest size when the variables welding parameters changed.6. the good value for penetration happened is 26 V at 210 A. Material Processing Technology 136 (2003) 139-145. Penetration also influence by the factors from welding speed and arc voltage.Noorul Haq.Kim. [4] J. References [1] Erdal Karadeniz. The variables parameters in this experiment are welding current.Aravinda.W. [3] I. Science and Technology. Um.1506 Izzatul Aini Ibrahim et al. At the welding speed 60 cm/min. The hardness at weld bead it is higher value at point 90 A and it slowly dropped to 150 A and at 210 A it small increased than 150 A.G. Vol. No. Effect of Arc Voltage. [5] P.R. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank to the Amalina Amir and Abdul Ghalib for their support and also to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. In this conclusion it found that: 1. J. I. Son. Ugur Ozsarac and Ceyhan Yildiz. Ghazvinlo. arc voltage and welding speed.2.S. pp.Kim. UiTM Shah Alam. .0 Conclusions In this study to investigate the effect of GMAW processes on different welding parameters. The Effect of Process Parameters on Penetration in Gas Metal Arc Welding Processes. J. [2] H.Honarbakhsh and N. Welding Current and Welding Speed on Fatigue Life. A Study on Relationship between Process Variables and Bead Penetration for Robotic CO2 Arc Welding.I. Microstructural Characteristics on Bead on Plate Welding of AISI 904 L Super Austenitic Stainless Steel Using Gas Metal Arc Welding Process. It plotted the highest values of penetration than others. Material and Design 28 (2007) 649-656. Shadfar. Ajith. Engineering. 2.Sathiya. S. At the graph. A. The higher value of hardness is 26 V at 90 A at welding speed 60 cm/min. 150 and 210 A.