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!

Wrlung ulsablllues: Lpldemlology,


Luology, AssessmenL & lnLervenuon
Marlene SoLelo-uynega, sy.u.
coottlbotots. coottoey . 5embocb & mlly Mootoqllooe
!"#$%&
" lnLroducuon
" uenlng Wrlung ulsablllues
" Lpldemlology
" Luology
" SubLypes
" AssessmenL
" lnLervenuon
" 8esources
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5+2+.#% <$")+*> 84/,-+#$-1
?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#* 6#,$#%
Source: Mather, N. & Wendling, B.J. (2010). How SLD manifests in writing. In D.P. Flanagan & V.C. Alfonso (Eds.). Essentials of specific learning
disability identification (pp. 65-88). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Not an
IDEA
SLD Area
!
<8+%#2+/)/"1 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
B4%(%*5 ;$C D.#7%*5
6%$#?%"%(%.$
! LsumaLed LhaL 80 of SLus
have SLu ln readlng.
! ShaywlLz & ShaywlLz,
2006
0.D%#$.* &"#* PQJH 0#4G#% R$%#4 K6<! JSST
0/D4-#: RI0I 6#8&4.2#$. /3 <%D-&.+/$L ;O-# /3 08#-+&) <%D-&.+/$ F4/"4&2*L 6&.& !$&)1*+* 01*.#2
U6!0V JSSW7I ?&*>+$"./$L 6(: K<0 X&.+/$&) (#$.#4 3/4 <%D-&.+/$&) 0.&.+*.+-*I !G&+)&9)# 34/2 >..8:YY
$-#*I#%I"/GY%&*I
!"#$%&#'(# /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! !"#$%&#'(# = LoLal number of cases of a dlsease
exlsung ln a populauon.
! Lpldemlologlcal sLudles on prevalence raLes of
wrluen language dlsorders are scarce".
! kaLusuc, Colllgan, Weaver, & 8arbaresl, 2009, p. 3
! Why ls prevalence raLe lnformauon lacklng?
! locus (AkA $$$) ln uS ls on 8eadlng.
! no operauonal denluon for wrlung dlsorders.
! Are wrlung dlsorders lndependenL of readlng dlsorders?
! LlmlLed knowledge regardlng adequaLe assessmenL of
wrlung dlsorders.
!"#$%&#'(# /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! 8eld Lyon (1996)
! Wrluen language dlsorders aecL aL leasL 10 of Lhe school aged populauon.
! nCLS (1999)
! 61 of 4
Lh
graders wroLe aL a baslc level ln wrlung, 16 were below baslc.
! 8ernlnger and ParL (1992)
! Sample of 300 elemenLary school chlldren
! 1.3-2.7 handwrlung, 4 spelllng, 1-3 for wrluen expresslon
! Pooper eL al. (1993):
! Sample of 1,274 mlddle schoolers
! 6-22 scored <1 Su below average on Lhe narrauve subLesL of Lhe 1esL of
Wrluen Language
! Lower scores ln boys and mlnorlues
!"#$%&#'(# /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Maybe under-dlagnosed
! 1eachers reporLed much hlgher lncldence of handwrlung
dlmculues (8osenblum, Welss, & arush, 2004):
! 33 of males
! 10 of females
! locus ls on keoJloq ln uS:
! < 1/3 of 4Lh and 8Lh graders are lkOllclN1
! < 1/4 of 12Lh graders ln wrlung
! Salahu-uln, ersky, & Mlller, 2008
)'(*+#'(# /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! llrsL epldemlologlcal sLudy of Lhe
lncldence of Wrluen Language
ulsorders ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes
! WLu ls common among school-aged
chlldren.
! lncldence ranged from 6.9-14.7
dependlng on formula used.
! Males 2-3 umes more llkely Lo have
WLu Lhan females.
! Cnly 23 of Lhe sample had a wrlung
dlsorder wlLhouL a readlng dlsorder.
6.;.")1/.*(#"
!)<4$.
! LaLer onseL Lhan readlng
dlmculues
! Wrlung ls Lhe lost language
domaln Lo develop ln
chlldren
! !ohnson & MyklebusL, 1967,
Pooper eL al., 1994
! lew sLudles of long-Lerm
ouLcomes ln chlldren
ldenued speclcally wlLh
dlsorders of wrluen
expresslon
! lleLcher, 8eld Lyon, luchs,
& 8arnes, 2007
!
,-*.&./0 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*/4%#4*
,-*.&./0 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Causes:
! Medlcal
! Carbon Monoxlde (8ernsLeln, 2008)
! leLal Alcohol Syndrome (8ernsLeln, 2008)
! 18l- arleLal lobe (nlnuS, 2009)
! Ceneucs (8ernsLeln, 8ashklnd, 2001)
,-*.&./0 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Causes conunued:
! neuropsychologlcal
! llne-moLor
! Language
! vlsual-Spaual
! Auenuon
! Memory
! Sequenclng
,-*.&./0 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Causes conunued:
! LnvlronmenLal
! Lack of approprlaLe educauon
! Lack of adequaLe wrlung lnsLrucuon
! Lack of culLural experlences
! Mouvauon
! CLher
! uyslexla
! CrLhographlc rocesslng
! honologlcal rocesslng
! Speech or Language lmpalrmenLs
! Cral language dlsorders
! AssoclaLed wlLh slgnlcanL, long-Lerm problems wlLh wrluen
expresslon
! Wrluen expresslon dlmculues perslsL even lf oral language problems
are resolved (8lshop & Snowllng, 2004, 8lshop & Clarkson, 2003).
!
123-04#5 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
123-04#5 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Muludlmenslonal naLure of wrlung
! kepoltes o moluJlmeosloool opptoocb to
lJeoufcouoo
! SubLypes wlll emerge based on Lhe sLage or
componenL of Lhe wrlung process aL whlch a
breakdown occurs
! lleLcher, 8eld Lyon, luchs, & 8arnes, 2007, p. 242
wbot ls Lhe lssue?
!"#$%&"'()*$
! +#$,-"')$.
! llne-MoLor
! vlsual-MoLor
! /(011'$.
! Auenuon
! llne-MoLor AblllLy
! honologlcal Skllls
! CrLhographlc Skllls
20$0"#)*$#1
! 3*4(*%')*$
! Auenuon
! llne-MoLor
! honologlcal/CrLhographlc Skllls
! lannlng/Crganlzauon
! CrysLalllzed knowledge
! 8eLrleval
! Worklng Memory
! 1ranslaung LhoughLs lnLo LexL
! MeLacognluon
! 8evlew/LdlL
Source: Berninger, V.W. (2004). Understanding the graphia in developmental dysgraphia: A developmental neuropsychological perspective for
disorders in producing written language. In D. Dewey & D. Tupper (Eds.), Developmental motor disorders: A neuropsychological perspective (pp.
189-233). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'- /3 ?4+.+$"
6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Common Wrlung 1esLs (l.e., W! lll ACP,
WlA1-lll, k1LA-ll
! Are noL always conduclve Lo a Jloqoosuc
evaluauon of handwrlung, spelllng, or
wrluen expresslon dlmculues
! MusL use:
! CuallLauve meLhods
! 1ask demand analyses aL Lhe lLem level
! ulagnosuc AchlevemenL 8auerles
! ltocess Assessmeot of tbe leotoet (lAl-ll)
! vlrglnla 8ernlnger (2007), earson
AssessmenLs
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'- /3 ?4+.+$"
6+*&9+)+.+#*
! Ceneral AssessmenL 8ecommendauons:
! CPC-Lheory-based, Comprehenslve
AssessmenL
! Allows pracuuoners Lo see Lhe blg plcLure.
! Comprehenslve 8ackground PlsLory
! 8ASC-2 SLrucLured uevelopmenLal PlsLory
! arenL Cuesuonnalres
! neuropsychologlcal rocesslng Concerns
CheckllsL for Chlldren and ?ouLh-1hlrd Ldluon
! Mlller, u.C. (2013). sseouols of scbool oeotopsycboloqlcol ossessmeot
(2
oJ
eJ.). Poboken, n!: !ohn Wlley and Sons.
123-04#5 /3 ?4+.+$" 6+*&9+)+.+#*
1. MoLor-8ased nooJwtluoq lssoes
! uysgraphla
2. Code-8ased 5pellloq lssoes
! uyslexla
3. Language-8ased composluoo lssoes
! Cral Language
! Lxecuuve luncuonlng
?4+.+$" 6+O-D).1QK$&9+)+.1 (/$.+$DD2
Z4##B 5#**/$
! Cteek otlqlo.
! A = lnablllLy
! uys = lmpalrmenL
! Ctopblo = Wrlung
!
6[0ZA!F\K!
Motot-8oseJ wtluoq ltoblems
61*"4&8>+&
! A ptlmoty lmpoltmeot lo qtopbomotot skllls ooJ
tbe ptoJocuoo of wtlueo fotms, wblcb coo tbeo
o[ect booJwtluoq ooJ spellloq Jevelopmeot.
loJlvlJools wltb Jysqtopblo sttoqqle wltb tbe
mototlc ospects of wtluoq, bovloq weokoesses lo
motot coottol ooJ tbe execouoo of speclfc motot
movemeots.
! MaLher & Wendllng, 2010, p. 68
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5 /3 61*"4&8>+&
! llne-MoLor lssues
! uraws plcLures LhaL seem lmmaLure for age
! Pas dlmculLy wlLh Lasks lnvolvlng ne-moLor coordlnauon (e.g., Lylng
shoes)
! Seems dlslnLeresLed ln drawlng or learnlng Lo wrlLe
! Pas Lrouble holdlng a crayon, pencll, or pen correcLly
! encll Crasp auerns
! lorms leuers ln odd ways (e.g., sLarLs from Lhe bouom raLher Lhan Lhe
Lop)
! Pas poor spaclng beLween leuers and words
! Pas papers LhaL appear messy
! Pas poor or sloppy handwrlung
! Pas dlmculLy learnlng curslve wrlung
! Pas a slow raLe of wrlung
Source: MaLher, n. and ColdsLeln, S. (2008). Learnlng dlsablllues and challenglng behavlors: A gulde Lo lnLervenuon and
classroom managemenL (2nd ed.). 8alumore, Mu: 8rookes
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5 /3 61*"4&8>+&
5'$0 7*8*"9 )'#*(+#', !#'(+& ."%/0/
Fisted
Thumb
Tuck
Thumb
Wrap
Index
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5 /3 61*"4&8>+&
5'$0 7*8*"9 1%'23"+4'5
! AuLomauclLy ln Lhe reLrleval and
producuon of:
! AlphabeL leuers
! 8apld codlng of orLhographlc lnformauon
! Speed of sequenual nger movemenLs
! 8ernlnger, 1994, 2004, 8ernlnger & ParL,
1993, Craham eL al., 2000, Craham,
WlnLraub, & 8ernlnger, 2001
Best
Predictors
of
Handwriting
Skills
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5 /3 61*"4&8>+&
5'$0 7*8*"9 67807'#',/ 79 1%'23"+4'5
! 8ecall Lhe appearance of leuers and Lhen coordlnaLe Lhe moLor
pauerns needed Lo form Lhe leuers.
! Leuers musL be leqlble.
! Leuers musL be produced foeotly.
Source: Mather, N., Wendling, B.J., & Roberts, R. (2009). Writing assessment and instruction for students with learning disabilities (2
nd
ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5 /3 61*"4&8>+&
Leglble Pandwrlung lnvolves:
! Leuer formauon
! Slze and proporuon of leuers
! Spaclng beLween leuers and
words
! SlanL, conslsLency ln Lhe dlrecuon
of leuers.
! AllgnmenL on Lhe wrlung llne.
! Llne quallLy or Lhe sLeadlness and
Lhlckness of Lhe llne.
Source: Barbe, W.B., Wasylyk, T.M., Hackney, C.S., & Braun, L.A. (1984). Zaner-Bloser creative growth in hand writing (Grades K-8). Columbus,
OH: Zaner-Bloser.
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'- /3 61*"4&8>+&
! MoLor/Pandwrlung AssessmenL
! ***8eery-8ukLenlca uevelopmenLal 1esL of vlsual-
MoLor lnLegrauon, 3Lh Ldluon***
! rocess AssessmenL of Lhe Learner- Second Ldluon
! lnformal CheckllsLs for observlng and analyzlng
handwrlung
! 8esL predlcLors of handwrlung (8ernlnger, 2009):
! CrLhographlc Codlng
! CraphomoLor lannlng for Sequenual llnger
MovemenLs
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'- /3 61*"4&8>+&
! ltocess Assessmeot of tbe leotoet (lAl-ll)
! vlrglnla 8ernlnger (2007), earson
AssessmenLs
! Pandwrlung SubLesLs:
! AlphabeL Wrlung & Copylng
! LeglblllLy
! lluency
! AllgnmenL
! Slzlng
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'- /3 61*"4&8>+&
! ltocess Assessmeot of tbe leotoet (lAl-ll)
! vlrglnla 8ernlnger (2007), earson
AssessmenLs
! CLher Wrlung SubLesLs:
! CrLhographlc Codlng
! 8ecepuve
Are Lwo words Lhe same?
! Lxpresslve
Copy non-sense lrregular word from
memory
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'- /3 61*"4&8>+&
! ltocess Assessmeot of tbe leotoet (lAl-ll)
! vlrglnla 8ernlnger (2007), earson
AssessmenLs
! CLher Wrlung SubLesLs:
! llnger Sense
! llnger 8epeuuon
! llnger Successlon
! llnger Locallzauon
)'-#"$#'-*.'5 3/4 61*"4&8>+&
:&&;(#)*$#1 !<0"#(= >?#1;#)*$ #$, !"0#840$8
)'-#"$#'-*.'5 3/4 61*"4&8>+&
! MeLa-analysls of Pandwrlung lnLervenuons (Poy,
Lgan, & leder, 2011):
! ulrecL handwrlung lnLervenuon remedlaLed:
! Leuer Lransposluons
! lmproved auLomauclLy
! lmproved moLor movemenL
! Pands on pracuce was found Lo be essenual!!
)'-#"$#'-*.'5 3/4 61*"4&8>+&
! Pandwrlung WlLhouL 1ears
! Mulusensory handwrlung
currlculum
! klndergarden-3
Lh
grade
! Some emplrlcal supporL
! www.hwLears.com
)'-#"$#'-*.'5 3/4 61*"4&8>+&
! ://+/4$# ;#(<'7&75=
! AlphasmarLs
! CompuLers
! 1ableLs
! :2%04$# ;#(<'7&75=
! 1alk-Lo-LexL
! Pandwrlung recognluon
soware
!
6[05<]K!
coJe-8oseJ wtluoq ltoblems
Source: Richard Wilkinson
61*)#=+&
! uyslexlo ls o 5lu tbot ls oeotoloqlcol lo otlqlo. lt ls
cbotoctetlzeJ by Jl[colues wltb occotote ooJ/ot foeot
wotJ tecoqoluoo ooJ by poot spellloq ooJ JecoJloq
oblllues. 1bese Jl[colues typlcolly tesolt ftom o Jefclt lo
tbe pboooloqlcol compooeot of looqooqe tbot ls ofeo
ooexpecteJ lo telouoo to otbet coqoluve oblllues ooJ tbe
ptovlsloo of e[ecuve closstoom losttocuoo. 5ecooJoty,
coosepoeoces moy locloJe ptoblems lo teoJloq
comptebeosloo ooJ teJoceJ teoJloq expetleoce tbot coo
lmpeJe qtowtb of vocoboloty ooJ bockqtoooJ
koowleJqe.
! lnLernauonal uyslexla Assoclauon (2003)
61*)#=+&
! vlrglnla 8ernlnger, h.u.
! unlverslLy of WashlngLon Muludlsclpllnary Learnlng
ulsablllues CenLer (uW LuC)
! >=/&#?+% +/ %&/7 %//7(+%,#2 3+,< 0"7(#//+'5 +80%+"8#',/
+' 7",<75"%0<+( 0"7(#//+'5 %'2 "%0+2 %@,78%4( '%8+'5
AB:CDE
! 8ernlnger, eL al., 2001
123-04#5 /3 61*)#=+&
! honologlcal uyslexla
! AkA uysphoneuc uyslexla
! AudlLory processlng declLs
! CrLhographlc uyslexla
! AkA Surface uyslexla
! CrLhographlc & 8An
! Mlxed uyslexla
! Comblnauon of honologlcal and CrLhographlc
! AudlLory, CrLhography and 8An declLs
F>/$/)/"+-&) 61*)#=+&
! honologlcal rocesslng
! 8roader Lhan Co
! ueclLs Lyplcally occur wlLh:
! honologlcal awareness
Anu/C8
! verbal ShorL-Lerm memory
! ueclLs aecL Lhe acqulsluon of:
! uecodlng skllls
! Lncodlng skllls
honologlcal
rocesslng
honologlcal
Awareness
Co
honemlc
Awareness
honologlcal Access
Lo Lexlcal SLore
Clt
honologlcal
Memory
Csm
verbal ShorL-1erm
Memory
F>/$/)/"+-&) !^&4#$#**
! honologlcal skllls ln order from mosL baslc Lo
advanced
@<*$*1*.'&#1 /A'11% B0%&"'()*$
Word Awareness 1racklng Lhe words ln senLences.
8esponslveness Lo
rhyme and alllLerauon
durlng word play
Ln[oylng and reclung learned rhymlng words or alllLerauve
phrases ln famlllar sLorybooks or nursery rhymes.
Syllable Awareness Counung, Lapplng, blendlng, or segmenung a word lnLo
syllables.
CnseL and rlme
manlpulauon
AblllLy Lo produce a rhymlng word depends on undersLandlng
LhaL rhymlng words have Lhe same rlme.
honeme(lc) Awareness SegmenL and produce Lhe lnlual sound, Lhen Lhe nal and
mlddle sounds.
8lend sounds lnLo words.
SegmenL Lhe phonemes ln 2- or 3-sound words, movlng Lo 4-
and 3-sound words.
ManlpulaLe phonemes by removlng, addlng, or subsuLuung
sounds.
Source: Moats, L., & Tolman, C. (2008). The development of phonological skills. Retrieved 2/17/2014, from :
www.readingrockets.org/article/28759?theme=print
_#49&) 0>/4.Q`#42 E#2/41
! AblllLy Lo repeaL lnformauon lmmedlaLely aer
hearlng lL.
! MaLher & ColdsLeln, 2008
! F'# 79 ,<# 87/, 9"#G@#',&= "#07",#2
(<%"%(,#"+/4(/ 79 +'2+$+2@%&/ 3+,< /#$#"# "#%2+'5
2+/%H+&+4#/E
! Morrls eL al., 1998, 1orgesen & 8urgess, 1998
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< F>/$/)/"+-&) 61*)#=+&
! Larly Speech/Language ulmculues
! Aruculauon errors
! Mlspronunclauon of mulusyllablc words
! Word ldenucauon (uecodlng)
! 1rouble rememberlng sound-symbol relauonshlps
! Confuslon beLween slmllar soundlng sounds
! /b/ and /p/
! Cver-rellance on whole-word and conLexL clues
! ulmculLy sequenclng sounds ln words
! 1rouble pronounclng mulusyllablc words
! 1rouble pronounclng phonlcally regular nonsense words
! ulmculLy applylng phonlcs Lo pronounce unfamlllar words
! Slow readlng raLe
Source: Mather, N. and Goldstein, S. (2008). Learning disabilities and challenging behaviors: A guide to intervention and
classroom management (2
nd
ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< F>/$/)/"+-&) 61*)#=+&
! Spelllng (Lncodlng)
! Confuslon beLween slmllar-soundlng sounds
! vowels, volced and unvolced consonanL palrs
! honeucally lnaccuraLe
! Plpy (Pappy), Slg (slng), cL (caL)
! ulmculLy sequenclng sounds
! 1endency Lo omlL some sounds
! 1endency Lo lnclude a few unnecessary sounds
! ulmculLy represenung each syllable
! 1endency Lo over-rely on Lhe vlsual appearance of words
raLher Lhan on Lhe leuer-sound relauonshlps.
Source: Mather, N. and Goldstein, S. (2008). Learning disabilities and challenging behaviors: A guide to intervention and
classroom management (2
nd
ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< F>/$/)/"+-&)
61*)#=+&
! Comprehenslve CCC and ACP
! locus on:
! CrysLalllzed lnLelllgence measures
! Memory Span Lasks
! AudlLory rocesslng
! C1C2 mlghL be necessary
! seudoword uecodlng and Spelllng
! 8egular word uecodlng & Spelllng
WJ III ACH
6 year old, 2
nd

grade, female
;4.>/"4&8>+- 61*)#=+&
! AkA:
! Surface uyslexla
! vlsual Word-lorm uyslexla
! uyseldeuc uyslexla
! CpposlLe of honologlcal uyslexla
! Cood phonologlcal processlng
! Lack ootomouclty of prlnLed word recognluon
! 8eadlng ls slow and laborlous
! 8ely heavlly on phonologlcal skllls Lo read
! ltteqolot wotJ teoJloq ls poot
;4.>/"4&8>+- 61*)#=+&
! ueclLs Lyplcally occur ln:
! CrLhographlc awareness
! 1he ablllLy Lo form a menLal lmage of words and speclc
leuer sequences.
! 8apld namlng
! Leuers, numbers, words
! lluency
! 8eadlng, maLh facLs, wrlung
! ueclLs aecL Lhe acqulsluon of:
! lrregular word readlng skllls
! Lncodlng skllls
;4.>/"4&8>+- !^&4#$#**
! 8equlres:
! ercepuon and recollecuon of:
! leuers
! leuer sLrlngs
! words
ldenufy leuers ln
wrluen words, word
sLrlngs, or nonwords
8emember Lhe
posluon of each leuer
ln Lhe word
8ecall ln sequence Lhe
leuers LhaL belong
LogeLher
CrLhographlc Codlng
Source: velluuno, Scanlon, and 1anzman (1994)
A&8+% !D./2&.+a#% X&2+$"
! 8apld namlng of:
! Words
! Leuers
! numbers
! Cb[ecLs
! Colors
! lcLures
A&8+% !D./2&.+a#% X&2+$"
! ueLermlned by a complex ensemble of Lhe
followlng processes:
! Auenuon
! Memory
! Cognluve
! ercepLual
! MoLor
! Llngulsuc
! 8An and Cs
! AecL each oLher conslderably
A&8+% !D./2&.+a#% X&2+$"
! 8An Lasks appear Lo be lndependenL from phonology.
! ConLrlbuLes lndependenL varlance Lo Word-lu and
comprehenslon.
! 8An does noL relaLe Lo Lhe ablllLy Lo read phoneucally
regular nonsense words.
! 8An ls relaLed Lo Lasks lnvolvlng orLhography
! 8An ls relaLed Lo boLh Lhe accuracy and speed (sLronger
relauonshlp) of readlng words
! 1he relauonshlp of 8An Lo readlng skllls pasL Lhe early
perlod of acqulsluon has noL been resolved.
Source: Manls and colleagues (1999). ln MaLher, n. and ColdsLeln, S. (2008). Learnlng dlsablllues and challenglng behavlors: A gulde Lo
lnLervenuon and classroom managemenL (2
nd
ed.). 8alumore, Mu: 8rookes.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< ;4.>/"4&8>+- 61*)#=+&
! Symbol 8ecognluon and 8ecall ulmculues
! ulmculLy learnlng how Lo form symbols
! Confuslon of symbols slmllar ln appearance
! b and J, o and o, 2 and 5
! 1rouble wlLh near-polnL and far-polnL copylng Lasks
! 1endency Lo reverse leuers or numbers pasL Lhe age
of 7
Source: MaLher, n. and ColdsLeln, S. (2008). Learnlng dlsablllues and challenglng behavlors: A gulde Lo lnLervenuon and classroom
managemenL (2
nd
ed.). 8alumore, Mu: 8rookes.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< ;4.>/"4&8>+- 61*)#=+&
! Word ldenucauon (uecodlng)
! 1rouble wlLh accuraLe and rapld word recognluon
! 1rouble readlng excepuon or lrregular words
! 1rouble rememberlng how words look
! 1rouble rememberlng leuer sequences
! Cverrellance on phonologlcal and conLexLual
sLraLegles as alds ln word ldenucauon
! Slow readlng speed
Source: MaLher, n. and ColdsLeln, S. (2008). Learnlng dlsablllues and challenglng behavlors: A gulde Lo lnLervenuon and classroom
managemenL (2
nd
ed.). 8alumore, Mu: 8rookes.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< ;4.>/"4&8>+- 61*)#=+&
! Spelllng (Lncodlng)
! 1endency Lo reverse and Lranspose leuers
! qtlls for qltls
! 1endency Lo use dlerenL spelllngs for Lhe same
word
! lool and lool
! 1endency Lo overrely on Lhe phonologlcal raLher
Lhan Lhe vlsual feaLures of words.
! 1endency Lo omlL word endlngs
Source: MaLher, n. and ColdsLeln, S. (2008). Learnlng dlsablllues and challenglng behavlors: A gulde Lo lnLervenuon and classroom
managemenL (2
nd
ed.). 8alumore, Mu: 8rookes.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< ;4.>/"4&8>+- 61*)#=+&
! Calculaung
! 1endency Lo reverse and Lranspose dlglLs
! 12 for 21
! 1rouble learnlng and reLalnlng baslc maLh facLs
! ulmculLy counung ln a sequence
! CounL by 2, 4, 6
! 1rouble solvlng mulusLep problems
Source: MaLher, n. and ColdsLeln, S. (2008). Learnlng dlsablllues and challenglng behavlors: A gulde Lo lnLervenuon and classroom
managemenL (2
nd
ed.). 8alumore, Mu: 8rookes.
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< ;4.>/"4&8>+-
61*)#=+&
! Comprehenslve CCC and ACP
! locus on:
! :"8<*."#(<'& C-#"0$0%%
! AL-ll CrLhographlc
Codlng
! 8ecepuve
Are Lwo
words Lhe
same?
! Lxpresslve
Copy non-
sense
lrregular
word from
memory
! 1esL of CrLhographlc
CompeLence
! MaLher, 8oberLs,
Pammlll, & Allen,
2008, roLd
! lnformal rocedures
! CuallLauve
Analyses:
lrregular
Word 8eadlng
Spelllng Lasks
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< ;4.>/"4&8>+-
61*)#=+&
! Comprehenslve CCC and
ACP
! locus on:
! D#(', C;8*4#)E0,
F#4'$. G 51;0$&=
! Leuers, numbers,
Words
! ul8LLS: Leuer-
namlng lluency
! Cral 8eadlng
lluency Measures
! Wrlung/Spelllng
lluency Measures
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< ;4.>/"4&8>+-
61*)#=+&
! Comprehenslve CCC and
ACP
! locus on:
! @"*&0%%'$. /(00,
! H'%;#1 @"*&0%%'$.
WIAT III
Spelling
9 year old, 4
th

grade, male
PAL-II RW Compositional Fluency
E+=#% 61*)#=+&
! Comblnauon of honologlcal and CrLhographlc
uyslexla
! MosL severe form of readlng dlsorder
! No osoble key to oolock tbe foocuoool coJe of
lltetocy
! llefer & uella 1oalo, 2007, p. 103
! MosL reslsLanL Lo LreaLmenL
! 8anges from mlld Lo severe
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< 61*)#=+&*
! MeLa-analysls (Wanzek, vaughn, Wexler, Swanson,
Ldmonds, & klm, 2006)
! Word pracuclng procedures lead Lo Lhe hlghesL raLes
of lmprovemenL.
! MusL lnclude:
! Ample pracuce opporLunlues
! lmmedlaLe correcuve feedback
! uslng morphologlcal rules ln comblnauon wlLh oLher
phonologlcal Lechnlques ln Lhe Leachlng of spelllng
Morphology galnlng auenuon ln Lhe llLeraLure.
Source: Feifer, S.G. (2014). Making the intervention connection. In S.G. Feifer (Ed.), The neuropsychology of written
language disorders: A framework for effective interventions (pp. 77-111). Middletown, MD: School Neuropsych Press, LLC.
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< 61*)#=+&*
Source: Feifer, S.G. (2014). Making the intervention connection. In S.G. Feifer (Ed.), The neuropsychology of written
language disorders: A framework for effective interventions (pp. 77-111). Middletown, MD: School Neuropsych Press, LLC.
vocabulary
CrLhography
honology
M
orphology
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< 61*)#=+&*
! lernald MeLhod (1943):
! 1raclng and slmulLaneously pronounclng a word.
! Lnsures LhaL Lhe sLudenL ls paylng auenuon Lo Lhe
word and maklng Lhe llnk beLween Lhe phonemes and
graphemes (MaLher, Wendllng, & 8oberLs, 2009, p.
132).
Source: Mather, N., Wendling, B.J., & Roberts, R. (2009). Writing assessment and instruction for students with learning
disabilities (2
nd
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< 61*)#=+&*
! Spellwell
! nancy Pall, LS
! Crades 2-3
! Spellography
! 8osow & MoaLs, Soprls WesL
! Spelllng and word sLudy program (Classes, small
groups, lndlvlduals).
! Crades 4-7
Source: Mather, N., Wendling, B.J., & Roberts, R. (2009). Writing assessment and instruction for students with learning
disabilities (2
nd
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
!
;4&) 5&$"D&"# b <=#-D.+G#
K28&+42#$.*
wtlueo xptessloo ltoblems
Wrluen Lxpresslon
.oo lmmeose joqqlloq oct
- 8ernlnger & 8lchards, 2002, p.173
Source: Mather, N. & Wendling, B.J. (2010). How SLD manifests in writing. In D.P. Flanagan & V.C. Alfonso (Eds.). Essentials of specific learning
disability identification (pp. 65-88). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
1o express tbooqbts ln wtluoq, one musL:
1. lormulaLe Lhe ldea
2. Sequence relevanL polnLs ln approprlaLe order
3. Lnsure LhaL Lhe wrluen ouLpuL ls synLacucally and
grammaucally correcL
4. Spell lndlvldual words correcLly
3. Lxpress Lhe words, senLences, and passages ln a leglble
manner vla Lhe graphomoLor sysLem
lleLcher, 8eld Lyon, luchs, & 8arnes, 2007, p.242
wbot ls Lhe lssue?
!"#$%&"'()*$
! +#$,-"')$.
! llne-MoLor
! vlsual-MoLor
! /(011'$.
! Auenuon
! llne-MoLor AblllLy
! honologlcal Skllls
! CrLhographlc Skllls
20$0"#)*$#1
! 3*4(*%')*$
! Auenuon
! llne-MoLor
! honologlcal/CrLhographlc Skllls
! lannlng/Crganlzauon
! CrysLalllzed knowledge
! 8eLrleval
! Worklng Memory
! 1ranslaung LhoughLs lnLo LexL
! MeLacognluon
! 8evlew/LdlL
Source: Berninger, V.W. (2004). Understanding the graphia in developmental dysgraphia: A developmental neuropsychological perspective for
disorders in producing written language. In D. Dewey & D. Tupper (Eds.), Developmental motor disorders: A neuropsychological perspective (pp.
189-233). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
1ranscrlpuon and Cenerauon
! Closely relaLed Lo one anoLher:
! 8ernlnger, Abbou, Abbou, & WhlLaker (1997):
! 8elauonshlp beLween handwrlung uency and spelllng on
composluonal uency and quallLy
! 600 chlldren ln grades 1-6:
! rlmary & lnLermedlaLe Crades:
Pandwrlung uency predlcLed composluonal uency and quallLy
! rlmary Crades:
Pandwrlung uency and spelllng predlcLed composluonal uency
! All Crades:
Pandwrlung uency and spelllng accounLed for:
41-66 of Lhe varlance ln composluonal uency
23-42 of Lhe varlance ln composluonal quallLy
`4&$*-4+8.+/$ &$% Z#$#4&.+/$
! everly (2006)
! Pandwrlung uency ls an eecuve predlcLor of
composluon, noLe Laklng, and oLher wrluen
language dlsorders ln adulLs
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< ;4&) 5&$"D&"#
! Otol looqooqe ablllues wlll aecL an lndlvldual's ablllues Lo compose wrluen LexL
(8ernlnger & Wolf, 2009).
! lncreased oral language faclllLy ls assoclaLed wlLh lncreased wrluen language
proclency (McCuLchen, 1986).
! LlmlLauons wlLh oral vocabulary (8lshop & Clarkson, 2003: uockrell, Llndsey,
Connelly, & Mackle, 2007) and oral narrauve performance (Cragg & nauon, 2006)
are relaLed Lo poor wrluen LexL producuon.
! SLudenLs wlLh oral language based wrlung lssues produced few words and numbers
of ldeas when compared Lo Lyplcally developlng peers (uranlk, eL al., 2007).
! 1rouble wlLh spelllng and puncLuauon (8lshop & Clarkson, 2003).
! lndlvlduals wlLh good memoty ablllues are able Lo wrlLe more complex senLences
and [uggle muluple wrlung Lasks (uehn, 2008, Swanson & Slegel, 2001).
Source: Mather, N. & Wendling, B.J. (2010). How SLD manifests in writing. In D.P. Flanagan & V.C. Alfonso (Eds.). Essentials of specific learning
disability identification (pp. 65-88). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< ;4&) 5&$"D&"#
! Comprehenslve Speech and Language Lvaluauon
! 8ecepuve and Lxpresslve aspecLs of language.
! CrysLalllzed knowledge -vocabulary level ls usually
commensuraLe wlLh Lhelr wrlung level (uockell &
Connelly, 2009)
! LlsLenlng Comprehenslon
! Worklng Memory
! AudlLory Memory Span
! Word 8eLrleval
Source: Mather, N. & Wendling, B.J. (2010). How SLD manifests in writing. In D.P. Flanagan & V.C. Alfonso (Eds.). Essentials of specific learning
disability identification (pp. 65-88). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< ;4&) 5&$"D&"#
! Speech and Language 1herapy almed aL bulldlng
expresslve and/or recepuve language skllls.
! More lnLenslve and expllclL lnsLrucuon Lhan ls found
ln a regular classroom ls warranLed (1rola, 2006).
! auclLy of sLudles LhaL have focused on chlldren
wlLh language learnlng needs and wrluen
expresslon (uockrell & Connelly, 2009)
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< ;4&) 5&$"D&"#
! rlnclples of Lecuve vocabulary lnsLrucuon (MaLher,
Wendllng, 8oberLs, 2009, pp. 164-163):
! rovldes numerous exposures Lo words ln a varleLy of
conLexLs.
! rovldes lllusLrauons of usage ln dlerlng conLexLs.
! Makes connecuons among words wlLh slmllar meanlngs.
! 1eaches sLraLegles Lo help sLudenLs remember word
meanlngs.
! lnLegraLes knowledge of new words wlLh known words.
! rovldes revlew of word meanlngs.
! rovldes opporLunlues for meanlngful use.
Source: Mather, N., Wendling, B.J., & Roberts, R. (2009). Writing assessment and instruction for students with learning
disabilities (2
nd
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
!"#$%&$"#'(")*
E4#" 3#*5<#5.
! Applylng Mnemonlc
SLraLegles:
! Learnlng vocabulary
! Spelllng
! LLc, eLc
Mastropierir & Scriuggs, 1991, Brookline Books
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< ;4&) 5&$"D&"#
! Lxample: Learn from vlsual
dlsplays of words.
! Wordle.neL
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< <=#-D.+G# CD$-.+/$
! Accordlng Lo lelfer (2014, p. 36):
! ulmculLy wlLh plannlng and organlzlng LhoughLs and
ldeas.
! lnablllLy Lo masLer Lhe lmpllclL rules for grammar
and synLax.
! oor use of a Loplc senLence.
! Llule elaborauon of deLall.
! lnablllLy Lo use paragraph breaks approprlaLely.
! oor undersLandlng of how words and phrases can
be comblned.
! oor word reLrleval.
Source: Feifer, S.G. (2014). Subtypes of written language disorders. In S.G. Feifer (Ed.), The neuropsychology of written
language disorders: A framework for effective interventions (pp. 43-60). Middletown, MD: School Neuropsych Press, LLC.
:;%"%(-#"*5-*(5< <=#-D.+G# CD$-.+/$
! lour Cognluve ConsLrucLs lnvolved wlLh Lxecuuve
luncuonlng-8ased Wrlung ulsablllues (lelfer, 2014,
p. 39):
! SusLalned/Selecuve Auenuon
! verbal 8eLrleval Skllls
! Worklng Memory Skllls
! Lxecuuve luncuonlng Skllls
Source: Feifer, S.G. (2014). Subtypes of written language disorders. In S.G. Feifer (Ed.), The neuropsychology of written
language disorders: A framework for effective interventions (pp. 43-60). Middletown, MD: School Neuropsych Press, LLC.
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< <=#-D.+G#
CD$-.+/$
! 8aung Scales: Comprehenslve Lxecuuve luncuon
lnvenLory
! arenL, 1eacher and Self-8eporLs
! nagllerl & ColdsLeln (2013), MPS
! W! lll CCC nu
! Lxecuuve rocesses
! 8road Auenuon
! Worklng Memory
! 8eLrleval lluency & 8apld lcLure namlng 1esLs
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< <=#-D.+G#
CD$-.+/$
! vlsual SusLalned Auenuon:
! W! lll CCC alr Cancellauon
! Conners' Conunuous erformance 1esL ll verslon 3
! AudlLory SusLalned & Selecuve Auenuon
! nLS?-ll AudlLory Auenuon
! W! lll CCC AudlLory Auenuon
6*%/'.5-*( 855#559#'-< <=#-D.+G#
CD$-.+/$
! uells kaplan Lxecuuve luncuonlng Scale (ukLlS)
! uells, kaplan, & kramer (2001), earson
)'-#"$#'-*.'5< <=#-D.+G# CD$-.+/$
! Self-8egulaLed SLraLegy
uevelopmenL (S8Su)
! Well-researched.
! Pelps sLudenLs:
! Lnrlch Lhelr wrlung
vocabularles
! lmprove Lhelr ablllues Lo
produce boLh narrauve and
exposlLory wrluen LexL
! Lnhance Lhelr
undersLandlngs of Lhe hlgher
level cognluve processes
requlred for composluon.
Source: Mather, N. & Wendling, B.J. (2010). How SLD manifests in writing. In D.P. Flanagan & V.C. Alfonso (Eds.). Essentials of specific learning
disability identification (pp. 65-88). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
uevelop 8ackground knowledge
ulscuss lL
Model lL
Memorlze lL
SupporL lL
LsLabllsh lndependenL racuce
!"#$%&$"#'(")*
89.'<(%;. F<*'(%)*
! lannlng
! Crganlzauon
! 1lme ManagemenL
! Worklng Memory
! MeLacognluon
! 8esponse lnhlbluon
! Lmouonal ConLrol
! SusLalned Auenuon
! 1ask lnluauon
! llexlblllLy
! Coal ulrecLed erslsLence
!"#$%&$"#'(")*
89.'<(%;. F<*'(%)*
! Cognluve SLraLegy lnsLrucuon:
! vocabulary
! Spelllng
! Wrlung
! LLc.
Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995, Brookline Books
!"#$%&$"#'(")*
89.'<(%;. F<*'(%)*
! ChapLer 3: Communlcaung
and Learnlng 1hrough Wrlung
Schied, 1993, Brookline Books
!
=#5.2"(#5< @//B*
!
=#5.2"(#5< ;4"&$+a&.+/$ ?#9*+.#*
www.nasponline.org
www.nichd.nih.gov
www.ncld.org
www.aota.org
www.interdys.org
www.ldaamerica.org
!
=#5.2"(#5< ;.>#4 ?#9*+.#*
www.interventioncentral.org
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
http://www.readingrockets.org/
http://dyslexia.yale.edu/
www.schoolneuropsych.com
http://teachingld.org/