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Airspeed KIAS Knots Indicated Airspeed Knots Calibrated Airspeed Knots True Airspeed Speed in knots as indicated on the airspeed indicator.


KIAS corrected for instrument error. Note this error is often negligible and CAS may be omitted from calculations. KCAS corrected for density (altitude and temperature) error.


Max The ma!imum speed for full or abrupt control inputs. Manoeuvering Speed Maximum Flap The highest speed permitted "ith flap e!tended. Extended Indicated by the top of the "hite arc. Speed Maximum Sometimes referred to as #Normal operating range$ structural Should not be e!ceeded e!cept in smooth conditions and cruising speed only "ith caution. Indicated by the green arc. Never Exceed speed Stall Speed %a!imum speed permitted& e!ceeding "ill cause structural damage. Indicated by the upper red line. The minimum speed before loss of control in the normal cruise configuration. Indicated by the bottom of the green arc. Sometimes referred to as minimum 'steady flight( speed. The minimum speed before loss of control in the landing configuration& at the most for"ard C of )*. Indicated by the bottom of the "hite arc. The speed "hich results in the ma!imum gain in altitude for a gi+en hori,ontal distance. The speed "hich results in the ma!imum gain in altitude for a gi+en time& indicated by the ma!imum rate of climb for the conditions on the SI. The minimum safe approach speed& calculated as -.. ! so. The speed "hich rotation should be initiated.



ne s


Stall Speed landing configuration est angle of climb speed est !ate of Climb speed !eference speed !otation speed

! y

ref r


arrier speed

The speed nominated to reach before the /0ft barrier or on reaching /0ft abo+e the run"ay.

*for"ard centre of gra+ity gi+es a higher stall speed and so is used for certification

Maximum The ma!imum demonstrated cross"ind during testing. "emonstrated Cross#ind Meteorological Terms $AT $utside Air Temperature Indicated outside air temperature Standard temperature 1ree outside air temperature& or indicated outside air temperature corrected for gauge& position and ram air errors. Temperature indicated on the temperature gauge.


The temperature in the International Standard atmosphere for the associated le+el& and is -/ degrees Celsius at sea le+el decreased by t"o degrees e+ery -000ft. The altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere "ith a sea le+el. pressure of -0-. and a standard reduction of -mb per .0ft. 2ressure Altitude "ould be obser+ed "ith the altimeter subscale set to -0-..

%ressure Altitude

"ensity Altitude Engine Terms 342 52% ra&e 'orse %o#er !evolutions per Minute Static !%M (eig)t and

The altitude that the pre+ailing density "ould occur in the International Standard Atmosphere& and can be found by correcting 2ressure Altitude for temperature de+iations.

The po"er de+eloped by the engine (actual po"er a+ailable "ill ha+e some transmission losses). 6ngine dri+e and propeller speed. The ma!imum 52% obtained during stationery full throttle operation

alance Terms

Arm *moment The hori,ontal distance in inches from reference datum arm+ line to the centre of gra+ity of the item. C of ) Centre of ,ravity The point about "hich an aeroplane "ould balance if it "ere possible to suspend it at that point. It is the mass

centre of the aeroplane& or the theoretical point at "hich entire "eight of the aeroplane is assumed to be concentrated. It may be e!pressed in percent of %AC (mean aerodynamic chord) or in inches from the reference datum.

Centre of gravity limit

The specified for"ard and aft point beyond "hich the C) must not be located. The for"ard limit defines the controllability of aircraft and aft limits 7 stability of the aircraft. An imaginary +ertical plane or line from "hich all measurements of arm are taken. The datum is established by the manufacturer. The product of the "eight of an item multiplied by its arm and e!pressed in inch8pounds. The total moment is the "eight of the aeroplane multiplied by distance bet"een the datum and the C). The ma!imum permissible "eight to pre+ent e!ceeding the "ing bending limits. This limit is not al"ays applicable for aircraft "ith small fuel loads. The "eight of an empty aeroplane& including permanently installed e;uipment& fi!ed ballast& full oil and unusable fuel& and is that specified on the aircraft mass and balance documentation for each indi+idual aircraft.

"atum *reference datum+ Moment


Maximum -ero Fuel (eig)t asic empty #eig)t



Standard The basic empty "eight of a standard aeroplane& Empty (eig)t specified in the 2<4& and is an a+erage "eight gi+en for performance considerations and calculations. $perating The "eight of the aircraft "ith cre"& unusable fuel& and Empty (eig)t operational items (galley etc). %ayload The "eight the aircraft can carry "ith the pilot and fuel on board. The ma!imum "eight for ramp maneou+ering& the ma!imum takeoff "eight plus additional fuel for start ta!i and runup. The ma!imum permissible takeoff "eight and sometimes called the ma!imum all up "eight& landing "eight is normally lo"er as allo"s for burn off and carries shock loads on touchdo"n. %a!imum permissible "eight for landing. Sometimes this is the same as the takeoff "eight for smaller aircraft.



Maximum !amp (eig)t Maximum Ta&e off (eig)t Maximum .anding (eig)t