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Industrialization and Social Ferment The Industrial Revolution developed first in Great Britain The first sector of the

he economy to be mechanized was the textile industry Other important natural resources: coal, iron Why did the Industrial Revolution develop in England first? 1) Natural resources coal, iron, cotton 2) Capital 3) Financial institutions 4) Labor force unskilled; enclosure 5) Market 6) Transportation coal, canals 7) Gadgets/technology steam engine, c. 1750 8) Environmental Because machinery was expensive, you needed capital (money) to get started, you needed surplus capital The majority of this money came from Britains overseas empire It is not enough to have money, you must also have institutions that will allow for this type of financial action the Bank of England Some of labor force will derive from a spectacular increase in population c. 1500 c. 3 M c. 1750 c. 6 M c. 1860 c. 20 M Lower death rates Labor force also derives from less people needing to work in agriculture enclosure Enclosure not new, but accelerates in the eighteenth century Beginning in the eighteenth century, English aristocracy will begin closing off common land for their herds and nobody else's because cost of living is going up For some peasants, access to that land was the difference between livability and devastation this drove people to move away from agriculture and towards industrialization Machines/industrialization will increase productivity For industrialization to work, there must be a market no point in production if there is no one to buy products Biggest markets overseas colonies/states (even United States), largely in Western Hemisphere Domestic market will take more time to develop than foreign market Need a transportation network that will reduce the cost of moving England already had a network prior to the construction of railroads canals Railroads not only reduce the cost of moving commodities and people, they also stimulate certain other industries iron, coal, timber The steam engine could be applied in a variety of ways not originally conceived Technological innovations during the Industrial Revolution occurred because problems arose that had to be solved British had developed a serious problem of deforestation so they turned to coal but mines would become flooded, thus the steam engine was developed with the intent of pumping water out of mines The engine was then applied to factories and other uses

Allowing religious freedom may allow less rigid thinking in other areas of life California school of thought Britain was fortunate with access to greater resources than any other state Western Hemisphere, overseas empire Consequences of industrialization urbanization, emigration/immigration What is the impact of industrialization on the middle- and working classes? Did the standard of living go up or did it decline? Information is incomplete, difficult to map out reality For initial working classes, industrialization was difficult Attitude at work had to change: develop discipline about work factory owners will seek to impose this by penalizing or punishing what they considered bad work habits Working conditions are difficult safety standards do not initially exist Living conditions will also be difficult towns and villages which are not prepared for the massive increase in population inadequate social services Public health problems are common and serious Areas of cities where housing is located are older and more decrepit Middle class Europeans will observe signs of social strain among the working classes Alcoholism, prostitution, domestic violence Social Question what should be done about industrial poverty Machines were achieving an extraordinary increase in productivity Poverty in the past had been the result of shortages had previously accepted this because productivity was limited, but now productivity was infinite Industrialization created an enormous contrast between great wealth and great poverty Since Britain was the first place in which industrialization occurred, it is the first place where the debate over poverty occurs Responses to/debates on poverty 1) Liberals laissez-faire, Manchester School 2) Socialists Manchester School influenced by Thomas Malthus An Essay Concerning Population (1798) David Ricardo more money encourages people to breed The Iron Law of Wages over the long term, wages always return to a level of subsistence; the behavior of the poor pushes wages back down again By encouraging the poor to reproduce to a greater extent, you are pushing the date of catastrophe closer therefore it makes no sense to provide this kind of assistance Malthus and Ricardo do not object to private charity to the poor, but they question the wisdom of having the state systematically provide assistance Regulation of the workplace and of working conditions will begin early on the Factory Act of 1833; subsequent act in 1844; Ten Hour Act in 1847 A rational examination of problems can provide solutions utilitarianism Particular branch of liberalism Jeremy Bentham 1834 Poor Law Prior to 1834, it was up to every local community to decide how to deal with its poor The utilitarians argued that that was not the most efficient way of what was clearly a national problem The utilitarians distinguished between the deserving and the undeserving poor Idea was to make experience so unpleasant that the underserving would go out and get jobs

Workhouses: Husbands and wives were separated, parents and children were separated Highly regimented existence Food meant to be as disgusting and unpleasant as possible Socialists will also address the problems of industrialization Socialism Encompasses two perspectives utopian socialism (before Karl Marx) and Karl Marxs socialism scientific socialism Karl Marx unlike his predecessors, his socialism was scientific Early socialists agreed on societies organized not on the principles of competition but on the principle of cooperation this could be done peacefully and these societies could take care of all of its members Early Socialists: Capitalism had created tremendous amounts of wealth but had also created tremendous amounts of property Capitalist society allowed excessive individualism; permitted people to put own personal interests before the wellbeing of the entire community A better society could be organized if you created a society based on cooperation rather than on competition Shared the belief that the transformation from a capitalist society to socialist society could be done peacefully Early Socialists came to be known as Utopian Socialists name given to them by Karl Marx Karl Marx (1818-1883): Scientific socialism Terms socialism does not enter vocabulary until the 1830s Previously known as Habsburgs Saint-Simon Scientists French aristocrat, one of oldest families in France One of his ancestors had lived in the court of Louis XIV Fought in American and French Revolution New world was being created, needed a new ruling elite Among elites he includes: scientists, engineers, businessmen This new ruling class would use the power of government to redistribute wealth so that the needs of everyone in the community were satisfied His elite class will replace the old ruling classes before the French Revolution Saint-Simon does not eliminate private property to him, that is not an issue Did not believe in democracy/that ordinary people could govern themselves Charles Fourier phalanx French, lower middle class Traveling salesman Phalanx 1600-1800 people Greatest proponent for equality for women marriage was intended to enslave women Would engage in jobs you liked for two hours then switch jobs Believed this would encourage people to work for up to 18 hours a day Robert Owen parallelograms Businessman capitalist owned textile mills for some time

Owned textiles mills in New Lanark Owens account: place was noted for child labor and abuse; adults were often drawn from the criminal class Will transform New Lanark children under the age of 12 will be sent to school financed by Owen; there will also be adult education, cultural opportunities; housing will be better than standard and they will have better working conditions as well Owen will still make a profit For a number of years, New Lanark attracted considerable attention no signs of the typical kinds of social problems associated with industrialization Owen believed that by cooperative behavior, treating workers well, could create a successful and ideal industrial community Eventually went to the United States and created New Harmony cooperative management: who would do what work, equal distribution community failed after a couple years, ended up costing Owen most of his money From the early 1830s until death, devoted his energies and time to trying to help factory workers begin to organize themselves into labor unions Saint-Simons idea that the power of the state/government can be used to deal with social problems sounds like a very modern concept the welfare state Fourier and Owen rejected the notion of an all-powerful state Had visions of small, self-contained communities Owen played an important role in the creation of the first labor unions in Britain By the 1830s, workers in mines and factories are unhappy about working and living conditions Key question: how to bring about improvements? Shorter hours, safer conditions, better wages Owen believed that improvements should be brought about by workers talking with the owners of the industrial bodies Other option was to have workers organize politically get the vote, elect to Parliament, have laws passed to make improvements Movement known as Chartism 1830s/1840s Chartism: Got its name because its major demands were put into the Great Charter Top of agenda universal adult male suffrage Wanted suffrage expanded so that workers could send representatives to the House of Commons, annual elections to Parliament, salaries for members of Parliament In 1832, Parliament expands the vote in the Reform Bill and basically gives it to the industrial middle classes Political offices did not pay in Britain and France and other places in Europe during this time expectation was that they were significantly wealthy Owen believed this course of action was a waste of time Believed on concentrating on creating workers organizations Owen disapproved of strikes Wanted workers to persuade the businessmen of the justice of their requests Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Owen believed (in different ways) that the transition from capitalism to socialism could be peaceful This was rejected by the man who would become the main voice of European socialism, Karl Marx

In January 1848, Marx was asked (along with collaborator and closest friend Friedrich Engels) to write a pamphlet for an organization called the Communist League Communist Manifesto (1848) Friedrich Engels (1829-1895) Marx criticized the Utopian Socialists in large part because he believed that their highly elaborate plans for what the new socialist utopia would look like were unrealistic Even thought Marx predicted that workers would win in the end, what it looked like and how it was created could not be determined/predicted In the 20th century, a number of governments will come to power all claiming to be inspired by the works of Marx Russia, China, Vietnam, Korea, Cuba Countries did not agree on how to agree to create a good communist country Marx did not leave instructions on how to create a successful communist state 1848 Revolutions were not largely inspired by the Communist Manifesto Manifesto was an attempt by Marx and Engels to explain how human civilizations had developed and evolved and where they were headed Communist Manifesto: The history of all human societies is the history of class struggle Marx argued that human society could be divided into two groups: The rulers and the ruled People who run the society are the people who decide how that society creates wealth the means of production Human Society: Feudal society: rulers (landed aristocracy) and ruled (peasants/serfs) Out of this (and as a result of revolutions) derived a new group of rulers and ruled people New groups factory system: Bourgeoisie (factory and machinery owners) and the proletariat (industrial working classes) Marx argued this process was universal and that every society went through these stages of human development Furthermore, no single individual can alter this system Marx did not deny the existence of prior power political figures but argued that none of them could have changed this political system Capitalism is the last stage before communism/socialism The proletariat will overthrow the bourgeoisie and reach the end of history The classless society Marx argued that this was an inevitable process human history is pushing in this direction According to Marx, the bourgeoisie were driven by one thing profit Cannot help this Not content to simply exploit Europeans but everyone else as well Desire for profit is what has led them to be so inventive Paradoxically, by creating factories, the bourgeoisie have created the social group (the proletariat) that will destroy them According to Marx, the exploitation of other societies was good because it was the beginning of the process of becoming a socialist nation Marx the proletariat are going to win Bourgeoisie have created the means by which we can eliminate poverty from this earth

Industry/steam-driven machinery Poverty in the feudal period was in part the result that there was not enough for everyone; but the bourgeoisie solved this problem, they have generated machinery that can generate enough wealth to meet everyones needs Marx did not mean everyone would get the same thing argued that what you received in terms of basic needs would vary History is going to make you the winners eventually Marx argued that there is a role for professional revolutionaries Every society has certain institutions, all of them are controlled by the people who run society Trying to persuade the proletariat to accept the situation they are in The revolutionary is intended to clarify for the proletariat the nature of the exploitation not God or your own personal flaws, but the system Because only when the proletariat are aware of the exploitation and the situation will they rise up and destroy the bourgeoisie Marx said that bourgeois marriage was the last form of slavery on the planet 1867 Das Kapital (Capital) Marxs attempt to explain and demonstrate the nature of capitalism scientifically Also trying to organize the global revolutionary movement The First International (1864) Socialists, anarchists, nationalists Fell apart because they did not share a common agenda First attempt to create a sort of global revolutionary movement Marx claims that capitalism is doomed to fail Political parties begin to develop Socialists, Social Democrats Debate over whether industrialization improved the quality of life Little evidence to make a decision fragmented Consensus does exist is in the generalization that most of 1840s were miserable for everybody 1840s will see a very serious economic crisis Begin in 1845 agricultural crisis Agricultural Crisis most of crops will fail Last time when a crisis in agriculture is then going to have a ripple effect throughout the entire European economy Last time collapse in agriculture has a continental effect Most devastating/best known crop failure potatoes The Potato Blight Most associated with Ireland By 1900, there are fewer people living in Ireland than there had been at the midcentury point About 4 million people living in Ireland Irelands Famine: 1 million died 1 million emigrate the United States and England British government Did very little to deal with famine Not equipped to deal with such a sudden, large catastrophe Will do one thing in 1846 Repeal of the Corn Laws

Did not prohibit landlords in Ireland (who tended to be English) that owned farms and raise grain from selling grain overseas did not want to interfere with free trade Corn Laws Tariffs on imported grain Famine was too devastating for revolution in Ireland Financial crash Banks went under Railroad construction not all railroad companies made profits, might even have been over billed, some companies went under millions of currency lost Beginning February of 1848 First really serious revolution will occur in France When rest of Europe hears, they too will be inspired to rebel January upheaval in the southern part of Italy Before French Revolution (February 1848) but no real impact Revolutions of 1848: Urban Uprisings (violence will occur in the countryside as well) Government in France: July Monarchy come to power as a result of revolution; monarch: Louis-Philippe Facing a political crisis demonstrations demanding an expansion of suffrage Constitutional monarchy Adult male suffrage restrictions on gender, age, wealth Had shown insensitivity towards middle classes for extension of suffrage People who were running Europe in 1848: Elderly or in some way unfit to deal with an unexpected crisis Paris: Thousands of people unemployed and suffering Government responds to political demonstrations by panicking and fleeing Did not want to be guillotined Louis-Philippe and others preferred not to take a risk Louis-Philippe ended up in London; revolutionaries declared themselves in power Revolutionaries create the Second Republic First act: universal male suffrage from 200,000 people to 7 million Must begin preparing for elections Government under pressure to do something about unemployment People that came to power were liberals did not want to interfere in marketplace but were willing to compromise set up National Workshops Unemployed workers were demanding economic security if private sector cannot provide them with jobs, then it is the responsibility of government to do so Slogan: Right to work Right to work one of fundamental rights in society for all human beings is economic security National workshops: Unemployed people go, government matches the people with jobs Becomes expensive government will have to raise taxes Most people will end up sitting there all day without doing anything and will get paid People who have jobs and own property will pay the taxes, those without taxes cannot

People came to see the national workshops as Paris mooching off the rest of the country In 1848, news of revolution will travel much more quickly than in 1830s Railroads Telegraph poles Day instead of weeks Vienna, Berlin, Budapest, Milan, Venice when news reached Central Europe of successful revolution in France outbreak of revolution in Central and Eastern Europe French Revolution of 1848: Liberal-radical Central Europe, Italian peninsula, Eastern Europe: Did not have constitutions or parliamentary government Basic rights not respected Make demands based on French revolutionary model Liberal revolutions Central/Eastern Europe: experience in 1848 is similar to what France had experienced in 1789 Demands also for united and independent states/nations Central and Eastern Europe not just liberal uprisings but nationalist uprisings National demands will eventually become more important than the liberal ones In 1848, the Habsburg emperor is not very smart I am the emperor and I want noodles Emperor Ferdinand I Metternich still in charge When faced with revolution in Vienna, the Habsburgs fires Metternich In the Hungarian Empire, leader of revolution Lajos Kossuth In Bohemia/Prague, major ethnic group is the Czechs; part of a much larger community of people in Europe (Slavs) Czechs do not demand independence prepared to still be part of the Austrian Empire (will accept Habsburg as monarch even though Habsburgs were German) What Czechs wanted was to be treated as equals The Czechs wanted their culture and language to be given the same respect as Germans Czechs did not want independence because they believed they were a small nation that was surrounded by larger, more powerful nations that would attempt to assimilate/dominate them In the Italian peninsula, Habsburgs will also face revolution, control two major provinces: Lombardy Venetia German Confederation Created by the Congress of Vienna Austria, Prussia King of Prussia in 1848 Frederick William IV (1840-1861) Uprisings in Berlin, the capital of Prussia Army is ready to go in and kill if necessary; could have easily crushed revolution For unknown reasons, king ordered army to stopped and promised revolutionaries a constitution, a parliament, and fundamental rights Frederick William IV also promised to support the idea of an independent, united Germany Austria: everywhere in revolution; Prussia: paralyzed, supporting some goals of revolution What will other 37 states do no big armies, defenseless in the face of revolution

Also agree to constitutions, parliaments, fundamental rights Support idea of a single united Germany Officials meet at Frankfurt to write a constitution for this new united Germany Government bureaucrats, university professors, lawyers, journalists In spring of 1848, revolutions will rock most of Europe from France to borders of Russia People in power apparently lose The spring of the peoples Only major powers in Europe that appeared unshaken by upheaval were Great Britain, Russia By the summer, every revolution is in trouble Beginning in summer of 1848 Conservatives will begin to regain their nerve Conservatives discover that the military will remain loyal Conservatives dissever that great majority of population had no interest in either the liberal or nationalist agenda; overwhelming majority belong to the peasantry Austrian emperor is replaced by young conservative Franz Joseph Will come a point in time in these revolutions that things have gone far enough and will tell the army to attack the revolutionaries/put down the revolution Peasants have grievances in 1848: taxes are too high, food costs too much, serfdom still exists Revolutionaries will be surprised that, to the peasants, parliaments and independence meant nothing will learn how narrow base of support is European armies mostly drawn from the peasantry; peasantry remains loyal to the monarchy By the summer of 1848, the conservatives were prepared to act aggressively towards the revolutionaries The revolutionaries will also begin to fall out among themselves France moderates versus extremists Central Europe one ethnic group against another Up until 1848, European nationalists believed that every national group could have its goal satisfied notion of Europe as a garden, every national group is a flower Discovered in 1848 if you give into the demands of one ethnic group, you will not be able to meet the demands of another ethnic group Conservatives will rally, retain loyalty of the military, revolutionaries and their enemies will discover that revolutionary movements are not widespread, revolutionaries will begin fighting among themselves Universal suffrage did not mean more power to extremists government elected in France with universal suffrage was a conservative government First decision was to abolish the national workshops People will rebel as a response to the closing of the national workshops June Days Army against workers; army will win Several thousands of people are killed, wounded, imprisoned Seen as the revolutions of the wealthy against the poor even liberals saw it that way One side represented property and wealth, other side represented poverty 1848 Louis Napoleon elected, won 75% of the vote Won on the strength of his name Name meant control and stability in Europe restore France to its proper place Louis Napoleon wrote a book in which he argued that government should protect the poor In 1851, overthrows the republic using the army; established the Second Empire (1852-1870)

Napoleon III Napolon le petit In Austrian Empire, situation was much more complicated Appeared that the empire was going to break up Habsburgs would slowly begin to gain initiative, however Habsburgs decide to put an end to talk about Czechs becoming equal by bombing Prague into submission; then turned brought Vienna under control On Italian peninsula, Habsburgs were able to defeat the forces of nationalism on the battlefield However, Habsburgs had problems in Hungary Hungary had ethnic minorities as well Slavs, Romanians Did not recognize them as having any rights at all Austria will encourage ethnic group to rebel try to play one ethnic group against another Still not enough Eventually, the Austrians have to ask help from another conservative monarch Russian Tsar Nicholas I (1825-1855) Ultimately, Habsburgs will reassert control of their empire Russia now thinks that Austria owes them something The Frankfurt Assembly spent most of 1848 debating the writing of a constitution Eventually created a constitution for a constitutional monarchy Liberal state Question was: who would be the king Habsburgs or Hohenzollerns Frederick William IV wished to be king of Germany Rejects invitation would not accept crown from the gutter Then used army to bring Prussia under control and send the delegates home The defeat in 1848-1849 will drive strongest proponents for progressive politics will drive them out of German politics altogether In Italian peninsula, attempts to unite Italy and expel the Austrians failed Italians discovered that they, by themselves, were not capable of expelling Austria alone Strongest province/state: Piedmont-Sardinia Declare war on Austria in 1848 and in 1849 lose both times Those who saw Piedmont-Sardinia as the leaders of Italy Strongest Italian state Liberal government Nationalists who did not like Piedmont-Sardinia hoped instead to have the pope lead Italy Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) Reputation as a reformer Released political prisoners Looked more progressive that previous two popes Previous two popes: Denied draining marshes around Rome Denied lighting streets at night Would not allow railroads Believed change would lead to revolution Pius IX not prepared to challenge the Habsburgs Rioting erupts in Rome, Pius IX is chased away, leads to Roman Republic (1849) Giuseppe Mazzini:


Leader of Roman Republic Father of Italian nationalism Giuseppe Garibaldi: Professional revolutionary In charge of defense of Roman Republic Roman Republic was defeated by a French army; the French restored the pope to power in the Vatican in 1849