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Last: First:

Dr. Akbar Dr. Ketchersid

M T W R

Instructions. All work must be shown and exact answers are expected. You are allowed

calculators, but you should only use these to check your work not to perform your work.

For example, sin(2/3) =

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 1. Find Cof(A), the matrix of cofactors of A, Adj(A), the adjoint (adjugate)

of A, and use this to nd A

1

for

A =

_

_

3 2 1

1 6 3

2 4 0

_

_

See Example 6 pg 89.

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 2. Use Cramers rule to solve

6 = x

1

+ x

3

30 =3 x

1

+4 x

2

+6 x

3

8 = x

1

2 x

2

+3 x

3

See Example 9 pg 93 for solution.

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 3. Suppose det

_

_

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

a

8

a

9

_

_

= 6, nd

(a) det

_

_

a

1

a

2

a

3

3a

4

3a

5

3a

6

2a

7

2a

8

2a

9

_

_

Answer: (1)(2)(2)(6)

The point is det

_

ku

v

w

_

= k det

_

u

v

w

_

and similarly for a scalar multiple of any othe row/column.

(b) det

_

_

a

1

+ 4a

4

a

2

+ 4a

5

a

3

+ 4a

6

a

4

a

5

a

6

2a

7

2a

8

2a

9

_

_

Answer: (6)

There are two points here (1) det

_

u

1

+u

2

v

w

_

= det

_

u

1

v

w

_

+det

_

u

2

v

w

_

and (2) if a row or column

is repeated, then the determinant is 0.

(c) det

_

_

_

_

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

a

8

a

9

_

_

_

_

2 0 0

0 0 3

0 2 0

_

_

_

_

Answer: (6)(1)(2)(2)(3)

There are three points here; (1) The determinant of a diagonal matrix is just the product

of the elements on the diagonal. (2) The determinant of a product is the product of the

determinants. (3) If two rows are permuted, then the determinant is multiplied by -1.

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 4. Find eigenvalues and eigenvectors for A =

_

1 3

4 2

_

See Example 6 pg 108.

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 5. Show that the following has non-trivial solutions i = .

_

_

1 1

1 1

1

_

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

_

0

0

0

_

_

det

_

_

1 1

1 1

1

_

_

= det

_

_

0 0

1 1

1

_

_

= ( )( ) = ( )

2

so clearly the determinant is 0 i = and hence there are non-trivial solutions i = .

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 6. Let

1

be the plane x + 3y 2z = 3 and

2

be the plane containing the

line l(t) = t(1, 2, 3) + (1, 1, 1) and the point P(0, 2, 1).

(a) Find a parametric equation for the line of intersection of the two planes.

The plane containing l and P is determined by the the vectors (1, 2, 3) (essentially the

direction of the line) and the vector (0, 2, 1) (1, 1, 1) = (1, 1, 0). The vector (1, 1, 0)

(1, 2, 3) = (3, 3, 3) = 3(1, 1, 1) is normal to

2

and hence (1, 1, 1) is normal to

2

.

(The equation of

2

is (1, 1, 1) (x1, y 1, z 1) = 0, i.e., (x1)+(y 1)(z 1) = 0.)

The direction of the line of intersection is (1, 1, 1) (1, 3, 2) = (1, 3, 4).

A point in common to both planes has to be found manually. Just take z = 0 so we have

x + 3y = 3 and x + y = 2 so P(3/4, 5/4, 0) is a point in common to both planes.

The parametric form of the line determined by direction (1, 3, 4) and point P(3/4, 5/4, 0)

is

x = 3/4 + t y = 5/4 + 3t z = 4t

(b) Find cos() for the acute angle between the two planes.

The angle between the planes is the same as the angle between the normals which gives

cos() =

|(1, 1, 1) (1, 3, 2)|

(1, 1, 1)(1, 3, 2)

=

4

14

3

(c) Let Q(4, 2, 3) be a point in space. Find the point R in the plane

1

so that the line

through R and Q is perpendicular to

1

.

Find a point A in

1

, e.g. A(3, 0, 0), then consider u =

AQ = (1, 2, 3). If v is

the projection of u in the plane, then R = A + v. To nd v rst nd the part of u

orthogonal to

1

, namely, proj

(1,3,2)

(u) =

(1,2,3)(1,3,2)

14

(1, 3, 2) =

1

14

(1, 3, 2).

The part of u in the plane is then (1, 2, 3)

1

14

(1, 3, 2) =

1

14

(13, 25, 30). So R =

(3, 0, 0) +

1

14

(13, 25, 30) =

1

14

(45, 25, 30) =

5

14

(9, 5, 6).

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 7. Find the area of the parallelogram A(0, 0), B(1, 3), C(5, 4), D(4, 1).

Option 1: Embed in R

3

and use that the area is

AB

AD = (1, 3, 0) (4, 1, 0) =

(0, 0, 11) = 11

Option 2: Area is the absolute value of the determinant of the vectors determining the

sides. Area = |det [

1 3

4 1

]| = | 11| = 11

Option 3: Use the the orthogonal projection: Area = (4, 1) proj

(4,1)

(1, 3) = 11.

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 8. (a) Find the projection of u = (1, 2, 3, 1) onto v = (1, 1, 0, 4).

(1, 2, 3, 1) (1, 1, 0, 4)

(1, 1, 0, 4)

2

(1, 1, 0, 4) =

3

18

(1, 1, 0, 4)

(b) Find w, the orthogonal projection of u on v.

(1, 2, 3, 1)

3

18

(1, 1, 0, 4) =

1

18

(15, 39, 54, 6) =

1

6

(5, 13, 16, 2)

(c) Find r orthogonal to both v and w.

Here we need to nd r orthogonal to both (5, 13, 16, 2) and (1, 1, 0, 4) that is we need

(a, b, c, d) so that

(a, b, c, d) (1, 1, 0, 4) = a + b + 4d = 0

(a, b, c, d) (5, 13, 16, 2) = 5a + 15b + 16c 2d = 0

This amounts to solving

_

1 1 0 4

5 15 16 2

_

_

_

a

b

c

d

_

_

=

_

0

0

_

Usin G-J get a =

4

5

c +

31

10

d and b =

4

5

c

9

10

d. so taking d = 10 and c = 5 we get

a = 4 + 31 = 27 and b = 4 9 = 13 so (27, 13, 5, 10) works.

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 9. Find the matrix for the linear transformation that rst rotates space (R

3

)

counter clockwise about the z-axis, then reects about the yz-plane, and nally projects

orthogonally onto the xy-plane.

See Example 9 pg 193

Math 2418 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Prep

Exercise 10. Describe geometrically what the linear map T : R

3

R

2

does if

[T] =

_

1

2

3

2

3

2

1

2

_

_

1 0 0

0 1 0

_

_

_

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

This is a composition of three transformations T = T

3

T

2

T

1

where [T

1

] =

_

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

, etc.

So T

1

reects through the xy-plane, i.e., sends a vector (a, b, c) (a, b, c), T

2

projects R

3

onto R

2

(the xy-plane) orthogonally, i.e., (a, b, c) (a, b), T

3

rotates the xy-plane through

an angle of /3.

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