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SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)

[Q1] Comparing to riveting, welding has various advantages and disadvantages. Pick out three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of welding respectively. Jawab: Kelebihan: Efisiensi sambungan yang baik dapat digunakan pada temperatur tinggi dan tidak ada batas pada ketebalan logam induk. Memiliki hasil produk yang memiliki sifat mekanis yang lebih baik atau sama baiknya dengan logam induk. Fasilitas produksi lebih murah, meningkatkan nilai ekonomis, produktivitas, berat yang lebih ringan dan batas yield yang lebih baik. Kelemahan: Membutuhkan tenaga ahli yang bisa bekerja secara baik dan profesional dan sangat memerlukan pengamatan dan inspeksi. Terjadi distorsi dan perubahan deformasi oleh pemanasan dan pendinginan cepat. Tegangan sisa termal dari pengelasan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan atau retak pada bagian las. [Q2] Welding processes are able to be classified into the category of (a) fusion welding, (b) pressure welding or (c) soldering. What the following welding processes should be classified into the category of (a), (b) or (c). Put a category mark (a), (b) or (c) for each welding process. Jawab: (1) Friction welding (2) Electron beam welding (3) Electro slag welding (4) Thermit (Almino-thermic) welding (5) CO2 gas shielded metal arc welding (B) (A) (A) (A) (A)

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


(6) Soft soldering (7) Submerged arc welding (8) Resistance spot welding (9) TIG welding (10) Ultrasonic welding [Q3] Welding process may be classified according to the type of energy source used directly for welding. Choose the welding process from Group B that belong to the energy source in Group A, and put the corresponding marks in the parentheses. Jawab: [Group A] (1) (2) (3) (4) Electric energy Mechanical energy Chemical energy Light energy ( a, b, d, e, g, h, i ) (j) ( c, i ) (f) (C) (A) (B) (A) (B)

[Group B] (a) (c) (e) (g) (i) [Q4] Welding process may be classified according to the types of energy source utilized directly for welding. Choose the energy source in [Word group] that is applied in each welding process, and put its alphabet into each ( Jawab: (1) MAG welding (a) ). Submerged arc welding Explosion welding SMAW (Manual Metal Arc Welding) MAG welding Oxy-flame (gas) welding (b) (d) (f) (h) (j) Electro-slag welding Plasma arc welding Laser welding Resistance welding Friction welding

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Aluminothermic welding Electron beam welding Oxy-fuel gas welding Friction stir welding Laser welding Manual metal arc welding (SMAW) Explosion welding TIG welding (GTAW) Electroslag welding (c) (a) (a) (b) (d) (a) (c) (a) (a)

[Word group] (a) (b) [Q5] Regarding the future of the following welding and cutting processes, choose the relevant one from among the words in the word group given below and enter its alphabetic symbol into each parenthesis. Jawab: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) MAG welding Laser welding and cutting Submerged arc welding Friction welding Gas welding (a) (d) (a) (b) (a) Electric energy Mechanical energy (c) (d) Chemical energy Light energy

[Word group] (a) (b) (c) (d) Electrical energy Mechanical energy Chemical energy Light energy

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


[Q6] Regarding the classified of welding processes, choose five (5) gas-shielded arc welding processes and encircle their alphabets. Jawab:
(a) (d) (g) (j) (m) Stud welding Submarged arc welding Shielded metal arc welding Electro-gas arc welding Electron beam welding (b) (e) (h) (k) (n) TIG welding Self-shielded arc welding Electro-slag welding Resistance spot welding Plasma arc welding (c) (f) (i) (l) Laser welding MAG welding Brazing MIG welding

[Q7] In case of using 100% CO2 gas as shielding, dropletsizeisbecominglargerthanthatincase of using CO2 Argon gas mixture. Explainthereasons. Jawab: Setiap gas memiliki disosiasi yang berbeda-beda. Jika gas CO2 dibandingkan dengan gas Argon, gas CO2 memiliki energi yang jauh lebih tinggi dan heat loss yang tinggi. Akibatnya menahan molten metal dimana sebagian jatuh dan sebagian masuk ke sebagaian lasan. Selain itu apabila >30% CO2 tidak ada mekanisme spray transfer. [Q8] The following sentences describe the metal transfer modes. Choose the relevant one and put its alphabet into each parenthesis. Jawab: (1) The molten metal droplet, which is detached from the tip of the electrode by thearcforce, transfers along the cavity wall in the flux covering around the electrode. This metal transfer mode can be observed in submerged arc welding. (b) (2) The molten metal drop let is punctured by rapid expansion of the internal gases generated in thedroplet.This metal transfer mode can be observed in shielded metal arcwelding. (d) (3) The molten metal drop let grows insize as large as the electrode diameter orlargerto transfer.

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


This metal transfer mode can be observed in shielded metal arc welding with low-hydrogen type electrode sand CO2-shielded arc welding with high currents. The both amount and size of the spatter increases in general. (e) (4) The molten metal drop let whose diameter is as small as the electrode diameter or small er transfers in freeflight in thearccolumn. This metal transfer mode can be observedin MAG welding with high current sand Ar-rich shielding gas (Ar: 80% orlarger) and MIG welding. In general, spatter decreases, and the arc is likely to become stable. (a ) (5) The molten metal drop let, which is developed on the tip of the electrode, makes a contact to the weld pool and is transferred with the aids of the electromagnetic pinching effect and the surface tension of the drop let. This metal transfer mode can be observed in MIG and MAG welding with low current, low arc voltage, and short arc length. This transfer mode issuitable for sheet metal weldingandall-positionwelding. (c ) [Word group] (a) spray transfer (c) short-circuiting transfer (e) globular transfer [Q9] Regardingthe metal transfer modes, choose the relevant one in the word group and enter its alphabet into each parenthesis. (1) CO2-shielded arcweldingwithlowcurrents. (a) (2) Pulsed MAG weldingwithlowaveragecurrents. (a) (3) CO2-shielded arcweldingwith medium currents. (b) (4) MAG weldingwithhighcurrentsand a mixedshielding gas of 80%Ar+20%CO2. (a) (5) MIG weldingwithhighcurrents. (c) [Word group] (a) short-circuiting transfer (c) spray transfer (b) globular transfer (d) explosive transfer (b) flux-wall-guided transfer (d) explosive transfer;

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


[Q10] The followingsentencesaredescribingelectrodewiremeltingand metal transfer modesin MAG weldingwith solid wire. Choose the relevant one and circle its alphabet. (1) Wiremeltingrateisgivenmainlybytheheatfromthearcandalsothefollowingdueto The currentflowinthewire. (a) Electromagneticforce (b) Radiationheat (c) Resistanceheat (d)Convectionheat (2) Whenthewiremeltingrate (orwirefeedingspeed) iskeptconstant, weldingcurrentmaychangeifthefollowing parameter ischanged. (a) Torchangle (b) Wireextension (c) Weldingspeed (d) Flowrate of shielding gas (3) In MAG weldingusing 100 % CO2 gas for shielding gas, whenhigherarcvoltageisapplied, thearcisbecomingunstable. In thatcaseatlowerweldingcurrent, usuallythefollowing metal transfer mode isadoptedatlowerarcvoltage. (a) Short circuiting transfer (Dip transfer) (b) Globular transfer (c) Spray transfer (d) Explosive transfer (4) In MAG weldingwith Argon basemixtureshielding gas (Ar + CO2) spray transfer mode maybeobtainedbyincreasingthefollowing parameter morethan a certaincriticalvalue. (a) Arcvoltage (b) Weldingcurrent (c) Wireextension (d) Flowrate of shielding gas

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


(5) In spray transfer mode, theforcewhichactstodetachthedropletfromthewire tip ismainlythe following. (a) Plasma stream (b) Surfacetension of droplet (c) Stiffness of thearc (d) Electric magneticforce [Q11] Pick out a non consumable electrode gas-shielded arc welding process using DC power source with constant current characteristics. And then give the kind of shielding gas, the material of electrode and the polarity of electrode, when the process is applied on welding of stainless steel. Jawab:

Welding process Shielding gas Material of electrode Polarity of electrode

( TIG = Tungsten Inert Gas ( ( ( Gas Argon Tungsten DCEN

) ) ) )

[Q12] Pick out at least three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of TIG arc welding process Jawab: Keuntungan: 1. Hasi lasanya memiliki kualitas tinggi dan presisi 2. Ketika pengelasan tidak terdapat asap dan sparter 3. Hasil lasannya bersih karena tidak ada fluks atau slag Kerugian: 1. Efisiensi panasnya rendah 2. Kecepatan las lambatdan deposisi rendah 3. Peralatannya mahal dibandingkan dengan SMAW

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


[Q13] Give four (4) advantages and four (4) disadvantages of SAW, comparing with the SMAW (Manual metal arc welding). Jawab: SAW Keuntungan: 1. Penghilangan slag mudah 2. Sedikit asap dalam prosesnya 3. Kualitas peforma yang baik 4. Kecepatan dalam memproduksi tinggi dengan distorsi rendah 5. Kedalaman penetrasi baik dengan sedikit grooves Kerugian: 1. Biayanya mahal 2. Metode ini terbatas hanya untuk Karbon, Low Alloy, Stainless Steel dan Nickel Alloy 3. Slag harus dibersihkan sebelum dan sesudah pengelasan untuk mengurangi bahaya inklusi slag 4. Susah diaplikasikan ditempat, karena peralatan yang kompleks SMAW Keuntungan: 1. Peralatan simple, murah dan portable 2. Prosesnyadapatdigunakan untuk berbagai posisi las 3. Digunakan untuk repair di workshop, sambungan pipa saluran, konstruksi bangunan Kelemahan: 1. Kecepatan depositnya rendah karena keterbatasan panjang kawat las dan adanya terak/slag 2. Lasan tidak terproteksi dari atmosfer secara baik 3. Lasan lebih banyak terjadi inklusi /pengotor dibandingkan proses pengelasan lain 4. Menghasilkan slag

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)

[Q14] Pick out five (5) features of submerged arc welding process, comparing to manual metal arc welding (shielded metal arc welding) process. Jawab: SAW 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mampu menghasilkan single weld pada plat tebal > 1 inch dengan posisi datar Arus yang digunakan hingga 2000 A dengan sumber AC atau DC Welding automatic atau semi-automatic Flux berbentuk serbuk Proses cepat

SMAW 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. [Q15] The sentences below, describing MAG welding, have error(s) in the parentheses. Correct them. (1) In the case of shielding gas containing argon mixed with 20% of CO2 gas, the metal transfer mode become spray transfer (when the welding speed is higher than a certain critical value). (2) Comparing with 100% CO2 gas shielded arc welding under the same welding parameters, MAG welding with using mixed gas of 80% argon and 20% of CO2 has (wider bead, but easily gets more spatter). Peralatan simple, murahdan portable Prosesnya dapat digunakan untuk berbagai posisi las Digunakan untuk repair di workshop, sambungan pipa saluran, konstruksi baguna Flux berada di elektrode bersama filler Welding manual

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


[Q16] Pick out at least three (3) features of TIG welding (GTAW), comparing with MMA welding (SMAW). Jawab: SMAW Peralatan simple, murah, dan portable. Prosesnya dapat digunakan untuk berbagai posisi las. Digunakan untuk repair di workshop, sambungan pipa, saluran (pipeline), konstruksi bangunan (kapal, dll). TIG Elektrodanya tidak meleleh karena terbuat dari tungsten (wolfram:nonconsumable). Kawat pengisi (filler metal) diumpan secara manual atau mesin. Busur listrik (arc) terbentuk antara elektroda tungsten & kawat las (weld pool). Menggunakan gas sebagai pelindung dan tanpa tekanan (pressure) [Q17] Pick out three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of MAG welding comparing to SAW (submerged arc welding) respectively. Jawab: MAG Keuntungan: Produktivitas tinggi karena otomatis Dapat diaplikasikan untuk semua posisi Elektrodanya tidak terputus (kontinu) Penggunaannya sangat luas Wide range of application Kerugian: Penyatuannya kurang Perlindungan langsung

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


Peralatannya kompleks Tidak portable SAW Keuntungan: Rapat arus tinggi, deposisi tinggi, produktivitas tinggi Kecepatan gerak tinggi, sedikit distorsi Busur tidak terlihat Kerugian: Terbatas pada posisi antara datar dan horizontal Terbatas untuk aplikasi baja karbon, paduan rendah, anti mulur, stainless steel, dan paduan nikel Biayanya tinggi [Q18] Pick out three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of FCAW welding comparing to MAG (metal active gas) welding respectively. Jawab: FCAW Keuntungan: Tampilannya bead Spatter sedikit Deposisi rendah Double protection (gas dan slag) Manual into semi-mechanize interchangable Kerugian: Menghasilkan asap dan furnes Dapat dibawa (portability) Outdoor weldability

SATRIO WIBOWO (1106068245)


Potential untuk gas marks High radiated heat Menghasilkan slag MAG Keuntungan: Produktivitas tinggi karena otomatis Dapat diaplikasikan untuk semua posisi Elektrodanya tidak terputus (kontinu) Penggunaannya sangat luas Wide range of application Kerugian: Penyatuannya kurang Perlindungan langsung Peralatannya kompleks Tidak portable