You are on page 1of 62

1 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL

Alarm Basics Web


www.honeywell.com
Fire Alarm & Suppression
Systems - Maintenance


For: Building Maintenance/Operator Staff, Engineers and Technicians

Presented by: Honeywell Life Safety (MEA) Technical Department
By : Novel Daniyel Technical/Training Dept Manager
3 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Objectives
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
4 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Agenda

Sections 1, 2 and 3

TEA/COFFEE break

Section 4, 5 & 6

Q & A


5 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Objectives
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
6 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Section 1: Detection & Alarm
Detection:
SENSES : SIGHT, SMELL, FEEL
7 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
F I R E !

F I R E ! !

F I R E ! ! !
Section 1: Detection & Alarm
Alarm:
SENSE Hearing and Sight
(audible) (visible)
8 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Objectives
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
9 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
What is a
Fire Alarm System?
A system or portion of a combination system that
consists of components and circuits arranged to
monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or
supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate
appropriate response to those signals.
NFPA 72 2002

Fire Alarm Panel Initiating/Monitoring Appliance Alarm Notification Appliance
10 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
A LIFE SAFETY principle that provides Early Warning
to building occupants when the fire is in its incipient
or early stage.
Section 2 : Fire Alarm Principle
Input
Output
Signal & Detection
FACP
Output & Notification
11 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
In Summary
The Fire Alarm primary function is
firstly to detect a fire or fire condition,
and secondly to sound audible
alarms in all parts of the building
BS5839
12 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
Objectives
13 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Detector Categories

Fire Detection Devices (Input / Initiation Devices)
- Devices which detect fire/smoke e.g: heat detectors,
smoke detectors, flame detectors, manual call points.etc.

Fire Alarm Devices (Output / Notification Devices)
- Devices which alert people of the fire conditione.g:
sounders, voice alarms, strobesetc

Fire Circuit Devices (Line Units)
- Devices with electrical functions related directly to the
detection/alarm circuit, e.g: sort circuit isolators, input
output line units.


14 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
Automatic detection
15 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Detector Categories
Heat detection
Fixed Temperature
Rate of Rise
Linear heat detection
Smoke detection
Aspiration detectors
Beam - light obscuration
Ionization
Video Smoke Detection
Optical - light scatter
Other types of detection
Flame
Gas or CO detection
Multi-sensor fire detectors Combination of
Optical, Heat & CO sensors


16 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Order of Response
1. Aspirating Detectors 3. Flame Detector
2. Spot Type Smoke Detectors 4. Heat Detector


Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
Time
S
m
o
k
e

S
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
i
t
y

Incipient Stage Visible Smoke Flaming Fire Intense Heat
1 2 3 4
17 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Heat detection: Temperature measurement principle
May be FIXED temperature type 57 degC
May be RATE-OF-RISE type 10 degC per minute
Combination Heat detectors are available (ROR + FIXED)
Used in high steam or dusty environments viz. Garages, Kitchens
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
18 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Linear (Line Type) Heat Detector

Actuators
Outer Insulation
Protective Tape
Heat Sensitive
Material
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
19 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Smoke detection: Ionisation principle
Small amount of radioactive material (Americium 241) ionizes chamber
Current flows in the chamber due to ionized air particles
Smoke decreases conductivity, causing ALARM
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
20 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Smoke detection: Photo-Electric/Optical principle
Works with light scattering principle
Contains light transmitter and photosensitive receiver
During normal operation - light does not fall on receiver
Smoke ingress causes light reflection onto the receiver, causing ALARM
IR Emitter
Aerosol
particles
140
0
IR Photo
diode
receiver
Back
Scatter
Forward Scatter
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
21 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Light Scattering Principle
Sensing Chamber
Light
Emitting
Diode
Photo
Diode
Partition
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
22 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Optical Chamber
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
23 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Combination detector: Optical+Heat
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
24 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Smoke detection: Beam sensor
Requires a transmitter and a receiver (single pass
Reflecting types are also available (double pass)
Avoid direct sunlight on RECEIVER
Tx and Rx powered by control panel OR external source




R
A
C
K
S
Tx
Rx
ABC Logistics Warehouse
Tx
Rx
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
25 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web

Double Pass Beam Sensor
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
26 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Smoke detection: High sensitivity aspirating
smoke detector

Pipes with aspirating holes
Each hole is considered a point detector (equivalent to a single
smoke detector)
Used in very clean environments (computer labs)
Can be up to 100 times more sensitive than a
standard smoke detector
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
27 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
High Sensitivity
Sampling Chamber
Calibrated
Air Sampling
Fan
Sampl i ng Det ec t or
Air Aspirating Systems
Pr ot ec t ed Ar ea
S
a
m
p
l
i
n
g

P
o
r
t
s

S
a
m
p
l
i
n
g

P
o
r
t
s

S
a
m
p
l
i
n
g

P
o
r
t
s

Sampl i ng Pi pe
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
28 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Other type of detectors:


IR/UV Flame sensors


CO gas detectors (Odourless gas)


Duct Smoke Detectors


Video Detection
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
29 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Water-Flow Switch
Any flow of water from a sprinkler system, due to OPENING of a sprinkler
head, will result in activation of this switch and subsequently indicate an
alarm condition
Flow
switch
WET

R
I
S
E
R
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
30 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Manual detection
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
31 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Fire Box or Manual Pull Station or Break Glass Unit
- When activated it trips an ALARM
- Installed in exit paths, stairwells, lift lobbies
Various types:
- Single Action
Pull handle once
Glass Break - Glass rod or plate is broken
- Double Action
Lifting of a cover or opening a door
Glass Break Then push activation button
Manual Detection
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
32 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Manual A L A R M
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
33 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
OUTPUT devices (not detection devices):
Controlled by the panel
Can be visual, audible or both
Can be local or remote
More than one may be activated
Devices may be mounted inside or outside based on level of protection
required
May consist of:
- Sirens
- Bells / Sounders
- Buzzers
- Horns
- Voice Drivers
- Strobes Visual alarm using flashing lights :
Used to help the hearing impaired
Or if the ambient background noise level is high
Automatic
A L A R M
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
34 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Speaker (Textual Audio):
An incident has been
Detected in the building
Please leave the building
By the nearest available EXIT
Do not use the LIFTS


Audible
Automatic A L A R M
Sounders
Bell
Horn
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
35 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web

Visual
Automatic A L A R M
Strobes
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
36 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web

Audible / visual
Automatic A L A R M
Speaker/Strobe
Chime/Strobe
Horn/Strobe
Speaker/Sounder/detector/strobe
Sounder/Strobe
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
37 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
PANELS
NFS2-3030
FCI 7100
MS-9600
IdentiFlex 602
ZX-1e
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
38 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Control Panel:
Receives signals from initiation devices (contacts, smoke detectors etc.)
Activates appropriate notification devices (horns/bells, strobes etc .)
Monitors system wiring and power (AC/DC)
Processes programmed instructions (shutdown A/C, recall elevators, etc . . . )
Informs the fire station through central monitoring station (if applicable)
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
39 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Primary (AC)



Secondary (DC)
Requires two Power Sources
Elements of a Control Panel
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
40 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Power Supply
- Mains supply 230V AC
Use un-switched outlet close to the panel.
Put a signboard SUPPLY FOR FIRE ALARM PANEL
DO NOT TAMPER

- Battery Backup (internal to the panel)
Backup source in case of power loss/failure e.g: electrical fault
Fire systems require specific amounts of available backup time
(controlled by standards/codes/local authorities)
NFPA (24hr standby + 5 mins full alarm)
BS5839-1 (24hr standby + 30 mins full alarm)
Supplies current for both detection/initiation devices and
alarm/notification devices

Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
41 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Remote Annunciators
Zone Annunciator
Liquid Crystal
Display
Graphic Annunciator
(Custom)
Remote Serial LCD
Remote Annunciator Remote Annunciator
Remote Annunciator
Section 3 : FAS Basic Components
42 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
Objectives
43 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Section 3 : Fire Suppression System
A combination of LIFE SAFETY & PROPERTY SAFETY that
comprises of Detection and Suppression, operates
automatically without or with human intervention.
44 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
A total flooding system that extinguishes fire by reducing
OXYGEN level or inhibits CHEMICAL REACTION in an
enclosure/room using Inert or Clean Agent gases.
The system composes of Alarm Detection Devices, Agent/Gas
cylinder, Mechanical piping and Solenoid actuator device.
Principle of a Fire Suppression
Fire Triangle Principle:
Eliminating one of its elements will extinguish fire
45 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
System Applications
Where an occupancy/room that contains high value items,
irretrievable data, artefacts collection, records, un-interruptable
operation and etc.
Most advisable for CLASS C Electrical Fire that would make
normal water sprinkler risky to install. Also applicable for Class
A and B.

Main Applications:
1. Server/Data Rooms 4. Electrical Rooms
2. Municipal Records Room 5. Hospital
3. Art Gallery/Museums 6. Etc.
46 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Type of Gases / Clean Agents
Inert Gas
IG-55 contains 50% Ar and 50% N2
IG-541 contains 40% Ar, 52% N2 and 8% CO2

FM-200 HFC227ea known as Heptaflouropropane CF3CHFCF3

CO2 Carbon Dioxide

Others Halon, Inergen, Argonite & Novec
Environmental and Toxicity Factor Halon 1301 FM200 Inert CO2
Ozone Depletion Potential, CFC 11 =1 10-17 0 0 0
Global Warming Potential, CO2 kg 100 6900 3300 0 1
Atmospheric Lifetime, years 65 33 Present in Air
NOEL 5% 9% 43%
Lethal for
Human
LOEL 7% 10.5% 52%
47 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Modes of Operation
Automatic Actuation:

+ =

Zone 1 Zone 2 Gas Discharge

(Pre-discharge time delay after Cross-zone prior to Gas Discharge)
Manual Actuation:



OR =


Releasing Pull Manual Pneumatic Gas Discharge
Station Lever

(No time delay Instant release; Will over-ride Abort operation)
48 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
Objectives
49 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Why Maintenance is important
To ensure operational integrity, the system shall have an inspection, testing and
maintenance program. (NFPA 72 14.2.1.1)

Life Safety is the most important aspect in a facility, being the central component of any fire
protection installation, the fire alarm system deserves the highest level of care and
maintenance achievable.

Ensures that your System/devices remains in good physical condition and that there are no
physical changes that would affect detector performance such as building modifications,
occupancy hazards and environmental factors.

A well maintained system is more reliable and efficient.

To prolong life span of your Fire Alarm and devices.

Fire Alarm System saves lives, your property and your business.

Therefore it is a MUST!
50 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
News Related NY Times
51 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Would you imagine people occupying your Hotel/Building and a Fire Happens.

With a Faulty System Detector removed, Fire fighting Valves closed, Sounder circuit
open etc



Your loved ones Your Business
Why Maintenance is important
Your Investment
Will you take this RISK????
Yes you provided Fire Alarm and Fire Fighting equipments in your Facility but are you sure
that it is working as it was before?

Do not take this risk Be Responsible!
52 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Understanding FIRE Detection and Alarm

Understanding the principle of a Fire Alarm System

To know the basic components of a Fire Alarm System and
its principle of operation

Understanding the principle of a Fire Suppression System
& its Components

Understanding the importance of System Maintenance

How to perform good maintenance of your system
Objectives
53 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
System Maintenance
Types of Maintenance
Category Sub-Category Description
Planned Maintenance
Time-based Maintenance (*)
Detects system deterioration and prevents
failure by systematic inspection and monitoring
undertaken at pre-determined time intervals.
Condition-based Maintenance
Corrective maintenance work performed, as a
result of significant deterioration or failure, to
restore the system to full functionality
Statutory Maintenance
Actions performed to provide minimum level of
maintenance to meet mandatory requirements
(BS or NFPA). Often includes Time-based and
Condition-based maintenance task.
Unplanned Maintenance
Routine & Breakdown
Maintenance
Unplanned and reactive maintenance actions
performed to restore the system to full
functionality, as a result of an unforeseen failure.
Incident Maintenance
Unplanned maintenance actions to restore the
system to full functionality as a result of damage
resulting from a vandalism, fire or other
accidents.
54 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Time-based Maintenance Program (BS5839 part 1)
A maintenance program that conducts Inspection, Testing and Maintenance on scheduled
intervals not waiting for a failure to occur. Preventive rather than Corrective.
System Maintenance
Inspection
This is to ensure that your devices are in good physical condition that there are no physical
changes that would affect detector performance such as building modifications, occupancy
hazards and environmental factors.
Testing
This is to ensure that proper operation of each and every device is met including cause and
effect verification of the fire alarm system. Make sure that building administrator is notified
prior to conducting any test. Always refer to manufacturers recommendation in testing field
devices and panel.
Maintenance
This is to ensure that devices are within its listed operating parameters.
55 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
System Maintenance
Testing:
BS5839
Each week a call point should be operated. It should be confirmed
that the system operated correctly.
NFPA72
Manual call point are to be tested ANNUALLY.
Inspections:
BS5839
The time between inspections should be based on risk assessment
but should not exceed six months. The time between inspections
should be agreed between the parties.
NFPA72
Minimum Inspection frequency should be in accordance to the code
located in Chapter 14. A more frequent schedule can be carried out
but not less than stated in Chapter 14.
56 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Fire Alarm & Detection Monthly Quarterly
Semi-
Annual
Annual
Control panels
Batteries
Remote Annunciators
Initiating Devices
Air Sampling
Duct Detectors
Electromechanical Releasing Device
Suppression System switches
Manual Pull station
Heat Detectors
Radiant Energy Fire Detectors
Smoke Detectors
Supervisory Signal Devices
Waterflow Devices
Alarm Notification Appliances
Interface Equipment
Digital Alarm Comm. Equipment
Inspection Frequency
(NFPA 72, 2010, Chapter 14)
Visual Inspection shall be made to ensure
that there are no changes that affect
equipment performance.
To check for damage, obstruction or
tampering.
To check if devices needs cleaning or
maintenance.

RECORD ALL INSPECTION ACTIVITIES
System Maintenance
57 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Fire Alarm & Detection Monthly Quarterly
Semi-
Annual
Annual
Control panels
Batteries
Remote Annunciators
Initiating Devices
Air Sampling
Duct Detectors
Electromechanical Releasing Device
Suppression System switches
Manual Pull station
Heat Detectors
Radiant Energy Fire Detectors
Smoke Detectors
Supervisory Signal Devices
Waterflow Devices
Alarm Notification Appliances
Interface Equipment
Digital Alarm Comm. Equipment
Testing Frequency
(NFPA 72, 2010, Chapter 14)
Functional testing shall be conducted as per
Manufacturers recommendations, BS5839 or
NFPA72 requirements.
This is to ensure that the devices/panel are
operating as expected.
This is to verify panels cause and effect
operation.
To identify faulty or out of standard devices.

RECORD ALL TESTING ACTIVITIES
System Maintenance
58 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
System Maintenance
Clean Agent System Quarterly
Semi
Annual
Annual Other Remarks
System Inspection
System Test Discharge test is not required
Weigh/Check Cylinders The agent quantity & pressure shall be checked
Container Test Refer to Manufacturer
Hose/Pipe Test Piping puff test to be done at least every 5 years
Room Integrity Test Enclosure Leakage/Integrity Test by certified person.
Clean Agent Maintenance
Important Reminders:
1. Isolate the releasing circuit before
conducting any maintenance/testing
to avoid accidental discharge.
4. The room must be kept totally sealed
and air-tight. Room integrity test shall be
conducted annually especially when
changes in the room occurred that could
adversely affect agent leakage or change
volume of hazard or both.

5. Room modifications/full partitions are
not allowed in this system.
2. Notify building admin before
conducting any maintenance/test.

3. Record all inspection/testing and
maintenance.
Door Fan Room Integrity Test Kit
59 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Testing Tools
Functional Testing tools:
Calibrated Performance testing tools:
Smoke (Aerosol) & Heat Tester by SOLO
Gemini Smoke Detector Sensitivity Tester
Smoke Pellets
Trutest Smoke Detector Sensitivity Tester
Smoke, CO, Heat Tester
By Testifier
DB Sound level Meter
Magnets are not
considered as a way
to functionally test a
detector rather used
for response test only.
Note:
Use testing tools listed for its purpose!
60 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Good Practice
In every Testing, Inspection and Maintenance, a checklist should be filled and kept in
record.
Log all new activity or event shown by the FACP in a log book recording the date and time,
address , device location and description (BS 5839).
Keep all records in a secured cabinet or box. This will be for future reference on
maintenance and troubleshooting.
Place record tagging in every device that has been tested/Inspected.
Keeping the Records
61 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
Good Practice
Responsible Person
The Responsible person for the premises is to ensure that a weekly test of the buildings
Fire Alarm System is carried out as per regulatory standards. (BS 5839 part 1)
Supervises routine maintenance undertaken by a professional fire alarm engineering
company.
Assign/nominate a person to supervise the Fire Alarm System. The nominated person
should have sufficient authority to authorize any necessary work to the fire alarm system
immediately to ensure it is kept operational at all times.
It is vital that all actions are recoded accurately in the logbook and made available to any
authorized person (e.g. Fire Brigade).
62 HONEYWELL - CONFIDENTIAL
Alarm Basics Web
& Finally
Thank You!!
See you soon in our next course
Advanced Fire Alarm