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11128/2005

A compact means of generating the fine structure constant,

as well as three mass ratios

J. S. Markovitch

P.D. Box 2411, West Brattleboro, VT 05303

Email: jsmarkovitch@yahoo.com

Copyright © J. S. Markovitch, 2005

Abstract

A function useful for compactly reproducing the experimental values of the fine structure

constant, as well as the neutron-, muon-, and tau-electron mass ratios, is described. The

first three of these values are reproduced with errors of 1.1, 1.2, and 23 parts per billion,

respectively.

Define

5+a

I(a b) = 10-

2

-10-

3

-10-3

(1)

, 32+h

so that the fine structure constant inverse ~ , as well as the muon-, and neutron-electron mass

a

ratios, may be reproduced as follows:

1

- ~ 1 0 0 + 1(1,1)=137.036 , (2a)

a

Mn ~ 1 0 0 x (4.1Y +6x10

3

+ 6x103 =1838.68365473 ...

(2b)

Me 1(1,-1) 1(1,-1)

Mp ~ 1 0 0 x (4.1)3 -(0.1)3 =206.76827073 ...

(2c)

Me /(-1,-1)

These calculated values differ from their 2002 CODATA values of 137.03599911,

1838.6836598, and 206.7682838, by 6.5, 2.8, and 63 parts per billion (ppb), respectively [1].

2

Furthermore, substituting

5+a

10 2 -10-

3

-10-

6

-10-

9

-10-

12

- •••

f'(a,b) =

3

2

+

h

10-

3

-10-

6

-10-

9

-10-

12

- ••• , (3)

forf{a,b) refines the above calculated values to 137.03599896 ... , 1838.68366209 ..., and

206.76827901, while reducing their respective errors to just 1.1, 1.2, and 23 ppb. (Note that the

one-standard-deviation uncertainties of these CODATA values are 3.3, 0.7, and 26 ppb,

respectively [1].)

A key question raised by the above equations is whether their exactness is a product of

arbitrary fine tuning. For the above precisely-known physical constants we will define fine

tuning as the introduction of an arbitrary small term (or terms) designed to allow an equation to

more closely fit experimental data.

Clearly, under this definition the expressions 10-

3

, as well as -10-

3

-10-

6

-10-

9

10-

12

••• , provide fine tuning within the functions f(a,b) and f'(a,b) , respectively. But as this

fine tuning is the same for all three constants, it cannot by itself account for the precise fit

achieved for all three.

The only remaining term that fine tunes under the above definition is 10-

3

, which appears

in the numerator of the muon-electron mass ratio. But this value is not wholly arbitrary, firstly,

because it already occurs twice in both f(a,b) and f'(a,b); and, secondly, because it fits

naturally alongside 4.1

3

, as shown by the following equation

3

Mr; (4.lY -(O.ly

3475.82.... , (4a)

Me 1(-1,-1)

which closely mirrors the fonn ofEq. (2b), while reproducing the experimental value for the tau-

electron mass ratio to within about 1 part in 2,000 of its center value of 3477.48....

(Experimentally, the tau-electron mass ratio equals roughly [1].) Moreover,

Mr lOx (4.1Y-(0.1Y= 3477.07....

(4b)

Me f(-3,-1)

reproduces this experimental value to within its limits of error.

Taken overall, the above evidence suggests that the functions 1(G, b) and f' (G, b) work

for reasons that are physical, rather than accidental. Moreover, this issue has been examined in

detail by the author using number theory (as it applies to the theory of approximations), as well

as information theory [2], where the conclusion was reached that, even for the muon- and

neutron-electron mass ratio equations considered in isolation, their joint compression of the

experimental data is so large that their success is unlikely to be purely coincidental. In addition;

the author has demonstrated that toroids dimensioned by powers ofthe values 4.1 and 0.1

possess surface areas proportional to the above particle masses, where the specific results

achieved are similar to those ofEqs. (2a)-(2c) [3]. Lastly, the author has described two mass

fonnula that reproduce key mass ratios for the quarks and leptons within a framework that

automatically limits the number of particle families to three [4,5].

4

Endnote

Note that although Eqs. (2a)-(2c) exploit 1(1,1), 1(1,-1), and/(-l,-l), respectively,

none of the above equations exploits 1(-1,1). It is logical to ask if 1(-1,1) also has a use. The

answer is that 4 x 1(1,1) - 3 x 1(-1,1) =137.036.

References

[1] Mohr, P. J. and Taylor, B. N., "The 2002 CODATA Recommended Values of the

Fundamental Physical Constants, Web Version 4.0," available at physics.nist.gov/constants

(National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, 9 December

2003).

[2] J. S. Markovitch, "Coincidence, data compression, and Mach's concept of 'economy of

thought'," (APRI-PH-2004-l2b, 2004). Available at

http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uklarchive/00003667/0l/APRI-PH-2004-l2b.pdf.

[3] J. S. Markovitch, "Particle mass interpreted as a toroidal surface," (APRI-PH-2005-23a,

2005). Available from Fermilab library.

[4] J. S. Markovitch, "An economical means of generating the mass ratios of the quarks and

leptons," (APRI-PH-2005-40a, 2005). Available from Fermilab library.

[5] J. S. Markovitch, "Dual mass formulae that generate the quark and lepton masses," (APRI

PH-2003-22a, 2005). Available from Fermilab library.

5

- Mathcad Worksheet for the Quark and Lepton Mixing Angles
- The Fine Structure Constant Derived From the Broken Symmetry of Two Simple Algebraic Identities
- Compactly Reproducing the Fine Structure Constant Inverse and the Muon-, Neutron-, And Proton-Electron Mass Ratios
- Symmetrically Reproducing Quark and Lepton Mass, Charge, and Generation
- The Evolution of Spacing Effects in Autonomous Agents - J. S. Markovitch
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- An Economical Means of Generating the Mass Ratios of the Quarks and Leptons
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- Approximations of the Fine Structure Constant Reciprocal
- A Toroidal Mass Formula for Heavy Quarks and Leptons
- Coincidence, data compression, and Mach’s concept of "economy of thought"
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- Underlying Symmetry Among the Quark and Lepton Mixing Angles
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- A Mathematical Model of the Quark and Lepton Mixing Angles - v5
- Nine color figures for use with the papers of J. S. Markovitch at jsmarkovitch.wordpress.com
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Suggests that the constants 4.1, 3, and 10 can economically reproduce the fine structure constant, as well as three key mass ratios (specifically, the neutron-, muon-, and tau-electron mass ratios)

Suggests that the constants 4.1, 3, and 10 can economically reproduce the fine structure constant, as well as three key mass ratios (specifically, the neutron-, muon-, and tau-electron mass ratios)

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