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Grammar Translation Method (GTM) Assumption: Learning L2 is for the sake of being scholarly or for gaining rereading proficiency in a foreign language. Read literature in L2. Develop mind and focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations, translations of texts, written exercises. Language learning is a little more than memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language. The L2 maintain as the reference system in the acquisition of the L2. Learning language is to enable comparison to be made between the L2 and L1

The focused skills:

Reading and writing are the primary skills. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives little, if any, attention. Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. detailed analysis of the grammar rules, followed by the application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. Grammar rules are presented and illustrated, a list of vocabulary item is presented with their translation equivalents and translation exercises are prescribed. Foreign language study used grammar as an aid to the study of texts in a foreign language. Grammar is taught deductively, by presentation and the study of grammar rules, which are practice through the translation exercises. The syllabus is sequenced according to the grammar points throughout the text and there was an attempt to teach grammar in an organized and systematic way. Students are given the grammar rules and examples, are told to memorize them, and then are asked to apply the rules in other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations.

Role of Grammar:

The role of teacher and student: The role of teacher is very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The students do as he says so they can learn what he knows. Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. There is little students initiation and little studentstudent interaction. The role of L1: The role of errors: use of mother tongue as the medium instruction. There are two way translation exercises in the classroom. Making error is intolerable. Teacher supplies correct answer.

Techniques and materials: Translation of a literary passage, reading comprehension questions, antonyms/synonyms (Students are given one set of words and are asked to find antonyms in the reading passage. A similar exercise could be done by asking students to find synonyms for a particular set of words. Or students might be asked to define a set of words based on their understanding of them as they occur in the reading passage.) Fill-in theblanks, memorization, use of words of sentences and composition.

2. Direct Method Assumption: L2 teaching and/or learning is comparable to first language acquisition. The objective is the ability to communicate with the speakers of the target language. Students learn to think in the target language. Students need to associate meaning and the target language directly.

The focused skills: Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic. Reading and writing exercises are based on what students practice orally first. Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course. Language is primarily spoken, not written. Therefore, students study common, everyday speech in the target language. they also study culture consisting of the history of the people who speak the target language, the geography of the country where the language is spoken and information about the daily lives of the speakers of the language. Role of grammar: Grammar is taught inductively; students are presented with examples and they figure out the rules or generalization form the examples. An explicit grammar rule may never be given. Students will practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.

The role of teacher and students: interaction between teacher and students and from the students to the teacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed. Students converse with one another well. The role of L1: L1 should not be used in the classroom.

The role of errors: Students have to do self correct based on the teacher helps. Teacher uses various techniques to get students to figure out the errors. Techniques and materials: Reading aloud (students take turn reading sections of a passage, play, or dialogue out loud. Teacher may use gestures, pictures, realia, examples, or other means to make the meaning of the section clear.) Questions and answer exercises (practice with new words and grammatical structure. They have the opportunity to ask questions as well as answer them.) Conversation practice ( teacher asks individual students questions about themselves. The questions contained a particular grammar structure. Later, the students were able to ask each other their own questions using the same grammatical structure.) Fill-in-the-blank exercise (students would have induced the grammar rule they need to fill in the blanks from the examples and practice with earlier parts of the lesson.) Dictation, map drawing, paragraph writing

3. Audio-lingual Method Assumption: