# Force

Force is the effect which acting on objects and changes (or tries to change): Its state of rest (Acceleration) Its state of motion (Acceleration or deceleration) Its direction of motion. Its shape or size. All the above effects.

Force is a vector quantity (that is it has magnitude/numerical value and direction). The unit of force is ‘newton’. Types of Forces: there are three types of forces existing in nature. They are: Gravitational force. Electromagnetic force ( Electrostatic force + Magnetic force) Nuclear forces. These forces are also known as Non-Contact forces. All other forces are generated by the effect of these forces. If these forces are classified by their action they can be classified by two ways: • • Non-Contact force. Contact force.

Non-Contact Force Non-contact forces exist naturally. These forces can act from a distance. The space through these forces act is called “Field” or “Force Field”. Non contact forces are already mentioned. i. ii. iii. Gravitational Force. Electromagnetic force (Electro static force+ Magnetic force) Nuclear force.

© Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Sc. (Nuclear Physics)

Gravitational Force: This is the force between ‘masses’. All masses apply a force of attraction to the other masses by these forces. This force is always attractive, and its magnitude depends on two factors: a) Product of the masses involved.

ࡲ ∝ ࢓૚ ࢓૛ ………………….. (1)

F m1 m2 r

If the masses are larger, then gravitational force between them will be greater. If the masses are small the gravitational force between them will be negligible. b) Distance between the masses from the center of gravity.

ࡲ∝

࢘૛

………………….. (2)

The force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the displacement between the masses. (This displacement must be measured from the center of gravity, not from the contact surface). So if the displacement between the masses is halved the force of attraction due to gravity will be four times greater than before. Load and weight is another names of the gravitational forces.

© Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Sc. (Nuclear Physics)

and it is denoted by a letter ‘g’. Sc. (Nuclear Physics) . it is a scalar quantity. The SI unit of mass is “kilogram”. bur the force on it can be different in different parts of the universe.(a) ࡲࢍ = ࢓ࢍ When the object is at rest then ‘g’ is called the gravitational field strength and when the object is falling then it is called the gravitational acceleration.As the weight is a force it will produce acceleration to a body moving (attracted) to a planet (as the Earth). Mass remains same everywhere. ࡲࢍ = ࢓ࢍ Mass: ‘Mass’ means the total amount of substance of an object. And as we know: Force = mass × accelerati on Thus ‘Force of gravity’ = mass × gravitational acceleration. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. ࡲࢍ = ࢓ࢍ ……………………………. This acceleration is called the gravitational acceleration or the acceleration due to gravity. A mass of 1 kg sugar will be always 1 kg. this is falling.

Closer the charges are the forces are greater.- F ࡲ∝ ࢘૛ ૚ Magnetic force: The force between magnetic poles is called Magnetic force. F ࡲ ∝ ࡹ૚ ࡹ૚ ࡲ∝ ࢘૛ ૚ © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. + + F + + + + + + + + + + + + F ࡲ ∝ ࡽ૚ ࡽ૛ + + + + F + + + + - . Properties of the magnetic force are also same as electro static force.- + + . Electrostatic force: The force between charged particles or charged bodies is called ‘Electro-Static’ force. The properties of this force are: ■ ■ Like charges repel and unlike charges attract. (Nuclear Physics) .Electromagnetic Force (Electro-static + Magnetic). This force is also can be attractive or repulsive. Closer the poles are the force is greater. Sc. ■ ■ Like poles repel and Unlike poles attract. This force can be either attractive or repulsive.

Spring balance/Newton meter Force applied on the block Static friction © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. (Nuclear Physics) . When an object (a box) is at rest in an inclined plane then the downward force is cancelled by the static friction. This is a short ranged force. + + Proton & Proton Proton & Neutron Contact Forces: Contact force cannot act or generate without direct contact of objects. To measure the static friction a ‘newton meter’ is attached to an object placed on a horizontal surface and the newton meter is pulled horizontally. This force acts between two solid (or more than two) surfaces Pressing each other in contact and opposes the relative sliding motion on one surface over the other. Sc. Contact forces are: i) Solid. Example: The force which holds a car in an inclined plane. the pulling force is gradually increased and in one point the object will just to move. These frictional forces are two types.Nuclear force: The force between the nucleons inside the nucleus which holds the nucleons together is the Nuclear force. a) Static friction b) Kinetic or sliding friction. This force acts between the nucleons.Solid friction forces: This force generates when a solid slides past another solid.

Sc. More the pressing forces more the frictional forces. air © Gazi Moyin Uddin M.The applied force is noted from the newton meter. this force is called “Drag force” or simply ‘Fluid friction’. fishes boat. Factors affecting the frictional forces: i) Frictional forces depend on the force pressing the surfaces together as the weight or normal reaction forces. Lubricants fill up the creases and make the surfaces smooth. ii) Types of surfaces in contact: If the surfaces are smooth friction will be less. Fluids can be considered as layers of particles stack together and there are intermolecular forces. will be the static frictional force. If the lubricants (oil or grease) are used between the sliding parts the friction will be less. (Nuclear Physics) .Fluid Drag force: This force generates when a solid moves through a fluid. Drag forces Velocity of the submarine Drag forces on a submarine As the liquid and gas can flow. For a more result the experiment is repeated carefully and an average is calculated. ii) Solid. and friction reduces. By using ball bearing friction can be reduced. Example: the force which opposes the motion of a submarine through water. they are called fluid and when a solid moves through a fluid if faces friction. When a solid moves it collides with the particles of the fluid and faces friction: example submarine. if the surface is rough the friction will be more.

Drag forces due to air near a moving car Fluid friction depends on: a) The density of the fluid. The frictional force acts opposite the direction of motion. b) Speed of the object. Friction slows down. Due to the fluid friction a moving object reaches terminal velocity (Free fall). Sc. If the speed of the object is ‘Zero’ then the fluid frictional force is ‘Zero’. if the density is greater the fluid friction will be greater. They all face this drag forces opposing their motion while they move. Fluid friction increases with surface area of the moving object. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Fluid friction increases when speed increases. If the object has more speed it will face more fluid friction.craft. All friction causes deceleration to moving objects. car. Notes: All types of frictions oppose the motion. Solid – Solid contact friction does not increase with speed. (Nuclear Physics) .

which is due to normal contact force. This force is perpendicular to the solid surface and the reaction force is also perpendicular to the solid surface these force are in the same line of action and they are Newton’s 3rd law pair. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Thus all reaction forces are produced due to the force of action. Newton’s 3rd law).reaction.Normal contact and Reaction Force: i) Normal contact and Reaction forces: This force generates when an object is placed on a solid surface. Sc. ࡾ = ࡲࢉ࢕࢙θ ࡲࡿ࢏࢔θ = ࡲ࢘࢏ࢉ࢚࢏࢕࢔ ࡲࢉ࢕࢙θ θ ࡲ = ࢓ࢍ ࡲ࢙࢏࢔θ θ Reaction force Normal contact forcer All forces appear in nature in pair (Action. (Nuclear Physics) .

(Nuclear Physics) . It is also produced due to action reaction pair. rope or spring. Ruler Spring Clamped Stand Tension F= mg Tension The box is being pulled with a force © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Sc.Tension: Tension is the pulling force through a string.

When cars start moving suddenly. The seat-belts supply an opposite force to cancel the forward force and make the passengers safe. Thus seat-belts are used so that these seat-belts can supply necessary force in the opposite direction to stop the passengers safely. the passengers are thrown forward due to inertia. a= 0 Inertia is a property of mass. The tendency of a rest ‘mass’ to remain at ‘rest’ or moving ‘mass’ to keep on moving at a constant velocity is called ‘Inertia’. passengers are moved (pushed) backward due to inertia and when the fast moving cars suddenly break to stop. (Nuclear Physics) . © Gazi Moyin Uddin M.NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION The 1st law of motion: When the net force acting on an object is zero (F =0) then: i) ii) The object at rest (v=0) will be at rest. V =0 Thus when the net force acting on a moving object is zero the object will be moving with a constant velocity. will move with a constant velocity (a =0) V =0 (at rest) V =Constant F=0 F=0 Thus when the net force acting on an object is zero the object will be at rest. The object at motion (v ≠ 0 ). Sc.

ii) The momentum change and the applied force have the same direction. Mass = m Velocity = u Mass = m Velocity = v The initial momentum and the final momentum of the car are p1 and p2. Sc. (a) p2 = m v ………………….(b) The momentum change in time ‘t’ is p = p2 – p1 ………………... P1 = m u ………………….(c) In time ‘t’ the momentum change is p In time 1 the momentum change is p t © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. (Nuclear Physics) . This change take within time ‘t’.Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: When the net force acting on an object is not zero (F ≠ 0) then: i) The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the net applied force.

F/N a/ ms-2 © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. (Nuclear Physics) ..(d) ࡲ=࢑ ቀ ࡲ=࢑ ቀ ࡲ= ࢖૛ ି࢖૚ ࢚ ቁ ………….(e) ቁ When the proportional constant k = 1.Thus according to the law: ࡲ∝ ࢖ ࢚ ……………………. Sc. (f) as ቀࢇ = ࢜ି࢛ ࢚ ቁ ‘The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net/resultant force (When the mass is constant)’ 1) F ∝ a ( mass is constant) When the net force is doubled acceleration will be doubled or when the net force is halved the corresponding acceleration will be halved. ࢓࢜ି࢓࢛ ࢚ ࢓ሺ࢜ି࢛ሻ ࢚ ࡲ = ࢓ࢇ ….

The graph of an is acceleration inversely proportional to the acceleration. thus a curve is m/ (kg) formed 3) F ∝ m ( acceleration is constant) To produce same acceleration when force is doubled the corresponding mass should be doubled and when the force is halved the mass will be halved as well. The graph shows the forceF /(N) mass graph of an object. The graph shows (Gradient) the is acceleration m/kg constant © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Sc. (Nuclear Physics) .2) m ∝ 1 ( Force is constant) a When the mass is doubled the acceleration will be halved and when mass is halved the acceleration will be doubled. a m/sec2 The graph shows the massacceleration object.

(f) ࡲ ∝ ሺ࢜ − ࢛ሻ and - …………………(g) ࡲ∝ ૚ ࢚ ……………………………(h) So force is directly proportional to the velocity change.ࡲ= ࢓ሺ࢜ି࢛ሻ ࢚ …………………. Thus if a huge velocity drops to a little velocity then a large force is acted on that object.. If a moving object changes its velocity in a short time then a large force is acted on that object. Sc. - And force is inversely proportional to the time needed for the velocity change. Time/s © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. F /N This graph shows that when impact time increases the corresponding impact force decreases. (Nuclear Physics) .

as the impact time increases the impact force decreases. Sc. Force is inversely proportional to the impact time. it increases the stopping time of the person.e.Situation-1: Landing on thick mattress: When a person lands on a thick mattress from a height the mattress compresses and takes a longer time to make the person completely stopped i. This is because when a nail is hammered the hammer head compresses as it is made from rubber thus taking a longer time to stop and as ࡲ∝ ૚ ࢚ . Compression Height Mattress Hard Floor Impact force is less Impact force is high Situation -2: If a hammer head is made out of rubber then it cannot protrude effective force when it is used to protruding a nail by hitting. (Nuclear Physics) . and as F ∞ 1 t F =m (v − u ) t and as the stopping time increases the impact force decreases and thus the reaction force on the person due to impact is also less and the person is not injured. thus it cannot effectively protrudes the nail. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M.

Situation-1: When a canon is fired: When a cannon is fired the barrel of the cannon recoils in the opposite direction. These forces must be of same type. opposite and same type of force acts on another body’. The forces acted for the same time duration. So standing just right behind the cannon barrel when it is fired is same dangerous as to face the cannon shell. Explosion in the gun power causes a force on the cannon ball. vi. and equal amount of force acts on the cannon barrel in the opposite direction. F1 Mv F2 mV Mv = mV F1 = F2 © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. because both the case the momentum change or force acting by them are the same. These forces act on different object. These forces occur in pair. ii. Newton’s 3rd law explains how a force appears in nature.Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: According to Newton’s 3rd law ‘Whenever a force acts in a body. These forces act along the same line but in opposite direction. iii. an equal. Sc. (Nuclear Physics) . iv. v. These forces are equal in magnitude. The action force and the reaction force have the following properties: i.

(Nuclear Physics) . When the net force acts on an object in the same direction of its velocity. When it is applied in the opposite direction of the velocity then it will cause the deceleration (the object will lose speed). Lorry Force Velocity Force Wagon Velocity A net force is applied in the same direction of the velocity of the lorry. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. 1. then this net force will cause the change in the magnitude (the object will gain speed) of the velocity which will cause linear acceleration. Shape/size change. Linear acceleration or deceleration. 3.If the net force acting on an object is not zero (F ≠ 0) then the effects of a force are: 1. Sc. 2. thus causing acceleration and the force is applied in the opposite direction of the velocity causing deceleration of the wagon. Direction change (angular acceleration).

(Nuclear Physics) .2. then the vertical component will change the direction and the parallel component will keep the car going. Velocity Force Force perpendicular to velocity A net force is applied in the perpendicular to the velocity to change the direction of motion Force perpendicular to velocity F sinθ Force = F θ F cosθ Velocity A net force is applied in an angle θ with the velocity. Sc. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. When the net force (or the component of the net force) is applied in perpendicular to the direction of the velocity then the force change the direction of the moving body.

When the force is applied to a fixed solid object then the force changes (or tries to change) its shape by deforming. (Further explained in Hooke’s law) A rod bends when a force is applied Force Force A spring stretches when a force is applied Force Metal rod Shape is changed of the Metal rod © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. or size by breaking it. (When we are talking about force we mean net force/resultant or unbalanced force. (Nuclear Physics) . Sc.3.

142N’ If two forces F1 and F2 are acting at any angle in any point O then the resultant force F can be calculated by completing the parallelogram drawn by these two forces F1 and F2. 10N 14.Cos90 10N = 14. then θ = 90o. Sc. F1 θ F F= ( F 1 2 + F 2 2 + 2 F1 F 2 Cos θ ) F2 When the two forcesF1 and F2 are acting in the same direction then the angle between them θ = 0 and the net force F = F1+F2. (Nuclear Physics) .10. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. the diagonal will be the resultant of these two forces.14N NET force = ( P 2 + Q 2 + 2 PQCos θ ) = 10 2 + 10 2 + 2. and the net force F= F1 2 + F 2 2 which is Pythagoras theorem.10.When the forces are acting in the opposite direction then θ = 180o then the net force F = F1~F2.142N The net/resultant/ force on this box is ’14.If two 10N forces are acting perpendicularly each other then the resultant force will be the diagonal of the parallelogram drawn by the forces as shown. And when the forces are acting in perpendicular to one another.

© Gazi Moyin Uddin M. iv. Sc. Turning effect will only produce if the force is not passing through the turning point (pivot/fulcrum). Centre of gravity of the ruler Notes: i. ii. Turning and lifting are not the same. or they will produce turning effect. v. To lift something upward force and downward force must be same. The object can be balanced in this point.Center of gravity: Center of gravity is the point where all the forces of gravity of an object seem to be acting. (Nuclear Physics) . If all the forces are balanced then they form a polygon. iii. All forces must act in a point.

vi. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. Forces cause ‘Pressure’ in solids. then Hooke’s law is used. If the applied force changes the shape or size. Sc. or the applied force can be calculated by multiplying mass and the acceleration. liquids and in gases. (Nuclear Physics) . vii. In laboratory applied force can be measured by “Spring balance/newton meter”. viii.

Thus there is no net force in the aero plane and it is moving with a constant velocity. A few examples are discussed here: i. As a result the net force acting in horizontal direction is also zero. The magnitude of the forward force produced by the engine is equal to the magnitude of the air frictional force and as they are in the opposite direction of the effect of them is cancelled out. Sc. and they cancelled out each other. and as they are acting in the opposite direction their effect will be cancelled out thus the net force in the vertical direction is zero. An airplane is flying with a constant velocity at a constant height: In this situation at least four forces are acting on the airplane.FORCES IN BALANCE: When the forces on an object are balanced then the object is either stopped or it is moving with a constant velocity at a constant height. Air friction Up thrust Forward force produced by the engine Gravitational force In this condition: The magnitude of the gravitational force is equal to the magnitude of the up thrust. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. (Nuclear Physics) .

A car is moving with a constant velocity on a road: car is moving with a When a Constant velocity on a road then the net force acting on the car is zero. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. There are at least four forces acting on it. Sc. Reaction force Ground+ air friction Thrust by the engine Gravitational force Here the magnitude of the gravitational force is equal to the magnitude of the reaction force and as they are acing in the opposite direction thus their effect is cancelled out. thus they cancels out and the total net force acting on the car is zero. The gravitational force will cancel the reaction force as long as the car remains in the road. and it is moving with a constant velocity. at the same time the air friction will also increase in the opposite direction and soon the forward force and the backward force will be equal and the car will move with a greater constant velocity.ii. and they also cancels out each other. (Nuclear Physics) . The magnitude of the thrust of the engine is equal to the magnitude of the total (Ground and air frictional force ) frictional force in the opposite direction. If the accelerator of the car is pressed then the engine will produce more thrust and net force will be acting on the car and the car will accelerate in the direction of the force.

Then the forward force F initially will be the net force acting on the boat and producing acceleration. © Gazi Moyin Uddin M.i) A speed boat is moving through the water: When a boat floats in the water and if it is stopped and still then the net force acting on it zero. and cancelling each other. These two forces are acting in the opposite direction with the same magnitude. Sc. and then at least two forces acting on it. F1 Forward thrust Fluid friction F2 In the diagram the gravitational force F2 is equals to the up Thrust F1 in magnitude and as they are in the opposite direction they are cancelled out. And this acceleration can be calculated by the equation a = F/m (m/s2). Soon the fluid friction on the boat will increase and becomes equal then the boat will move with a constant velocity. (Nuclear Physics) .the gravitational force and the up-thrust by the water.

The man stands on a scale. iii) When the lift moves with a constant velocity The scale shows the weight F (mg) as there is No extra force Force F = mg © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. (Nuclear Physics) . Sc.Forces in moving references: Force F = mg i) ii) This lift is at rest on the surface of the Earth. the net force on the lift is zero ii) The scale shows the same reading as weight F (mg). Constant Velocity i) Now the lift is moving upward with a constant velocity. iii) Suppose this force is F (mg). It is showing his weight (The force of gravity).

Acceleration Applied force Now there is net force acting on the lift upward and the lift is accelerating upward. The net force = F .F1 When the lift is moving downward and accelerating the person feels an upward force thus the reading on the scale will be less. The total force acting downward is: F + F1 The scale shows a higher reading (F + F1) Force F = mg Reaction force F1 When the lift is moving upward and decelerating then reaction force on the man will act upward. This force will add up with the gravity thus the scale will show higher reading. and he will fly inside the lift. by a net force and. thus the scale will show less reading. which must be subtracted from the gravity. the man applies a reaction force in the opposite direction (Downward) on the scale. then the upward net force will be same as gravity and the person will fell no force (weightless). If the lift accelerates at the same rate as gravity. Sc. (Nuclear Physics) . © Gazi Moyin Uddin M. The man will feel massive or a pressing force downward. The man is also accelerating upward.

Sc. (Nuclear Physics) .© Gazi Moyin Uddin M.

) .d otm Title: Force Subject: Author: Moyin Keywords: Comments: Creation Date: 29-Nov-12 9:54:00 PM Change Number: 87 Last Saved On: 19-Mar-13 11:49:00 AM Last Saved By: Moyin Total Editing Time: 464 Minutes Last Printed On: 19-Mar-13 11:50:00 AM As of Last Complete Printing Number of Pages: 28 Number of Words: 2.Filename: Directory: Template: Force-Final C:\As-Class-pro\Unit-1 C:\Users\ASUS\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Templates\Normal.) Number of Characters: 16.837 (approx.172 (approx.