Engineering Metrology UME403

Credits

2.0
2

Marks Breakup
• • • • Mid Sem Test Quiz (2) Lab Evaluation End Sem Exam 25 10 25 40

TOTAL

100
3

What is Measurement .

. – length.What is Measurement • Measurement can generally be defined as the assignment of a value to – time. • We cannot escape measurement. – and mass.

. a device that measures time.What is Measurement • Our daily lives are greatly influenced by the clock.

What is Measurement • The mass or weight of almost every product we buy is measured. .

What is Measurement • The measure of length is incorporated into every creation of humans. ranging from the minute components of an integrated circuit to the many thousands of kilometres of superhighways. .

What is Measurement Measurement. has been developed to an exact science known as Metrology . in the modern age.

.What is Measurement • Mass production of goods has made necessary very complex systems of metrology to check and control the critical dimensions that control standardization and interchangeability of parts.

with the assurance that all parts will fit as intended by the designer. may be manufactured at locations far removed from one another and then brought to a central assembly point. for example. .What is Measurement • Components of an automobile.

the development and maintenance of a vast system of carefully controlled measurement has permitted manufacturers to locate their factories close to raw materials and available labour.What is Measurement • In addition. • Because of the standardization of measurement. . industry has been able to diversify its products.

• As a result. and manufacturing effort can be directed toward product quality and production at a competitive price. metrology affects not only the technical aspects of production but also the economic aspects. manufacturers can do what they do best.What is Measurement • Thus. .

• In simple cases. the system can consist of only a single unit that gives an output reading or signal according to the magnitude of the unknown variable applied to it. .Elements of a measurement system • A measuring system exists to provide information about the physical value of some variable being measured.

in more complex measurement situations. a measuring system consists of several separate elements as shown in Figure.Elements of a measurement system • However. .

Elements of a measurement system Measured variable Sensor Variable conversion element Signal processing Output Signal presentation or recording Signal transmission .

Sensor Liquid/mercury in a glass thermometer Thermocouple .

Sensor Strain gauge .

a thermocouple and a strain gauge. • For most but not all sensors. • Some examples of primary sensors are a liquid/mercury in a glass thermometer. . this function is at least approximately linear.Sensor • The first element in any measuring system is the primary sensor: this gives an output that is a function of the measurand (the input applied to it).

Variable Conversion Element .

the displacement-measuring strain gauge has an output in the form of a varying resistance.Variable Conversion Element • Variable conversion elements are needed where the output variable of a primary transducer is in an inconvenient form and has to be converted to a more convenient form. • For instance. .

Variable Conversion Element • The resistance change cannot be easily measured and so it is converted to a change in voltage by a bridge circuit. which is a typical example of a variable conversion element. .

which amplifies the output of the primary transducer or variable conversion element. thus improving the sensitivity and resolution of measurement. . • A very common type of signal processing element is the electronic amplifier.Signal Processing Elements • Signal processing elements exist to improve the quality of the output of a measurement system in some way.

Signal Processing Elements • This element of a measuring system is particularly important where the primary transducer has a low output. thermocouples have a typical output of only a few millivolts. . • For example.

Additional Components • In addition to these three components just mentioned. – firstly to point and transmit the signal to some remote – secondly to display or record the signal if it is not fed automatically into a feedback control system. some measurement systems have one or two other components. .

Additional Components • Signal transmission is needed when the observation or application point of the output of a measurement system is some distance away from the site of the primary transducer. . which is often screened to minimize signal corruption by induced electrical noise. • The signal transmission element has traditionally consisted of single or multicored cable.

• This element in the measurement system takes the form either of a signal presentation unit or of a signal-recording unit.Additional Components • The final optional element in a measurement system is the point where the measured signal is utilized. .

Additional Components .

resolution. • Environmental conditions that the instrument will be subjected to – as some conditions will immediately either eliminate the possibility of using certain types of instrument or else will create a requirement for expensive protection of the instrument.Choosing appropriate measuring instruments • Specification of the instrument : – especially parameters like the desired measurement accuracy. . sensitivity and dynamic performance.

. significant pressure loss can be caused to the measured system in some techniques of flow measurement. • Published literature is of considerable help in the choice of a suitable instrument for a particular measurement situation.Choosing appropriate measuring instruments • The extent to which the measured system will be disturbed during the measuring process : – For example.

for example. can only be done at a penalty of increasing its manufacturing cost.Choosing appropriate measuring instruments • The instrument characteristics – Characteristics are the features that form the technical basis for a comparison between the relative merits of different instruments. the better the characteristics. • Cost is very strongly correlated with the performance of an instrument: – Increasing the accuracy or resolution of an instrument. – Generally. . the higher the cost.

other important factors in the assessment exercise are instrument durability and the maintenance requirements. .Choosing appropriate measuring instruments • Durability and the maintenance – As well as purchase cost.

Analogue and digital instruments. Null-type and deflection-type instruments. Indicating instruments and instruments with a signal output • Smart and non-smart instruments • • • • .Instrument Types Active and passive instruments.

• Passive: – A passive component does not require an external power source.Active and passive instruments. – The quantity being measured simply modulates the magnitude of some external power source. – The instrument output is entirely produced by the quantity being measured . • Active : – An active instrument requires power source.

Scale Spring Pointer Pivot Piston Fluid Passive instrument .Active and passive instruments.

• The pressure of the fluid is translated into a movement of a pointer against a scale. • The energy expended in moving the pointer is derived entirely from the change in pressure measured: there are no other energy inputs to the system. • An example of a passive instrument is the pressure-measuring device shown in Figure.Active and passive instruments. .

Active and passive instruments. Float Pivot Petrol Output voltage Active instrument .

Active and passive instruments. • An example of an active instrument is a float-type petrol tank level indicator as sketched in Figure . and the output signal consists of a proportion of the external voltage source applied across the two ends of the potentiometer. • Here. . the change in petrol level moves a potentiometer arm.

. • The energy in the output signal comes from the external power source: the primary transducer float system is merely modulating the value of the voltage from this external power source.Active and passive instruments.

where the value of the quantity being measured is displayed in terms of the amount of movement of a pointer. which is a null-type instrument. . • An alternative type of pressure gauge is the deadweight gauge shown in Figure .Null-type and deflection-type • The pressure gauge just mentioned is a good example of a deflection type of instrument.

Null-type and deflection-type Weights Piston Fluid .

• Weights are added until the piston reaches a datum level.Null-type and deflection-type • Here. weights are put on top of the piston until the downward force balances the fluid pressure. known as the null point. . • Pressure measurement is made in terms of the value of the weights needed to reach this null position.

. the linearity and • For the null-type – accuracy relies on the calibration of the weights.Null-type and deflection-type • The accuracy of these two instruments depends on different things. • For the deflection-type – accuracy depends on calibration of the spring.

. • In terms of usage. this means that the null type of instrument will normally be the more accurate.Null-type and deflection-type • As calibration of weights is much easier than careful choice and calibration of a linearcharacteristic spring. the deflection type instrument is clearly more convenient.

• A deflection-type instrument is therefore the one that would normally be used in the workplace. .Null-type and deflection-type • It is far simpler to read the position of a pointer against a scale than to add and subtract weights until a null point is reached.

.Analogue And Digital Instruments • An analogue instrument gives an output that varies continuously as the quantity being measured changes. • The deflection-type of pressure gauge described earlier is a good example of an analogue instrument. • The output can have an infinite number of values within the range that the instrument is designed to measure.

Analogue And Digital Instruments • As the input value changes. . • The pointer can therefore take an infinite number of positions within its range of movement but the number of different positions that the eye can discriminate between is strictly limited. • This discrimination depends upon how large the scale is and how finely it is divided. the pointer moves with a smooth continuous motion.

Analogue And Digital Instruments • A digital instrument has an output that varies in discrete steps and so can only have a finite number of values. • The revolution counter sketched in Figure is an example of a digital instrument. and on each revolution the cam opens and closes a switch. . • A cam is attached to the revolving body whose motion is being measured.

Analogue And Digital Instruments Switch Counter .

Analogue And Digital Instruments Cam Switch Counter .

. • This system can only count whole revolutions and cannot discriminate any motion that is less than a full revolution. • The distinction between analogue and digital instruments has become particularly important with the rapid growth in the application of microcomputers to automatic control systems.Analogue And Digital Instruments • The switching operations are counted by an electronic counter.

Analogue And Digital Instruments • Any digital computer system performs its computations in digital form. as it can be interfaced directly to the control computer. • An instrument whose output is in digital form is therefore particularly advantageous in such applications. .

Indicating instruments and instruments with a signal output • Indicating instruments : give an audio or visual indication of the magnitude of the physical quantity measured . • Instruments with a Signal output : those that give an output in the form of a measurement signal whose magnitude is proportional to the measured quantity. .

. • Indicators can also be further divided into those that have an analogue output and those that have a digital display.Indicating instruments and instruments with a signal output • The class of indicating instruments normally includes all null-type instruments and most passive ones. • Instruments that have a signal-type output are commonly used as part of automatic control systems.

. the measurement signal involved is an electrical voltage. they can also be found in measurement systems where the output measurement signal is recorded in some way for later use.Indicating instruments and instruments with a signal output • In other circumstances. but it can take other forms in some systems such as an electrical current. an optical signal or a pneumatic signal. • Usually.

.Smart and non-smart instruments • The advent of the microprocessor has created a new division in instruments between those that do incorporate a microprocessor (smart) and those that don’t.

precision. . resolution. • The quality of measurement depends on these characteristics.Static Characteristics Of Instruments • Static characteristics of instruments are defined in terms of accuracy. • Normally. sensitivity. these values do not change with time once the instrument is manufactured. etc.

Static Characteristics Of Instruments
• The cost of an instrument will increase when we want to achieve higher values of these characteristics. • The terms used to express the static characteristics of a measuring instrument are explained in the next slides.

Accuracy
• The accuracy of an instrument is a measure of how close the output reading of the instrument is to the correct value.

• In practice, it is more usual to quote the inaccuracy figure rather than the accuracy figure for an instrument.

Accuracy
• Inaccuracy is the extent to which a reading
might be wrong, and is often quoted as a %age of the full-scale (f.s.) reading of an instrument. • If, for example, a pressure gauge of range 0–10 bar has a quoted inaccuracy of ±1.0% f.s., then the maximum error to be expected in any reading is 0.1 bar.

Accuracy • The accuracy of a measuring system is normally stated in terms of the errors introduced .

it is a common practice to express the error as a percentage of the measuring range of the equipment: .Accuracy • However .

Accuracy Numericals • A pressure gauge with a range between 0-1 bar with an accuracy of ± 5% fs(full-scale) has a maximum error of: ??? .

The error percentage of the gauge.0 bar.15 bar when calibrated by the manufacturer.Accuracy Numericals • A pressure gauge with a range between 0 . The error percentage when the reading obtained is 2. – b. .10 bar is found to have an error of ± 0. • Calculate : – a.

Accuracy Numericals .

Repeatability & Reproducibility • Precision is a term that describes an instrument’s degree of freedom from random errors. though confused with accuracy. • Precision is often. then the spread of readings will be very small. • If a large number of readings are taken of the same quantity by a high precision instrument.Precision. incorrectly. .

• Low accuracy measurements from a high precision instrument are normally caused by a bias in the measurements. Repeatability & Reproducibility • High precision does not imply anything about measurement accuracy. • A high precision instrument may have a low accuracy. which is removable by recalibration.Precision. .

Repeatability & Reproducibility .Precision.

Precision. Repeatability & Reproducibility Low Precision Low Accuracy .

Precision. Repeatability & Reproducibility High Precision Low Accuracy .

Repeatability & Reproducibility High Precision High Accuracy .Precision.

– with the same measurement conditions.Precision. – same location and – same conditions of use maintained throughout. – same instrument and observer. Repeatability & Reproducibility • Repeatability describes the closeness of output readings when – the same input is applied repetitively over a short period of time. .

Precision. Repeatability & Reproducibility • Can the person producing the measurement repeat in the future what he/she did in the past? .

Repeatability & Reproducibility • Can a second person reproduce the measurement made by the first person? .Precision.

Precision. – location. . – measuring instrument. – conditions of use and time of measurement. Repeatability & Reproducibility • Reproducibility describes the closeness of output readings for the same input when there are changes in – the method of measurement. – observer.

• When used correctly. • For instance. .Tolerance • Tolerance is a term that is closely related to accuracy and defines the maximum error that is to be expected in some value. crankshafts are machined with a diameter tolerance quoted as so many microns (10-6m). tolerance describes the maximum deviation of a manufactured component from some specified value. and electric circuit components such as resistors have tolerances of perhaps 5%.

Tolerance
• One resistor chosen at random from a batch having a nominal value 1000 W and tolerance 5% might have an actual value anywhere between 950 W and 1050 W.

Range and span
• The input range of an measuring device is specified by the minimum and maximum values of input variable (Xmin to Xmax), for example: from -10 to +150°C (for the measurement device with temperature input). • The output range of an measuring device is specified by the minimum and maximum values of output variable (Ymin to Ymax), for example: from 4 to +20 mA (for the measurement element with current output).

Range and span
• The input span of a measuring devices is specified by the difference between maximum Xmax and minimum Xmin values of input variables: (Xmax- Xmin ). • For example, for a measuring devices with input range from -10°C to +150 °Cthe input span is: +150 °C - (-10°C)= 160°C.

• A slope of one (unity) between measured and true value is perfect . signal presented to the measuring system). • Linearity is the consistency of accuracy over the range of measurement.Linearity • The working range of most of the instruments provides a linear relationship between the output (reading taken from the scale of the instrument) and input (measurand.

Linearity FSO = Full scale output .

• Non-linearity is usually expressed as a percentage of full-scale reading. . • The non-linearity is then defined as the maximum deviation of any of the output readings marked X from this straight line.Linearity • Linearity is termed as Nonlinearity. • Nonlinearity = maximum deviation from the reading of x and the straight line.

• Thus.Sensitivity of measurement • The sensitivity of measurement is a measure of the change in instrument output that occurs when the quantity being measured changes by a given amount. sensitivity is the ratio ∆(Output) = ∆(Input) .

for example. .Sensitivity of measurement • The sensitivity of measurement is therefore the slope of the straight line drawn on Figure. • If. a pressure of 2 bar produces a deflection of 10 degrees in a pressure transducer. the sensitivity of the instrument is 5 degrees/bar (assuming that the deflection is zero with zero pressure applied).

Sensitivity of measurement If the input-output relation is linear the sensitivity will be constant for all the values of input Output Y ∆(Output) ∆(Input) Input X .

the sensitivity of the instrument depends upon the input quantity ∆(Output) ∆(Input) Input X .Sensitivity of measurement ∆(Output) Output Y ∆(Input) If the input-output relation is non-linear.

. • It has a wide range of units which are dependent upon the instrument of measuring system. • Eg: – mm/micro amp – mm/ohms – counts/volt – Ohms/degree Celsius.Sensitivity of measurement • Sensitivity has no unique units.

. Determine the static sensitivity.Sensitivity of measurement • A bourdon tube pressure guage requires 10 bar to produce 3 vernier division changes in the scale.

Sensitivity of measurement Numerical • The following resistance values of a platinum resistance thermometer were measured at a range of temperatures. . Determine the measurement sensitivity of the instrument in ohms/°C.

K3 etc.Sensitivity of measurement • When an instrument consists of different elements connected in series having static sensitivities of K1. K2. then the overall sensitivity is expressed as follows: A B C D K1 K2 K3 .

Sensitivity of measurement A B C D K1 K2 K3 Overall Sensitivity (k) = k1 x k2 x k3 k= B A x C B x D C .

with sensitivity for each equipment given below: – Transducer sensitivity – Amplifier gain – Recorder sensitivity 0.Sensitivity of measurement Numerical • A measuring system consisting of a transducer.0 V/mV 5.0 mm/V . amplifier and a recorder.2 mV/°C 2.

Sensitivity of measurement Numerical • (k) = k1 x k2 x k3 x 2.0 mm/°C .0 V x 5.0 mm V mV V • k = 0.2 mV °C • k = 2.

Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • The transfer function of the measuring device is the most important characteristic. giving the general relation between input and output variables and parameters of measuring instrument : . describing the instrument's conversion.

Y is the output variable and a1. a2 … a3 are the parameters of the measuring instruments.Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • • • • Where: X is the input variable. .

the instrument’s manufacturers make efforts to obtain a linear transfer function such as .Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • The sensitivity K is the most important a linear measuring device and is a object of a special attention when the device is designed. • Usually.

Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) Output Y Input X .

Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • For some measuring devices (for example the transducers with current output signal 4 to 20 mA) the output variable can contain constant .

Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) Output Y Input X .

. the sensitivity of a device with linear TF is constant for the whole measurement range.Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • As can be seen in Fig.

Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • For some measuring devices the transfer function is nonlinear such as : .

Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) Output Y Input X .

.Transfer Function TF (Output/Input relationship) • For the devises with non-linear TF the sensitivity varies in the measurement range and may be calculated for a concrete point only or as a average value for some interval in the range interval.

. • Thus threshold defines the minimum value of input which is necessary to cause a detectable change from zero output.Threshold • When the input signal to an instrument is gradually increased from zero. • This minimum value is called the threshold of the instrument. there will be some minimum value input before which the instrument will not detect any output change.

0Kg Measurement System 0 Kg 2Kg Measurement System 0 Kg 3Kg Measurement System 3 Kg .Threshold • Threshold may be caused by backlash or internal noise.

Resolution • Resolution is the smallest difference in dimensions that the measuring instrument can detect or distinguish. .

1 mm. whereas a variation of 0.Resolution • For example. • A variation of 0. a dial gauge indicates 100 mm. • In terms of a measurement system. the resolution of the comparator is 0.1 mm moves the comparator’s needle.05 mm does not move the needle. • Hence. it is quantified by the smallest scale increment or least count (least significant digit) of the output readout indicator. .

• This increment is termed resolution or discrimination. • Thus resolution defines the smallest change of input for which there will be a change of output.Resolution • When the input signal is increased from nonzero value. . one observes that the instrument output does not change until a certain input increment is exceeded.

5Kg Measurement System 3 Kg 4Kg Measurement System 4 Kg .Resolution 3Kg Measurement System 3 Kg 3.

Sensitivity to disturbance • All calibrations and specifications of an instrument are only valid under controlled conditions of temperature. • As variations occur in the ambient temperature etc. . • These standard ambient conditions are usually defined in the instrument specification. and the sensitivity to disturbance is a measure of the magnitude of this change. pressure etc. certain static instrument characteristics change..

known as – zero drift and – sensitivity drift. bias. • Zero drift is sometimes known by the alternative term.Sensitivity to disturbance • Such environmental changes affect instruments in two main ways. .

. • The mechanical form of weight scale is a common example of an instrument that is prone to bias.Sensitivity to disturbance • Zero drift or bias describes the effect where the zero reading of an instrument is modified by a change in ambient conditions. • This causes a constant error that exists over the full range of measurement of the instrument.

Sensitivity to disturbance .

.Sensitivity to disturbance • It is quite usual to find that there is a reading of perhaps 1 kg with no one stood on the scale. the reading would be 101 kg. • If someone of known weight 70 kg were to get on the scale. the reading would be 71 kg. and if someone of known weight 100 kg were to get on the scale.

In the case of the weight scale just described.Sensitivity to disturbance • Zero drift is normally removable by calibration. a thumbwheel is usually provided that can be turned until the reading is zero with the scales unloaded. thus removing the bias. • Zero drift is also commonly found in instruments like voltmeters that are affected by ambient temperature changes. .

• If the characteristic of an instrument is sensitive to several environmental parameters.Sensitivity to disturbance • Typical units by which such zero drift is measured are volts/°C. • This is often called the zero drift coefficient related to temperature changes. . then it will have several zero drift coefficients. one for each environmental parameter.

.Sensitivity to disturbance • A typical change in the output characteristic of a pressure gauge subject to zero drift is shown in Figure.

. • It is quantified by sensitivity drift coefficients that define how much drift there is for a unit change in each environmental parameter that the instrument characteristics are sensitive to.Sensitivity to disturbance • Sensitivity drift(also known as scale factor drift) defines the amount by which an instrument’s sensitivity of measurement varies as ambient conditions change.

• Figure shows what effect sensitivity drift can have on the output characteristic of an instrument.Sensitivity to disturbance • Many components within an instrument are affected by environmental fluctuations. the modulus of elasticity of a spring is temperature dependent. such as temperature changes: for instance. .

Sensitivity to disturbance .

then the typical modification of the output characteristic is shown in Figure.Sensitivity to disturbance • If an instrument suffers both zero drift and sensitivity drift at the same time. .

Sensitivity to disturbance Numerical • A spring balance is calibrated in an environment at a temperature of 20°C and has the following deflection/load characteristic. .

Sensitivity to disturbance Numerical
• It is then used in an environment at a temperature of 30°C and the following deflection/load characteristic is measured.

• Determine the zero drift and sensitivity drift per° C change in ambient temperature.

Sensitivity to disturbance Numerical
• At 20°C, deflection/load characteristic is a straight line.
– Sensitivity = 20 mm/kg.

• At 30°C, deflection/load characteristic is still a straight line.
– Sensitivity = 22 mm/kg.

Sensitivity to disturbance Numerical
• Bias (zero drift) = 5 mm (the no-load deflection) • Sensitivity drift = 2 mm/kg • Zero drift/°C = 5/10 = 0.5 mm/°C • Sensitivity drift/°C = 2/10 = 0.2 (mm per kg)/°C

sensitivity. .Sensitivity to disturbance Numerical • An instrument is calibrated in an environment at a temperature of 20°Cand the following output readings y are obtained for various input values x: • Determine the measurement expressed as the ratio y/x.

the input/output characteristic changes to the following: • Determine the new measurement sensitivity.Sensitivity to disturbance Numerical • When the instrument is subsequently used in an environment at a temperature of 50°C. Hence determine the sensitivity drift due to the change in ambient temperature of 30°C. .

• If the input measured quantity to the instrument is steadily increased from a negative value. the output reading varies in the manner shown in curve (a). .Hysteresis effects • Figure illustrates the output characteristic of an instrument that exhibits hysteresis.

Hysteresis effects .

• The non-coincidence between these loading and unloading curves is known as hysteresis. the output varies in the manner shown in curve (b).Hysteresis effects • If the input variable is then steadily decreased. .

• These are normally expressed as a percentage of the full-scale input or output reading respectively. as shown in Figure . .Hysteresis effects • Two quantities are defined. maximum input hysteresis and maximum output hysteresis.

such as the passive pressure gauge and the Prony brake (used for measuring torque). . magnetic effects. elastic deformation. • Hysteresis may be the result of mechanical friction.Hysteresis effects • Hysteresis is most commonly found in instruments that contain springs. or thermal effects.

due to magnetic hysteresis in the iron.Hysteresis effects • Devices like the mechanical flyball (a device for measuring rotational velocity) suffer hysteresis from both of the above sources because they have friction in moving parts and also contain a spring. • Hysteresis can also occur in instruments that contain electrical windings formed round an iron core. .

the LVDT and the rotary differential transformer. .Hysteresis effects • This occurs in devices like the variable inductance displacement transducer.

however. • Any instrument that exhibits hysteresis also displays dead space. • Backlash in gears is a typical cause of dead space. • Some instruments that do not suffer from any significant hysteresis can still exhibit a dead space in their output characteristics.Dead space • Dead space is defined as the range of different input values over which there is no change in output value. as marked on Figure . .

Dead space • Backlash is commonly experienced in gear sets used to convert between translational and rotational motion (which is a common technique used to measure translational velocity). .