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TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM Description of transportation problem A set of m supply points from which a good is shipped.

. Supply point i can supply at most si units. A set of demand points to which the good is shipped. Demand point j must receive at least di units of the shipped good. Each unit produced at supply point i and shipped to the demand point j incurs a variable cost of cij. Example Powerco has three electric power plants that supply the needs of four cities. Each power plant can supply the following numbers of kilowatt-hours kwh! of electricity" plant # $ %& million' plant ( $ &) million' plant % $ *) million. +he peak power demands in these cities, which occur at the same time (pm! are as follows" city # $ *& million' city ( $ () million' city % $ %) million' city * $ %) million. +he costs of sending # million kwh of electricity from plant to city depend on the distance the electricity must travel. -ormulate and solve an .P to minimi/e the cost of meeting each city0s peak power demand.

From Plant # Plant ( Plant % Dema !

City 1 12 14 1#* *&

To City 2 City 3 13 1#) 1#( 1#% 14 1#3 () %)

City 4 Supply 14 %& 15 &) 1& *) %)

.et xij 6 number of units shipped from supply point i to demand point j, then, the general formulation of a transportation problem is" min c x
i =m j =n i= # j= # ij ij

s.t. x
j =#

j =n

ij

sj

i 6 #,(,7,m! j 6 #,(,7,n! i 6 #,(,7,m' j 6 #,(,7,n!


j =n i =m si = d j j =# i =#

x
i =#

i =m

ij

dj

xij )

8f the total supply e9uals to total demand,

the problem is said to be a "ala #e! tra $portatio pro"lem

Bala #i % a Tra $portatio Pro"lem i& Total Supply E'#ee!$ Total Dema ! :reate a !ummy !ema ! poi t that has a demand e9ual to the amount of the excess supply.
(

Shipments to the dummy point are not real shipments, they are assigned a cost of /ero. Fi !i % Ba$i# Fea$i"le Solutio ("&$) &or Tra $portatio Pro"lem* ;orthwest :orner <ethod <inimum :ost <ethod =ogel0s <ethod Tra $portatio Ta"leau :ity # :ity ( :ity % :ity * Supply Plant # 2 3 #) 4 %& Plant ( 4 #( #% 5 &) Plant % #* 4 #3 & *) Demand *& () %) %)

Nort+,e$t Cor er Met+o! #. >egin in the upper left northwest! corner (. Set x## as large as possible. x## cannot be larger than the smaller of s# and d#. Set x## 6 min ?s#, d#@.
%

%. 8f x## 6 s#, cross out the #st row and change d# to d# $ s#. 8f x## 6 d#, cross out the #st column and change s# to s# $ d#. 8f x## 6 s# 6 d#, cross out either row # or column # but not both!. 8f you cross out row #, change d# to ) and vice versa. *. :ontinue applying this procedure to the most northwest cell in the tableau that does not lie in a cross out row or column. Northwest corner method does not utilize shipping costs, so it can yield a bfs that has a very high shipping cost. Mi imum Co$t Met+o! #. -ind the variable with the smallest shipping cost. .abel it as xij. (. Set xij 6 min ?si , dj@ %. As in the northwest corner method, cross out row i or column j and reduce the supply or demand of the non cross out row or column by xij. *. :hoose from the cell that do not lie in a cross out column or row and repeat the procedure. -o%el.$ Met+o! #. >egin by computing for each row and column! a ApenaltyB e9ual to the difference between the two smallest costs in a row and column!.
*

(. %. *.

&.

-ind the row or column with the largest penalty. :hoose the variable in this row or column that has the smallest shipping cost as the #st >=. Set Set xij 6 min ?si , dj@ As in the northwest corner C minimum cost method, cross out row i or column j and reduce the supply or demand of the non cross out row or column by xij :hoose from the cell that do not lie in a cross out column or row and repeat the procedure

Exercise Dse a! ;orthwest :orner method b! <inimum :ost method c! =ogel0s method to find a bfs for Powerco problem.

Tra $portatio Simple' Met+o! #. Determine the variable that should enter the basis (. -ind the loop involving the entering variable and some of the >=
&

%.

*. &.

:ounting the cell in the loop, label them as even and odd starting from the entering variable label the entering variable as even cell!. -ind the odd cell whose variable assumes the smallest value. :all this value . +his odd cell will leave the basis!. +o perform the pivot, decrease the value of each odd cell by and increase the value of each even cell by .

A or!ere! $e/ue #e o& at lea$t &our !i&&ere t #ell$ i$ #alle! a loop i& #. Any two consecutive cells lie in either the same row or the same column. (. ;o three consecutive cells lie in the same row or column. %. +he last cell in the se9uence has a row or column in common with the #st cell in the se9uence.

Example .oop

;ot a loop

8llustration 8nitial +ableau ;orthwest :orner method bfs! 2 3 #) 4 %& 35 4 #( #% 5


5

10 #* *&

20 4

20 #3 10 30 %) %) &

&) *)

()

(Determine the variable to enter the basis) >= 6 ?x##, x(#, x((, x(%, x%%, x%*@ .et u# 6 ) u# E v# 6 2 v# 6 2 u( E v# 6 4 u( 6 # u( E v( 6 #( v( 6 ## u( E v% 6 #% v% 6 #( u% E v% 6 #3 u% 6 * u% E v* 6 & v* 6 # ;>= 6 ?x#(, x#%, x#*, x(*, x%#, x%(@
c#( = u# + v ( c#( = ) + ## 3 = &
c#% = u# + v% c#% = ) + #( #) = (

c#* = u# + v* c#* = ) + # 4 = 2 c(* = u ( + v* c(* = # + # 5 = &


c%# = u % + v# c%# = * + 2 #* = (

entering var. most positive! ;ote" D and v are the elements corresponding to supply and demand constraints!
c%( = u% + v( c%( = * + ## 4 = 3

( ind the loop) 2 35 4 #( #% 5


2

#)

4 %&

10

20 (o 20 (e ) ) #* 4 #3 & (e 10 (o 30 ) ) *& () %) %)

&) *)

6 #) x%% will leave the basis! Fdd cells $ #) Even cells E #)


+ableau # 2 3 #) 4 35 4 #( #% 5 10 10 30 #* 4 #3 & 10 30 *& () %) %) !epeat the procedure until
cij

%& &) *)

all non"positive