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1.

Confucianism
2. Traditional systems of classification of political systems
3. Defining governments and regimes
4. Regimes of the modern world
5. Political ideologies
6. Defining democracy
7. Liberalism
8. Conservatism
9. The end of ideology? (comment on Francis Fukuyamas article The End of
History)
10. Party politics
11. Party systems
12. Defining political party, interest group, political movement

Government
A government is the system by which a state or community is
governed. In Commonwealth English, a government more narrowly refers to the
particular executive in control of a state at a given timeknown in American
English as anadministration. In American English, government refers to the larger
system by which any state is organised Furthermore,government is occasionally
used in English as a synonym for governance.
In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists
of legislators, administrators, and arbitrators. Government is the means by which
state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the
state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of
political systems and institutions that make up the organisation of a specific
government.
Government of any kind currently affects every human activity in many important
ways. For this reason, political scientistsgenerally argue that government should
not be studied by itself; but should be studied along
with anthropology, economics,history, philosophy, science, and sociology.
Political science
Etymology
From Middle English government,
[citation needed]
from Old French government
[citation
needed]
(French gouvernement), from Latin gubernatio ("management, government").
Government is a compound formed from the Ancient Greek (kuberna,
"I steer, drive, guide, pilot") and the Latin -mente, ablative singular of mns
(mind).
arch-, prefix derived from the Greek archon, 'rulership', which means "higher in
hierarchy".
[4]
The Greek word krtos, 'power', which means "right to
lead" is the suffix root in words like aristocrat and democracy. Its mythological
personification was the god Kratos, a son of Styx.

Classifying government
In political science, it has long been a goal to create a typology or taxonomy
of polities, as typologies of political systems are not obvious.
[5]
It is especially
important in the political science fields of comparative politics and international
relations.
On the surface, identifying a form of government appears to be easy, as all
governments have an official form. The United States is a federal republic, while
the former Soviet Union was a socialist republic. However self-identification is not
objective, and as Kopstein and Lichbach argue, defining regimes can be
tricky.
[6]
For example, elections are a defining characteristic of a democracy,
[citation
needed]
but in practice elections in the former Soviet Union were not "free and fair"
and took place in a single party state. Thus in many practical classifications it
would not be considered democratic.
Identifying a form of government is also complicated because a large number
of political systems originate as socio-economic movements and are then carried
into governments by specific parties naming themselves after those movements; all
with competing political-ideologies. Experience with those movements in power,
and the strong ties they may have to particular forms of government, can cause
them to be considered as forms of government in themselves.
Other complications include general non-consensus or deliberate "distortion or
bias" of reasonable technical definitions to political ideologies and associated
forms of governing, due to the nature of politics in the modern era. For example:
The meaning of "conservatism" in the United States has little in common with the
way the word's definition is used elsewhere. As Ribuffo (2011) notes, "what
Americans now call conservatism much of the world calls liberalism or
neoliberalism".
[7]
Since the 1950s conservatism in the United States has been
chiefly associated with the Republican Party. However, during the era
of segregation many Southern Democrats were conservatives, and they played a
key role in the Conservative Coalition that controlled Congress from 1937 to 1963.
Every country in the world is ruled by a system of governance that combines at
least 2 (or more) of the following attributes (for example, the United States is not a
true capitalist society, since the government actually provides social services for its
citizens). Additionally, one person's opinion of the type of government may differ
from another's (for example, some may argue that the United States is a
plutocracy rather than a democracy since they may believe it is ruled by the
wealthy). There are always shades of gray in any government. Even the most
liberal democracies limit rival political activity to one extent or another, and even
the most tyrannical dictatorships must organise a broad base of support, so it is
very difficult "pigeonholing" every government into narrow categories.
[clarification
needed]

The dialectical forms of government
Main article: Plato's five regimes
The Classical Greek philosopher Plato discusses five types of regimes. They
are aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. Plato also assigns a
man to each of these regimes to illustrate what they stand for. The tyrannical man
would represent tyranny for example. These five regimes progressively degenerate
starting with aristocracy at the top and tyranny at the bottom.
In Republic, while Plato spends much time having Socrates narrate a conversation
about the city he founds with Glaucon and Adeimantus "in speech", the discussion
eventually turns to considering four regimes that exist in reality and tend to
degrade successively into each other: timocracy, oligarchy (also called plutocracy),
democracy and tyranny (also called despotism).
Forms of government by associated attributes
Descriptions of governments can be based on the following attributes:
By elements of where decision-making power is held
Aristarchic attributes
Governments with aristarchy attributes are traditionally controlled and organised
by a small group of the most-qualified people, with no intervention from the most
part of society; this small group usually shares some common trait. The opposite of
an aristarchic government is kakistocracy.

4. Political regime
A political regime is a set of political structures that make up a state. These
political systems range from direct democracies to totalitarian regimes, such as
military dictatorships. Common systems in the modern world include democratic
republics, monarchies, and representative democracies. There are also primarily
theoretical types of governments, like a strictmeritocracy.
Democracies
One of the most often-talked about political system is a representative democracy.
This is a system in which representatives are directly elected by the citizens, and
these representatives then make political decisions for the people, with the
assumption that their decisions will reflect the general will of the republic. This
can be compared to a direct democracy, in which the citizens directly vote on all
issues of importance.
Republics
The republic is one of the most common systems of government in the world,
although it takes many different forms. For instance, a republic can be associated
with a religion, as in the case of an Islamic republic; an economic system, as in a
socialist republic; or a political procedure, like a parliamentary republic. A number
of republics try to show the fact that they are actually made up of smaller, semi-
autonomous parts. The United States of America, for example, says very clearly
that its political regime is that of a group of united state entities. Both Nigeria and
Germany also convey this idea by calling themselves federal republics.
Republics are often denoted in the official name of the state, and often include a
modifier to convey some sort of philosophical ideal the political regime holds. For
example, Guyana is known as a the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana, Sri Lanka
is known as the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and mainland China is
known as a Peoples Republic of China. The actual governmental system in these
countries can vary: for instance, China is a Marxist-Leninist single party state, not
a republic. This type of government can also go the other way, with several
republics being part of one state, like countries in the former Soviet Union.
Dynastic Governments
Dynastic systems of government consist of all the leaders of the country coming
from one family. Common types of this government include monarchies, emirates,
and dynastic empires, like that of Imperial China. In modern times, the leaders of
many monarchies and emirates serve primarily as figureheads. This type of
government is called a constitutional monarchy or nominal monarchy, and includes
countries like the United Kingdom. The opposite of this is an absolute monarchy,
in which the ruler has total power to govern the state, and is not subject to control
from a constitution or parliament. Examples of modern absolute monarchies
include Saudi Arabia and Qatar.
Authoritarian and Totalitarian Regimes
In authoritarian and totalitarian political regimes, one person, entity, or party has
complete control over the affairs of the state, without the input or consent of the
population. In totalitarian regimes specifically, this leader attempts to control all
aspects of a society, including things like the personal beliefs and morals of the
population. These are sometimes accompanied by a cult of personality around the
leader or leaders, as in the case of Adolf Hitler, the leader of Nazi Germany.
Common forms of authoritarian or totalitarian regimes include military juntas, in
which a small committee of military leaders rules the country or a single-party
state, in which only one political party is in power and others are either outrightly
or tacitly not allowed to challenge that authority. Another form is a dictatorship, in
which one person rules the country without being accountable to anyone and then
passes his or her powers on to another person upon death.
Rare or Archaic Systems
Some systems are leftovers from a bygone age. Luxembourg, for example, is
officially known as a grand duchy, dating back to a time when it was a part of the
Netherlands as a Dutch dominion. Another type of archaic system is a kritarchy, or
a rule by judges; and a democracy, or country in which only people who own land
can be active in governing. Other types of governments are rare in the modern
world, but still exist in pockets. Theocracies, for example, such as the government
of Tibet in exile, or of Vatican City, where a religious figure is also granted secular
power of the government.
Theoretical Systems
There are a number of types of political regime that exist more in theory than
anywhere in the world. One example of this is a strict meritocracy, for example,
where leaders are chosen based on their ability to lead. Other theoretical systems
include a corporatocracy, a popular theme in science fiction, in which corporations
rule their own sovereign states; and a geniocracy, in which leaders are selected
based on their problem-solving abilities and creativity.

Regime
Politics[edit]
In politics, a regime is the form of government: the set of rules, cultural or social
norms, etc. that regulate the operation of government and its interactions with
society. It's basically the time or period a person rules.
Modern usage
While the word regime originates as a synonym for any form of government,
modern usage often gives the term a negative connotation, implying
an authoritariangovernment or dictatorship. Webster's definition states that the
word regime refers simply to a form of government,
[1]
while Oxford English
Dictionary definesregime as "a government, especially an authoritarian
one".
[2]
Nowadays the political use of the word regime is most commonly
[citation
needed]
applied to any government that is most of the time not democratically elected
and imposes strict and often arbitrary rules and laws on the people that are, because
of the undemocratic nature of the government, non-negotiable.
[citation needed]
English
language press journalists deploy it selectively to cue their news audiences to view
particular foreign governments negatively. For example, in a September 1, 2013
news story, Huffington Post reporter Christina Wilkie refers to the Syrian
government as the "regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad"
[3]

International regime
International political use of regime concerns international regulatory agencies
(see International regime), which lie outside of the control of national
governments. These have more power over a greater range than postal or
telecommunications agreements, for example, and constrain national
governments.
[citation needed]

Science[edit]
See also: Fire regime and River regime
In scientific discussions, a regime is a class of physical conditions, usually
parameterised by some specific measures, where a particular physical phenomenon
or boundary condition is significant. Very often a regime corresponds to a limiting
condition. The region of measurable parameter space that corresponds to a regime
is very often loosely defined. Examples include
"the superfluid regime",
[4]
"the steady state regime"
[5]
or
"the femtosecond regime".
[6]

In geography and hydrography, "regime" refers to the changing conditions of river
beds and other features, such as systems of sandbars.

. List of political ideologies
This is a list of political ideologies. Many political parties base their political
action and election program on anideology. In social studies, a political
ideology is a certain ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of
a social movement, institution, class, and or large group that explains how society
should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social
order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and
to what ends it should be used. Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely,
while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without
specifically embracing any one of them. The popularity of an ideology is in part
due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their own
interests. Political ideology and political action committee are in a form related
Political ideologies have two dimensions:
1. Goals: How society should be organized.
2. Methods: The most appropriate way to achieve this goal.
An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain
ideas on what it considers to be the bestform of
government (e.g. democracy, autocracy, etc.), and the best economic
system (e.g. capitalism, socialism, etc.). Sometimes the same word is used to
identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, "socialism" may
refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which supports that
economic system.
Ideologies also identify themselves by their position on the political
spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), though this is very often
controversial. Finally, ideologies can be distinguished from political strategies
(e.g. populism) and from single issues that a party may be built around
(e.g. opposition to European integration or the legalization of marijuana).
The following list attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life
into a number of groups; each group contains ideologies that are related to each
other. The headers refer to names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The
names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one
ideology evolved out of the other. They are merely noting the fact that the
ideologies in question are practically, historically and ideologically related to each
other. Note that one ideology can belong to several groups, and there is sometimes
considerable overlap between related ideologies. Also, keep in mind that the
meaning of a political label can differ between countries and that parties often
subscribe to a combination of ideologies.
The list is strictly alphabetical. Thus, placing one ideology before another does not
imply that the first is more important or popular than the second.

Democracy
Tom Garrigue Masaryk, main Czech representative of democracy. He uttered the
famous phrase: "Democracy has its faults, because people have their faults. Like
owner, like store." in Czech: "Demokracie m sv chyby, protoe oban maj
sv chyby. Jak pn, takov krm." He very often said that democracy is a
discussion.
Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate
equallyeither directly or indirectly through elected representativesin the
proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, religious,
cultural, ethnic and racial equality, justice, liberty and fraternity. The term
originates from the Greek (dmokrata) "rule of the people",
[1]
which
was coined from (dmos) "people" and (kratos) "power" or "rule" in
the 5th century BCE to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-
states, notably Athens; the term is an antonym to (aristokratia) "rule
of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the
distinction has been blurred historically.
[2]
The political system of Classical
Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to an elite class of free men
and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all
democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic
citizenship consisted of an elite class until full enfranchisement was won for all
adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the
19th and 20th centuries. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the
older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.
Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by one
person, as in a monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals,
as in an oligarchy. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek
philosophy,
[3]
are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed
democratic, oligarchic, and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy
in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people
to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
[4]

Several variants of democracy exist, but there are two basic forms, both of which
concern how the whole body of all eligible citizens executes its will. One form of
democracy is direct democracy, in which all eligible citizens have direct and active
participation in the decision making of the government. In most modern
democracies, the whole body of all eligible citizens remain the sovereign power
but political power is exercised indirectly through elected representatives; this is
called representative democracy. The concept of representative democracy arose
largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle
Ages, the Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the American and French
Revolutions.
[5]

Liberalism
Liberalismul (din francez: libralisme) este un curent ideologic i social-politic
care promoveaz libertatea i egalitatea n drepturi.
[1]
Liberali mbrieaz o gam
larg de opinii, n funcie de modul de nelegere a acestor principii, majoritatea
liberalilor susin urmtoarele idei fundamentale: constituionalismul,democraia
liberal, alegeri libere i corecte, drepturile omului, comerul liber, precum
i libertatea religioas.
[2][3][4][5][6]
Liberalismul cuprinde mai multe tendine
intelectuale i tradiii, dar curentele dominante sunt liberalismul clasic, care a
devenit popular n secolul al XVIII-lea, i liberalismul social, care a devenit
popular n secolul al XX-lea.
ntr-un sens strict, liberalismul, numit "clasic", este un curent filosofic nscut
n Europa secolelor al XVII-lea i al XVIII-lea, care pleac de la ideea c fiecare
fiin uman are, prin natere, drepturi naturale pe care nici o putere nu le poate
impieta i anume: dreptul la via, la libertate i la proprietate. Ca urmare, liberalii
vor s limiteze prerogativele statului i ale altor forme de putere, oricare ar fi
forma i modul lor de manifestare.
n sens larg, liberalismul proslvete construirea unei societi caracterizate prin:
libertatea de gndire a indivizilor, domnia dreptului natural, liberul schimb de idei,
economia de pia pe baza iniiativei private i un sistem transparent de guvernare,
n care drepturile minoritilor sunt garantate. Exist mai multe curente de gndire
liberal care se difereniaz ntr-un mod mai precis prin fundamentele lor
filosofice, prin limitele asignate statului i prin domeniul asupra cruia ele aplic
principiul libertii.
Liberalism politic este doctrina care vizeaz reducerea puterilor Statului la
protecia drepturilor i libertilor individuale, opunndu-se ideii de "Stat
providenial". Indivizii sunt liberi s i urmreasc propriile interese att timp ct
nu afecteaz drepturile i libertile celorlali.
Liberalism economic este doctrina care proclam libera concuren pe pia,
neintervenia Statului n economie i are ca principiu fundamental proprietatea
individual.
. Conservatism
Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional
social institutions. A person who follows the philosophies of conservatism is
referred to as a traditionalist or conservative.
Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and
continuity, while others, calle dreactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return
to "the way things were".
[1][2]
The first established use of the term in a political
context originated with Franois-Ren de Chateaubriand in 1818,
[3]
during the
period of Bourbon restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French
Revolution. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since
been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that
are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism
depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus
conservatives from different parts of the worldeach upholding their respective
traditionsmay disagree on a wide range of issues.
Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but
supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists
of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s.
[4]
According to Quintin Hogg, the
chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959, "Conservatism is not so much
a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the
development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and permanent
requirement of human nature itself."
[5]




12. Political movement

The nineteenth century Skandinavist political movement led to the modern use of
the term Scandinavia.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group which operate
together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international
scope. Political movements
develop, coordinate,
[2]
promulgate,
[3]
revise,
[4]
amend,
[5]
interpret,
[6]
and produce
materials that are intended to address the goals of the base of the movement.
A social movement in the area of politics can be organized around a single issue or
set of issues, or around a set of shared concerns of a social group. In a political
party, a political organization seeks to influence, or control, government policy,
usually by nominating their candidates and seating candidates in political and
government offices.
[7]
Additionally, parties participate in electoral campaigns and
educational outreach or protest actions aiming to convince citizens or governments
to take action on the issues and concerns which are the focus of the movement.
Parties often espouse an ideology, expressed in a party program, bolstered by a
written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.
Examples[edit]
Some political movements have aimed to change government policy, such as the
anti-war movement, theEcology movement, and the Anti-globalization movement.
Many have aimed to establish or broaden the rights of subordinate groups, such
as abolitionism, the women's suffrage movement, the Civil rights
movement, feminism,men's rights movement, gay rights movement, the Disability
rights movement, or the inclusive human rightsmovement. Some have represented
class interests, such as the Labour movement, Socialism, and Communism, others
have expressed national aspirations, such
as anticolonialist movements, Ratana, Zionism, and Sinn Fin. Political
movements can also involve struggles to decentralize or centralize state control, as
in Anarchism, Fascism, and Nazism.
With globalization, global citizens movements may have emerged.
[8]

Movements may be named by outsiders, as with the levellers political movement in
17th century England was so named as a term of disparagement. Yet admirers of
the movement and its aims later came to use the term, and it is the term by which
they are known to history.