www.minbaralhurriyya.

org
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by
any means without the prior permission of Minbaralhurriyya Team.

www.arab-csr.org
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by
any means without the prior permission of Arab Center for Scientific Research
and Humane Studies Team.

‫ﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ؟‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺭرﺍاﻟﻒ ﺭرﺍاﻳ ﻮ‪  ‬‬

‫‪  ‬‬

‫?‪What is Classical Liberalism‬‬
‫‪Ralph Raico‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‪  :‬ﺭرﺷﻴﺪ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﺍاﺯز‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬

‫‪  ‬‬

‫"ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺬ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺪﺍاﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻘﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺩدﻭوﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﻭوﺟﻮﺩد ﺍاﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺔ ﻟ ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳ ﻴﺔ ﻭوﺣﺮ ﺔ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕت ﺩدﻭوﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻄﺒﻌ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺴﻼﻡم ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺗﺮﺳﻴﺦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل ﺍا ﺮ‪     .‬ﺇإ ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد‬
‫ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻮﻯى ﻋﻦ "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﻟ ﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺬ ﺐ‪     .‬ﺇإﻻ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍاﻥن‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻤﻴ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ "ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﺷ ﺌﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪﮫ‬
‫ﻧﺠﻠﻮﺳﺎﻛﺴﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺭر ﻄ ﺎ ﻌﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق‬
‫ﺍا ﺮﺗﺤﺖ ﺫذﺭر ﻌﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻭوﺍاﺓة‪  .‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟ ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇإﻥن ﺃأﻣﻜﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺴﻤ ﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻌﺘ ﺃأﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ "ﻟﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﻭوﺃأﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠ ﺎ "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة"‪    .‬‬
‫ﺃأﻣﺎ ﻧﺤﻦ ﻓﺴ ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻠﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﻘﺎﻝل ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴ ﻲ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺭرﻏﻢ ﻌﺪﻩ ﺍاﻟ ﻮ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺬ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍا ﻣﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻮ ﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭوﺗﺎﺭر ﺦ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺹص‪   .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﻠﻮﺭرﺩد ﺃأﻛﺘﻮﻥن ‪ Lord Acton‬ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡح‪   .‬ﺇإ ﺎ ﺣﻀﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب‪ ،‬ﺃأﻭوﺭر ﺎ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺮﻭوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪   .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭوﺟﺪ ﺍاﳌﺬ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍا ﻣ ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى‪،‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﺒﺎﺑﻮ ﺔ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬

‫ﺴﺎ ﻲ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻋﺮﻑف "ﺍاﳌ ﺰﺓة ﻭوﺭر ﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺃأﻋﺪﻧﺎ ﺍاﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝل ﻠﻤﺎﺕت ﺇإﻳﺮ ﻚ‪   .‬ﺇإﻝل‪  .‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭر ﺨﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺻﺮﺍاﻋﺎ ﺑ ﻥن‬

‫ﺟﻮﻧﺰ ‪  .Eric L. Jones‬ﻭوﻭوﻟﺪ ﺍاﳌﺬ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍا‬

‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﻭوﻗﻴﻢ ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﳌﻮﺭرﻭوﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻭو ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻐﺮ ﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺳ ﺒﺪﺍاﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺘﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺳﺎﺩدﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻧ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺩدﺱس ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﺎ ﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺫذﻱي‬

‫ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟ ﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳ ﻥن ﺿﺪ ﺍاﺳ ﺒﺪﺍاﺩد ﺁآﻝل ﺍاﻟ ﺎ ﺴﻮ ﺮﻍغ ﺇإ ﺗﺄﺳ ﺲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡم ﺳﻴﺎ‬
‫َ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﺗ ﱠﻮﻥن ﺃأﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻦ‪   :‬ﺩدﻭوﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻭوﺭرﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻗﻮ ﺔ ﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺴﺎﻣﺢ‬
‫ﺩدﻳ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﺮ ﺔ ﻌﺒ ﻛﺒ ﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣ ﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ ﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﺓة ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪   .‬ﻭوﺃأﺛﺮ ﺍاﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡح ﺍاﳌﺬ ﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻔﻜ ﻭوﺭر ﻲ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺷ ﺌﺎ ﻓﺸ ﺌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋ ﺍاﳌﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﻛﺒ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﻭوﺭر ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺇإﻧﺠﻠ ﺍا‪   .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻤ ﺗﺎﺭر ﺦ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺜﻤﺮ ﺑ ﻥن‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺟﺘﻤﺎ ‪   :‬ﺇإﺫذ ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﻟﺘﺤﻔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻔﻜ ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱي‬
‫ﻭوﺗﺤﺴ ﻨﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﻨﻤﺎ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺎﺕت ﻣﺼﺪﺭرﺇإﻟ ﺎﻡم ﻻﺑﺘ ﺎﺭرﺇإﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة‪  .‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻙك ﺍاﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺷ ﺪ ﺎ ﺇإﻧﺠﻠ ﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺎ ﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃأﺑﺎﻥن ﺃأﻓﺮﺍاﺩد‬
‫ﻭوﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕت ﻋﺪﺓة ﻋﻦ ﻧﺰﻭوﻋﺎﺕت ﻟﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪  .‬ﺇإﻻ ﺃأﻥن ﺃأﻭوﻝل ﺣﺰﺏب ﻟﻴ ﺍا ﻋﺮﻓﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭر ﺦ ‪  ‬ﻭوﺭر ﻲ ﺎﻥن‬
‫ﻮ ﺣﺰﺏب ﺍاﻟﻠﻴﻔﻠﺮﺯز ‪  .Levellers‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻗﺎﺩدﻩ ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﻥن ﻟﻴﻠﺒﻮﺭرﻥن ‪ John Lilburne‬ﻭوﺭر ﺸﺎﺭرﺩد‬
‫ﺃأﻭوﻓﺮﺗﻮﻥن ‪   .Richard Overton‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩدﻋﺖ ﺬﻩ ﺍا ﺮﻛﺔ ﺍا ﺬﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨ ﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻓﺼﻞ ﺍاﻟﻜﻨ ﺴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإ ﺎﺀء ﺣﺘ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍا‬
‫ﻭوﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﻌﺐ ‪  ‬ﻭوﻭوﺿﻊ ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻂ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓ ﺎ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﳌﺎﻥن‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن ﺇإﺻﺮﺍاﺭر ﻢ ﻋ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃأ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺀءﺍا ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺴﺎﻥن ﻟﺬﺍاﺗﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋﺪﺍاﺅؤ ﻢ ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎ ﻢ‬
‫ﻭوﺿﻊ ﺣﺪ ﻷﻱي ﺧﻠﻂ ﺑﻴ ﻢ ﻭو ﻥن ﺣﺰﺏب ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﺋﻞ ‪  .Diggers‬ﻭوﺭرﻏﻢ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺣﺰﺏب‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻠﻴﻔﻠﺮﺯز ﻓﺈﻧﻪﮫ ﻗﺪﻡم ﻟﻺﻧﺠﻠ ﻧﻤﻮﺫذﺟﺎ ﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪   .‬ﺃأﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺷ ﺪﺕت ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺎ ﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ ﳌﺬ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴ ﻋ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮ ﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑف ﺟﻮﻥن ﻟﻮﻙك ‪ ،John Locke‬ﻭوﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺮ ﺔ ﻭو ﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺭرﺍا ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻦ ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃأﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠ ﻤﺎ ﻟﻮﻙك ﻣﻔ ﻮﻡم ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،Property‬ﺷ ﻠ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺗﺤﻮﻝل‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻌﺪ ﻷﺩدﺑﻴﺎﺕت ﺣﺰﺏب ﺍاﻟﻮ ﻐﺲ ‪ Whigs‬ﻭوﻟﻠﺜﻮﺍاﺭر ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺭرﺓة ﺃأﻣﺮ ﺎ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻌﺪ ﺇإﻧﺠﻠ ﺍا‪ ،‬ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃأﻣﺮ ﺎ ﻧﻤﻮﺫذﺟﺎ ﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﻟﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪   .‬ﺇإﺫذ ﺷ ﺪ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺮ ﻲ ﻏﻴﺎﺑﺎ ﺷﺒﻪﮫ ﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﺩد ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻴﺎﺩدﻳﻦ ﻃﻮﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺷ ﻞ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓة ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺍاﻗﺒ ﻥن ﺃأﻭوﺭر ﺎ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻜﻦ ﺬﻩ ﻓ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺬﺭر ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉع ﻋ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑف ﻋﺪﺓة ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕت ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃأﺗﺒﺎﻉع ﺟﻴﻔﺮﺳﻮﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﺗﺒﺎﻉع ﺟﺎﻛﺴﻮﻥن‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﻨﺎ ﻀﻮﻥن ﻟﻠﺮﻕق‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻟﻺﻣ ﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃأﻭوﺍاﺧﺮﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن‪  .  ‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻇ ﺮ ﺟﺰﺀء ﻛﺒ ﻣﻦ ﻓ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺭرﺓة ﻭوﺭر ﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍاﻟﺒﺪﺍاﻳﺎﺕت ﻭوﺇإ‬
‫ﻓ ﺓة ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪  .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺷ ﻞ ﺍاﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﺀء ﺧﺼﺒﺎ ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺝج‬
‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪   .‬ﻭوﻟﻌﺐ ﺧﻼﻟﻪﮫ "ﻣﻔﻜﺮﻭو ﻧﻮﺍاﺭر" ‪  ‬ﺳﻜﺘﻠﻨﺪﻳﻮﻥن ﺩدﻭوﺭرﺍا ﻛﺒ ﺍا‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩدﺍاﻓﻴﺪ ﻴﻮﻡم‬
‫‪ ،David Hume‬ﻭوﺁآﺩدﻡم ﺳﻤﻴﺚ ‪ ،Adam Smith‬ﻭوﺁآﺩدﻡم ﻓ ﻏﺴﻮﻥن ‪،Adam Ferguson‬‬
‫ﻭوﺩدﻭوﻏﺎﻟﺪ ﺳ ﻴﻮﺍاﺭرﺕت ‪   .Dugald Stewart‬ﻭوﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠ ﻢ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺇإ ﺃأﻥن " ﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺀء ﺟﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﺎ ﺫذﻛﻴﺎ" ‪  ‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋ ﻋﻨﻪﮫ ﺭرﻭوﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﺎﻣﻮﻱي ‪Ronald‬‬
‫‪ Hamwoy‬ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟ ﻠﻤﺎﺕت‪   .‬ﻭوﺳﺎ ﻤﺖ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺔ "ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم ﺍاﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎ ﻲ" ‪  ‬ﺳﻜﺘﻠﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﻭوﺍاﺳﻊ‬
‫ﻭوﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﺭر ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﳌﺪ ﻲ ﻛﺠﺰﺀء ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝج ﻟﻠﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺇإﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉع ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﺍاﺩد ﳌﺎ ﺗﻨ ﻚ ﺣﻘﻮﻗ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩدﻳﺔ‪  .‬ﻭوﺍاﺧﺘﺼﺮﺩدﻭوﻏﺎﻟﺪ ﺳ ﻴﻮﺍاﺭرﺕت ﺬﻩ ﻓ ﺎﺭر‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻪﮫ ﻟﺴ ﺓة ﺁآﺩدﻡم ﺳﻤﻴﺚ )‪   (1811‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪"   :‬ﺧﻼﻝل ﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝل ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﺑﺮ ﺔ ﺇإ‬
‫ﻯى‪   :‬ﺍاﻟﺴﻼﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺿﺮﺍاﺋﺐ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﺀء‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝج ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀء ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى ﺳﻮ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﻔﻆ ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﺍاﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳ ﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍاﻟﺒﺎ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴ‬

‫ﻟﻸﺷﻴﺎﺀء‪   ".‬ﺃأﻣﺎ ﺍاﳌﻘﻮﻟﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸ ﺓة ﻟﻠﻔ ﻳﻮﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴ ﻥن "ﺩدﻋﻪﮫ ﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩدﻋﻪﮫ ﻳﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺴ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺀء ﺫذﺍاﺗﻪﮫ"‪  ‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃأﻟ ﻤﺖ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍا ﻭوﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﻘﻮﻡم ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪   .‬ﻭوﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻌﺪ ﺗﻢ ﻭوﺿﻊ ﺇإﻃﺎﺭر ﻧﻈﺮﻱي ﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬
‫"ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎ ﻲ" ‪  ‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑف ﻣﻔﻜﺮ ﻦ ﺃأﻗﺮﺏب ﺇإﻟﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺮ ﺮﺕت ﺳﺒ ﺴﺮ ‪Herbert‬‬
‫‪ Spencer‬ﻭو ﺎﺭرﻝل ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ‪ Carl Menger‬ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻓﺮ ﺪﺭر ﻚ ﺎﻳﻚ‬
‫‪ Friedrich Hayek‬ﻭوﻣﻴ ﺎﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﻮﻻ ﻲ ‪ Michael Polanyi‬ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻻ ﺃأﻥن ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓة ﺍاﻟﻔﺮ ﺪﺓة ﻋﻦ ﺩدﻭوﺭر ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﻌﺎﺭرﺿﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﺇإﺩدﻣﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻮﺭرﻙك ‪ ،Edmond Burke‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘ ﺑﻮﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻋ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺓة ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت‪  .‬ﻓﻔﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻯى ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭوﺍاﺳﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻄﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺴﻴﺠﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﻭو ﻋﺮﺍاﻑف ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍاﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻯى ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥن ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﺳﺲ ﺍاﻟ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺏب"ﻓﻌﻞ" ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩدﻭوﺭرﺍا ﺃأ ﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺮﺩد ﺍا ﻔﺎﻅظ ﻋ ﺣﻴﺎﺓة ﻭوﺣﺮ ﺔ ﻭوﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﺮﺍاﺩد‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣ ﺍاﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳ ﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺴ ﺐ ﺍاﳌﺮﻭوﺭر ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ "ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺧﻼﻑف ﻋﻤﻴﻖ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈ ﻥن‪  .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍاﺳﺘﻐﻠﺖ ﻧﺨﺐ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺸﺄﺕت‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩد ‪  ‬ﻭو ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻄﻴﺦ ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﻣ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن‪  .‬ﻓﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭر ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘ‬
‫ﻏ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻕق‪   .  ‬ﻭوﺃأﺩدﻯى ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺇإ ﺗﻮﺍاﻓﺪ ﻋﺪﺩد ﻛﺒ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝل ﻋ ﺍا ﻮﺍاﺿﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﻭوﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍاﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩد ﻣﻨﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥن ﻟ ﺸﻮ ﻪﮫ ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﻭو ﻌﺘﻪﮫ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﻋﺪﻡم ﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﻣﺎ ﺴﻤﻴﻪﮫ ﺑ ـ"ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺗﺰﺍاﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭر ﺩدﻳﻤﻐﺮﺍا‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﻮﺿﻮ ﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺸﺄ ﻣﺼﺪﺭر ﺁآﺧﺮ ﻟﻠ ﺍاﻉع ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻓ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﺭر ﻂ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻥن ﺑ ﻥن ﻧﺰﻋﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈ ﻥن‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ ﺔ ﻭو ﻣ ﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪   .‬ﻓﻔﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍا ﺟﺰﺀء ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﺏب "ﺍاﻟﻮ ﻎ"‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭوﻥن ﺃأﻥن‬
‫ﺍا ﺮﺏب ﻗﺪ ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻣ ﺭرﺓة ﻷ ﺪﺍاﻑف ﻟﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻭو ﺑﺎﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﺀء ﺍا ﺎﻟﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎ ﺮﻭوﺏب ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺎﺽض ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﻭوﻻ ﻭوﻗﺒﻞ ﻞ‬

‫ﺀء ﺩدﻋﻮﺓة ﻟﻠﺴﻼﻡم‪  .‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺟﺴﺪﺕت ﻣﺪﺭرﺳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺸﺴ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓة ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻺﻣ ﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃأﻋﻤﺎﻝل ﺭرﺍاﺋﺪ ﺎ ﺟﻮﻥن ﺑﺮﺍاﻳﺚ ‪ John Bright‬ﻭوﺭر ﺸﺎﺭرﺩد ﻮ ﺪﻥن ‪  .Richard Cobden‬ﻭوﻭوﺿﻊ ﺬﺍا‬
‫ﺧ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻼ ﻣﻔﺼﻼ ﻟﻠﺪﻭوﺍاﻓﻊ ﺍا ﺮ ﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯى ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل‪  .  ‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺷ ﻞ ﻣﺒﺪﺃأ "ﺍاﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل ﺍا ﺮ"‪  ‬ﻟﺪﻯى‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺎﻕق ﺍاﳌﻀﺎﺩد ﻟ ﺮﻭوﺏب‪   .‬ﻭوﻃﻮﺭر‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﻔﺮ‬

‫ﻓﺮ ﺪﺭر ﻚ ﺑﺎﺳ ﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺼﺪﺩد‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﺻﺪﻯى ﻭوﻗﺒﻮﻻ‬

‫‪ Frédéric Bastiat‬ﺃأﻓ ﺎﺭرﺍا ﻟﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡح‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﺳﻌﺎ ﺃأﻭوﺭر ﺎ ﺃأﻭوﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓة ﻣﺮ ﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻌﺪ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃأﻧﺼﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍا ﺴﺎﻕق ﺸ ﻞ ﺩدﺍاﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟ ﻈﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺍاﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩدﻭوﺍا ﻓ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺍاﻟ ﻭو ﺞ ﻷﻓ ﺎﺭر ﻢ‪   .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻓﺮ ﺴﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﺍاﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﺪﺍاﺭرﺱس ﺍاﻟﻜ ﻯى ﻭوﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﻘﻨﻮﺍاﺕت ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉع ﻋﻦ "ﺍاﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺗﺤﺖ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺓة؛ ﻭوﺻﻮﺗﻮﺍا ﻋ ﻗﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺍا ﻤ ﻮﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺎﻧﻮﺍا ﻳ ﺘﻘﺪﻭوﻥن ﻣﺸﺮﻭوﻉع "ﺍاﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻦ" ‪   (Kulturkampf)  ‬ﳌﺎ ﻲ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﻇﻞ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺃأﻭوﺗﻮ ﻓﻮﻥن ﺴﻤﺎﺭرﻙك‪   .‬ﺇإ ﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺎﻥن‬

‫ﺎﻥن ﺪﻑف ﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍاﻟﻜﻨ ﺴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺒﺎﺭرﻣﻔﻜﺮﻱي ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩدﺭر ﻦ ﻋ ﺗﺠﻨ ﺎ ﺴﻦ ﺍا ﻆ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍاﳌﺼﺎ ﺔ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻋﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﺎ ﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻌﺪ ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻔﺮ ﺴﻴﺔ ﻭو ﻣ ﺍاﻃﻮﺭر ﺔ )ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻮﻧﺎﺑﺮﺕت(‪   .‬ﻭوﺷ ﻞ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﻣﺎﻥن ﻮ ﺴﺘﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫‪ Benjamain Constant‬ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل ﺑﺮﺯز ﻟ ﺬﻩ ﺍا ﻘﺒﺔ‪  .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﻮﺍاﺟ ﺘﻪﮫ ﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰﺔ‬
‫ﻏ ﺍاﳌﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﺓة ﻭوﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻼﻋﺐ ﺑﻤﺒﺎﺩدﺉئ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﺚ ﻮ ﺴﺘﺎﻧﺖ ﻋ‬
‫ﻳﻤﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺪﻳ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻄﺒﺎ ﻊ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍاﺯزﻧﺎﺕت ﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭوﺣﻠﻔﺎﺀء ﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺘﻪﮫ ﻣﻦ ﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪   .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍاﻋﺘ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻮﺭرﻭوﺙث ﺍاﻟﺸﻌ ﻗﻮﻯى ﻣ ﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﻊ ﻭو ‪  ‬ﺿﻄ ﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺗﻤﺎﺭرﺳﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪   .‬ﻭوﻭوﺳﻊ‬
‫ﺃأﻟﻜﺴ ﺲ ﺩدﻭو ﺗﻮﻛﻔﻴﻞ ‪ Alexis de Tocqueville‬ﺑﺪﻭوﺭرﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﺭر ﺔ ﻮ ﺴﺘﺎﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻪﮫ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻞ ﻛ ﻭو ﻛ ﺍاﺯزﺩدﺭرﺍاﺀء ﻟﻠﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﺧﺬﺓة ﺍاﻟﻈ ﻮﺭر‪  .  ‬‬
‫ﺃأﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل ﻧﺠﻠﻮﺳﺎﻛﺴﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﻋﻘﻢ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈ ﻥن ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍاﺀء‬

‫ﺗﺮﻛ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻜﺒ ﻋ ﺩدﻭوﺭر ﺟ ﻣﻲ ﺑ ﺜﺎﻡم ‪  Jeremy Bentham‬ﻭو ﻘﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺬﺭر ﻥن ﺗﺎﺭر ﺦ ﻓ ﺎﺭر‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪   .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪﮫ "ﻋﻦ ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ" ‪   (On Liberty, 1859)  ‬ﺍاﻧﺤﺮﻑف ﺟﻮﻥن ﺍاﺳ ﻴﻮﺍاﺭرﺕت ﻣﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍا ﺑﺨﻠﻖ ﻌﺎﺭرﺽض ﺑ ﻥن ﺣﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩد‪ ،‬ﻟ ﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ‬
‫"ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ"‪  ‬ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪  .‬ﻋ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﻣﺎﻥن ﻮ ﺴﺘﺎﻧﺖ ‪  ‬ﻭوﻓﻴﻠ ﻠﻢ ﻓﻮﻥن ﻮﻣﺒﻮﻟﺖ ‪Wilhelm von‬‬
‫‪ ، Humboldt‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍاﻋﺘ ﺍا ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﻴﺌﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻌﺪ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍاﻣﺘﺪﺍاﺩد ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﺮﺍاﺩد‪،‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺎﻟﺘﺎ ﻓ ﺣﺎﺟﺰ ﺃأﻣﺎﻡم ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺎﻥن ﺟﻮﻥن ﺍاﺳ ﻴﻮﺍاﺭرﺕت ﻣﻴﻞ ﻳﺮ ﺪ ﺗﺤﺮ ﺮ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩد ﻣﻦ ﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺃأﻭو ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻭوﻟﻮ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭرﺍا ﻣﺘﻌﻤﺪﺍا ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻮﺏب‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﺟ ﺖ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺓة ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﻏ ﺎ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻱي‪ /‬ﻣﺮ ﻲ ﻟﻮﺩدﻓﻴﻎ ﻓﻮﻥن ﻣ ﺱس ‪ Ludwig von Mises‬ﺣﺎﻭوﻝل ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺒ ﻥن‬
‫ﻓﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎﻭو ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱي ﻋﻘﻼ ﻲ‪  .‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻐﺰ ﺮﻷﻛ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻤﺴ ﻥن ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﺩد‬
‫ﻣ ﺱس ﺍاﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﻤ ﺎ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻌﺪ ﻋﺪﺓة ﻋﻘﻮﺩد‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻤ ﺸ ﺎ‪   .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻡم ﻣﻮﺭرﺍاﻱي ﺭرﻭوﺛﺒﺎﺭرﺩد ‪ ،Murray Rothbard‬ﻭو ﻮ ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺓة ﻣ ﺱس‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻦ ﺑﻔﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻀﻢ ﺃأﻓ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﺪﺭرﺳﺔ ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎﻭو ﺔ ﺇإ ﻣﺬ ﺐ ﺟﻮﻥن ﻟﻮﻙك ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺧﻠﻖ ﺷﻜﻼ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩدﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑ ـ "ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭر ﺔ‪-‬ﺍاﻟﺮﺃأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ "‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮ ﻖ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻣﺠﺎﻝل "ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﳌﺪ ﻲ"‪  ‬ﺇإ ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﻓ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎ ﺭرﻭوﺛﺒﺎﺭرﺩد ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇإ ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭرﺽض "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﻣﻊ "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﻛﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻨﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺬ ﺐ ﺻ‬

‫ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﻣﺘﺪﺍاﺩدﺍا ﻟ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍاﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪   .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫"ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺗ ﻨﺎ‬

‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠ ﺎ‬

‫ﺸ ﻞ ﻋﻤﻴﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻲ‬

‫ﻗﺪﺭرﺓة ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋ "ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍاﻟﺬﺍا ﻲ"‪   :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺎ ﻌﺪ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﻘﺬ ﺍا ﺘ‬
‫ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍاﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭوﺗﺎﺕت ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺩدﺭر ﻋ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻢ ﺍاﳌ ﺭر ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﺗﺘﺎ ﻊ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي ﺑﺘﻐﻴ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪   .‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﻣ ﺭر ﻳﺮﻓﻀﻪﮫ ﺩدﻋﺎﺓة ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪   :‬ﻷﻧﻪﮫ ﻮ ﺍاﳌ ﺭر ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ ﻟ ﻞ ﺍاﻟﺼﻴﻎ ﺍاﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ‪   .‬ﺑﻞ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴ ﻞ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﻤ ﺑ ﻥن "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﻭو" ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺳﻮﺍاﺀء ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱي ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤ ‪ !  ‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺸﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﺓة ﺃأﻥن ﻣﺼﺪﺭر "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﻮ "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺫذﺍا ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأ ﺎ ﺍاﻧﻔﺼﻠﺖ ﻋ ﺎ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪  .‬ﻷﻥن "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﻋ‬

‫ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن‬

‫ﻗﻞ ﺇإ ﻋﺼﺮﺳ ﺴﻤﻮﻧﺪﻱي ‪،Sismondi‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕت ﻌﺾ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺑ ﻨﻤﺎ ﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻜﺮﺓة "ﺩدﻭوﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺎﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﺋﻞ ﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﻮﻧﺪﻭوﺭرﺳﻴﻪﮫ ‪ Condorcet‬ﻭوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱس ﺑﺎﻳﻦ ‪  .Thomas Paine‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍاﺗﻔﻖ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥن ﻋ ﺃأﻥن "ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ"‪  ‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻭو ﻛ "ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﳌﺪ ﻲ" ‪  ‬ﻌﺪ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺭر ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺸﻐﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﻣﻔﺮﻭوﺿﺎ ﺑﻀﺮﻭوﺭرﺓة ﻣ ﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم ﻟﺸ ﻴﺔ ﺭرﺟﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺧﺬﺓة‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇإﻧﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﺑﻮﺱس ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻗﺾ ﻣ‬

‫ﻊ ﺇإﺩدﻣﻮﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺭرﻙك ﻭو ﻨﺠﺎﻣﺎﻥن ﻮ ﺴﺘﺎﻧﺖ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﺍاﺀء‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃأﻟﻜﺴ ﺲ ﺩدﻭو ﺗﻮﻛﻔﻴﻞ ﻭو ﺮ ﺮﺕت ﺳﺒ ﺴﺮ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭرﻙك ﺍاﳌﺎ ﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﺒﺪﻭو ﻋﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪   .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺩدﻭوﻥن‬
‫ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﻭوﺇإﻛﺮﺍا ﺎ ﺑﺈﻣ ﺎ ﻢ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻜ ﺸﻔﻮﺍا ﻧﻘﺎﻁط ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﺎ ﻢ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺴﺘﻄﻊ‬
‫ﺃأﺳﻼﻓ ﻢ ﺇإﺩدﺭرﺍاﻙك ﺫذﻟﻚ‪  .‬‬
‫‪  ............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺭرﺍاﻟﻒ ﺭرﺍاﻳ ﻮ ‪ Ralph Raico‬ﺃأﺳﺘﺎﺫذ ﻓﺨﺮﻱي ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭر ﺦ ﻭوﺭر ﻲ‬
‫‪ Buffalo State College‬ﻭوﺯزﻣﻴﻞ ﻛﺒ ﳌﻌ ﺪ ﻓﻮﻥن ﻣ ﺱس ﺑﺄﻻﺑﺎﻣﺎ‪  .‬ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﺗﺎﺭر ﺦ ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺗﺠﺮ ﺔ ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﺗﺎﺭر ﺦ ﺃأﻭوﺭر ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍا ﺮﺏب ﻭوﻧﻤﻮ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪   .‬ﺃأﻟﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌ ﺪ ﺑﻮﻓﺎﻟﻮ ﺳﺘﺎﻳﺖ ﻮﻟﻴﺞ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ " ﻣ ﺎﻧﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻛﻔﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻠﻮﺭرﺩد ﺃأﻛﺘﻮﻥن‪.  ‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺃأﻋﻤﺎﻝل ﻮ ﺴﺘﺎﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺩدﻱي‬

‫‪7‬‬