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Management by objective or management by result has been drawn considerable

attention of both academicians as well as practitioners because of two reasons;
First:-it focuses sharply on the objective or results which a manager is expected
to achieve with in specified period.
Second:-it emphasis participative management an approach which provide high
motivation to individuals in organization.
The MBO was coined by “peter Drucker” in 1954 when he emphasized the concept of
managing by objective since then many organization ,both business and non-
business, have adopted this in some form or the order .through there are some
various in the practices of MBO and there fore its decisional aspects , MBO has
defined as follows:-
“MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that’s interrogates many key managerial
activities in a sysrematic manner, consciously directed towards the effective and
efficient achievement of organizational objectives”

MBO is a system for achieving organizational objective, enhancement of employee
commitment and participation. Therefore its process should facilitate translation
of basics concepts into management practice. Hence the process of MBO is explained
by above term:-
1. Setting of organizational purpose and objectives.
2. Key results areas.
3. Setting subordinates objectives.
4. Matching resources with objectives.
5. appraisal
6. Recycling.
MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives question such as
“why does the organization exist?, what business are we in?, what should be our
business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose .this in interaction
with external factors, then determines the long range strategic objective like :
(1) Whether to achieve growth through expansions in the same line of business or
(2) What should be the degree of vertical integration?
(3) What should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities a so on.

Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organizational and
movers download to lowest managerial level.

2. KEY RESULT AREAS:- organizational objective s and planning premises together

provide the basis for identification of key result areas (KRAs).it may be
emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stake holders
and indicate the priorities for organizational performance.KRAs also indicate the
present state of an organizations health and the top management perspective for
the future.
Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the organizations:-
(1) Profitability.
(2) Market standing.
(3) Innovation.
(4) Productivity
(5) Worker performance.
(6) Financial& physical resources.
(7) Manager performance.
(8) Public responsibility.
3.SETTING SUBORDINATES OBJECTIVE:- the organizational objectives are objectives
achieved through individuals. Therefore each individual manager must know in
advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy
is both supervisor and subordinate except the person at the top and the lowest
level. Therefore, there is series of supervisor and subordinates relationships.
The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposal recommendations
for his subordinate’s objective. in the beginning of M.b.o process in a
organization ,there may be wide gap between recommended objectives by the superior
and subordinates objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on
him by setting easily achievable objectives.however,with the experience gained
over the period of time , this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception
of superior and subordinates about what can be done at a particular level.

4.MATCHING RESOURCE WITH OBJECTIVE:-when objective are set carefully ,they also
indicate the resource requirement .in fact ,resources availability becomes an
important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of
resources which ensure object achievement. Therefore there should be matching
between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, superior
manager is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The
allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the
subordinate manager.
5. APPRAISAL:- appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinates
is achieving his objective or not .if not what are the problems can be
overcome .appraisal is undertaken as an on going processes with a view to find out
deficiency in the working and also to remove its promptly. It is not taken merely
to punish the non-performer and reward the performer. it is taken as a matter of
system to ensure that everything’s is going as planned and the organization is
able to achieve its objective.
6.RECYCLING:-through appraisal is last aspect of M.B.o process it is used as an
input for recycling objective and other actions. objective s are neither set at
top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up
.objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and
subordinate. There fore, what happened at each level may affect other levels also.
the out come of appraisal at one level is the next higher level .this can be
presented by the following figure:-