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BIOLOGY

SCIENCE VISUAL RESOURCES


An Illustrated Guide to Science
The Diagram Group
Biology: An Illustrated Guide to Science
Copyright 2006 The Diagram Group
Author: Gareth Price
Editorial: Jamie Stokes
Consultant: Helen Fortin
Design: Anthony Atherton, Richard Hummerstone,
Tim Noel-Johnson, Lee Lawrence, Phil Richardson
Illustration: Peter Wilkinson
Picture research: Neil McKenna
Indexer: Martin Hargreaves
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please contact the publisher.
ISBN-10: 0-8160-6162-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-6162-4
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*Biology Prelims (17).qxd 6/19/07 5:18 PM Page 2
Introduction
Biology is one of eight volumes of The Science Visual Resources
Set. It contains six principle sections, a comprehensive glossary, a
web site guide, and an index.
Biology is a learning tool for students and teachers. Full-color
diagrams, graphs, charts, and maps on every page illustrate the
essential elements of the subject, while bulleted text provides key
definitions and step-by-step explanations.
Unity looks at the basic chemistry of all biological systems such as
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and describes the essential
instruments and techniques of biology. The section also illustrates
the most vital life processes, from photosynthesis to respiration.
Continuity considers the ways in which biological systems
reproduce. The section covers the basics of all forms of biological
reproduction, from those of unicellular organisms to flowering
plants and mammals. It also details the genetic mechanisms of
inheritance.
Diversity provides an overview of the vast range of living organisms
that inhabit Earth. It describes the major categories that biologists
use to classify these organisms and provides examples of each.
Maintenance examines the ways in which various living organisms
carry out everyday life processes such as breathing, eating,
movement, and excretion.
Human biology takes a closer look at the essential biological
structures and functions of the human body. It describes how the
raw materials required are taken in, digested, and transported to
where they are needed; how waste products are removed; and
how the body is able to sense and interact with its environment.
Ecology provides a brief look at how living organisms influence and
are influenced by the planet on which they live. It traces the
broadest of all biological processes: the complex webs of survival
that link the simplest bacteria to the most sophisticated carnivores.
Finally, the section outlines the elemental relations by which
chemical and geological processes form the conditions for life.
Contents
8 Simple carbohydrates
9 Complex carbohydrates
10 Important polysaccharides
11 Amino acids
12 Protein structure
13 Classification of proteins
14 Enzymes: mechanism
15 Enzymes and coenzymes
16 Enzymes and inhibitors
17 Fatty acids and glycerol
18 Light microscope
19 Cells: light microscope
20 Electron microscope
21 Animal cell: electron
microscope
22 Plant cell: electron
microscope
23 Cell substructure
24 Plasma membrane:
structure
25 Plasma membrane:
osmosis
26 Plasma membrane: active
transport
27 Plasma membrane:
endocytosis
28 Plasma membrane:
exocytosis
29 Lysosomes
30 Summary of
photosynthesis
31 Chloroplast: structure
32 Chemistry of
photosynthesis
33 Summary of aerobic
respiration
34 Mitochondrion: structure
35 ATP structure
36 Electron transfer chain
37 Anaerobic respiration
38 Chromosome structure
39 Summary of protein
synthesis
40 Base pairing
41 DNA structure
42 DNA replication
43 DNA transcription
44 Rough endoplasmic
reticulum: structure
45 Transfer RNA
46 Messenger RNA
translation
47 Gene control
48 Transformation
49 Genetic engineering
1 UNITY
2 CONTINUITY
50 Mitosis in an animal cell
51 Asexual reproduction:
fission
52 Asexual reproduction:
vegetative propagation
53 Meiosis: first division
54 Meiosis: second division
55 Crossing over and genetic
variation
56 Flower structure
57 Mature stamen
58 Pollen formation
59 Pollination
60 Plant fertilization
61 Seed development
62 Human reproductive
system: male
63 Human reproductive
system: female
64 Spermatogenesis: testis
65 Spermatogenesis:
sperm
66 Oogenesis: meiotic
division
67 Oogenesis: ovarian cycle
68 Sexual intercourse
69 Human fertilization
70 Contraception
71 Twins
72 Fetal development
73 Placenta
74 Birth
75 Variation
76 Monohybrid cross: peas
77 Dihybrid cross: guinea
pigs
78 Codominance
79 Karyotype preparation
80 Human chromosomes
81 Human sex inheritance
82 Human sex linkage:
hemophilia
83 Amniocentesis
84 Inheritance of blood
groups
85 Chromosome mutation:
types
86 Chromosome mutation:
syndromes
87 Gene mutation: types
88 Gene mutation: sickle-
cell shape
89 Gene mutation: sickle-
cell anemia
90 Evidence for evolution:
primitive and advanced
91 Evidence for evolution:
adaptive radiation
92 Evidence for evolution:
continental drift
3 DIVERSITY
93 Classification of living
organisms
94 Kingdom Monera:
Bacteria
95 Kingdom Protista:
Amoeba
96 Kingdom Protista:
Paramecium
97 Kingdom Protista:
Spirogyra
98 Kingdom Fungi:
Rhizopus
99 Kingdom Plantae:
classification
100 Kingdom Plantae:
Bryophyta
101 Kingdom Plantae:
Pteridophyta
102 Kingdom Plantae:
Gymnospermae
103 Kingdom Plantae:
Angiospermae
104 Kingdom Plantae:
Angiospermae: life cycle
105 Kingdom Animalia:
classification
106 Kingdom Animalia:
Porifera
107 Kingdom Animalia:
Cnidaria
108 Kingdom Animalia:
Platyhelminthes
109 Kingdom Animalia:
Platyhelminthes:
tapeworm
110 Kingdom Animalia:
Platyhelminthes: liver
fluke
111 Kingdom Animalia:
Nematoda
112 Kingdom Animalia:
Nematoda: life cycle
113 Kingdom Animalia:
Annelida
114 Kingdom Animalia:
Mollusca
115 Kingdom Animalia:
Mollusca: Gastropoda
116 Kingdom Animalia:
Insecta
117 Kingdom Animalia:
Crustacea
118 Kingdom Animalia:
Chilopoda and
Diplopoda
119 Kingdom Animalia:
Arachnida
120 Kingdom Animalia:
Echinodermata
121 Kingdom Animalia:
Chondrichthyes
122 Kingdom Animalia:
Osteichthyes
123 Kingdom Animalia:
Amphibia
124 Kingdom Animalia:
Reptilia
125 Kingdom Animalia: Aves
126 Kingdom Animalia:
Mammalia
127 Nutrition: types
128 Nutrition: Protista
129 Nutrition: leaf structure
130 Nutrition: stomata
131 Transport: stem structure
132 Transport: woody stem
133 Transport: root structure
134 Transport: water and
minerals in plants
135 Transport: food in plants
136 Transport: frog
137 Respiration: plants
138 Respiration: gas
exchange across body
surfaces
139 Respiration: respiratory
surfaces in animals
140 Respiration: fish
141 Respiration: frog
142 Coordination: nervous
systems
143 Excretion and
osmoregulation: Protista
144 Locomotion: earthworm
145 Locomotion:
grasshopper
146 Reproduction: viruses
147 Reproduction: butterfly
148 Reproduction: frog
149 Growth and
development: plants:
monocotyledons
150 Growth and
development: plants:
dicotyledons
151 Growth and
development: plants:
tropisms
152 Nutrition: digestive
system
153 Nutrition: teeth
154 Nutrition: liver, stomach,
and pancreas
155 Nutrition: small intestine
156 Nutrition: digestion and
absorption
157 Transport: circulatory
system map
5 HUMAN BIOLOGY
4 MAINTENANCE
198 Key words
205 Internet resources
207 Index
APPENDIXES
191 Terrestrial biomes
192 Carbon cycle
193 Nitrogen cycle
194 Water cycle
195 Energy flow
196 Pyramid of biomass
197 Food web
6 ECOLOGY
158 Transport: circulatory
system scheme
159 Transport: heart
structure
160 Transport: heartbeat
161 Transport: regulation of
heartbeat
162 Transport: blood vessels
163 Transport: capillaries and
tissues
164 Transport: lymphatic
system
165 Transport: blood
composition
166 Transport: blood types
167 Respiration: respiratory
system
168 Respiration: lungs
169 Respiration: breathing
170 Excretion: excretory
systems
171 Excretion: urinary system
172 Excretion: kidney
structure
173 Excretion: kidney
function
174 Excretion: skin structure
175 Coordination: nervous
system
176 Coordination: nerve
impulse
177 Coordination: synapse
178 Coordination: autonomic
nervous system
179 Coordination: brain
structure
180 Coordination: brain
function
181 Coordination: taste
182 Coordination: smell
183 Coordination: ear
structure
184 Coordination: hearing
and balance
185 Coordination: eye
structure
186 Coordination: light
sensitivity
187 Coordination: endocrine
system
188 Coordination: pituitary
gland
189 Locomotion: skeleton
190 Locomotion: joints
Simple carbohydrates
single monosaccharide unit
(* n = usually 3 to 6)
sugars
monosaccharides
(CH
2
O)
n
*
polysaccharides
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
disaccharides
carbohydrates
Molecular structure of glucose
Types of carbohydrate
UNI TY
Types of carbohydrate
G Carbohydrates are chemical
compounds that contain carbon and
the elements of water: hydrogen and
oxygen. A few also contain nitrogen or
sulfur.
G There are two main groups of
carbohydrates: sugars and starches.
G Sugars are small, water soluble
molecules that taste sweet. Starches
are very large, insoluble molecules.
G Carbohydrates may be
monosaccharides, disaccharides, or
polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides
G Simple sugars all have the same
general formula C
n
(H
2
O)
n.
The
simplest common sugar found in
animals is glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
). Glucose
has two molecular forms: a straight
chain and a ring. About 98 percent of
the sugar molecules in a solution are
in ring form.
Disaccharides
G Disaccharides (see page 9) are sugars
made by linking together two
monosaccharide rings by a
condensation reaction. An OH group
from each monosaccharide unit reacts
together to make water (H
2
O) and
form an oxygen bridge between the
sugar rings.
G Maltose (C
12
H
22
O
11
) is a disaccharide
that is a product of starch digestion
and is also found in some germinating
seeds. It is formed by two glucose
molecules joined together by a
glycosidic (C-O-C) bond.
G OH groups at the end of a disaccharide
molecule can link with more rings to
make longer chains. However, most
sugars have three rings or fewer.
condensation
reaction
glycosidic bond
starch
sugar
Key words
8

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UNI TY
Polysaccharides
G Carbohydrates with large numbers of
rings in their molecules are called
polysaccharides.
G Polysaccharides are used in living
things for energy storage and to build
structures (see page 10).
Energy storage
G Starches are large polysaccharides
formed (synthesized) by joining long
chains of monosaccharide units (such
as glucose) together. Since starches
are insoluble, they form granules
within a cell and do not upset the
water balance of the cell in the way
that the same amount of soluble sugar
would.
G When energy is needed, a reaction,
called hydrolysis breaks the starch
down into its sugar molecules. These
sugar molecules can then be used to
provide energy by respiration.
G Animals use the polysaccharide
glycogen as a carbohydrate energy
storage molecule.
Building structures
G Cell walls in plants are made of a
polysaccharide called cellulose. A
cellulose molecule may contain
thousands of monosaccharide units
bonded together.
G The links between the
monosaccharide units in cellulose are
arranged to produce a flat molecule
that is stronger than a steel fiber.
These molecules run through the cell
walls of plants like the steel rods in
reinforced concrete.
Complex carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates
Two glucose molecules
Disaccharide: Maltose
H
C
C
H OH
H
OH
C
H
O
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
O H
H
C
C
H OH
H
OH
C
H
O
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
+
H
2
O
H
C
C
H OH
OH
C
H
O
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
O
H
C
C
H OH
OH
C
H
O
H
C
OH
H
C
H
C
OH
condensation reaction
(synthesis)
hydrolysis
(breakdown)
glycosidic bond
H
2
O
cellulose
glycogen
polysaccharide
respiration
starch
sugar
Key words
9

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UNI TY
cellulose
exoskeleton
glucose
glycogen
gut
polysaccharide
Key words
10
chitin
(arthropod
exoskeletons
and fungi)
polysaccharides
starch
(plant cells)
glycogen
(liver and
muscles)
cellulose
(plant cell walls)
acetylglucosamine
glucose
glucose
storage
polysaccharides
structural polysaccharides
Uses of polysaccharides
Important
polysaccharides

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Polysaccharides in animals
G In animals polysaccharides are mainly
used for energy storage. In humans up
to 10 percent of the weight of the liver
can be glycogenan instant store of
energy that is easier to mobilize than
fat, which is used for long-term energy
storage.
G A typical glycogen molecule may
contain 300 to 400 glucose units in a
branching molecule.
G Glycogen also occurs in yeasts and
bacteria.
G Chitin is made of acetylglucosamine,
glucose units with an amino group
attached. It is common in shellfish
(the edible crab can be 70 percent
chitin) where it is an important part of
the shell.
G Chitin is also found in the exoskeleton
of insects.
G Chitin is a structural polysaccharide
and is not used as an energy store.
Polysaccharides in plants
G Plants store starch as granules inside
their cells. Roots such as potatoes and
carrots are often rich in starch, which
provides the energy needed for the
next generation to develop before it
can produce its own food by
photosynthesis.
G Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide
and gives the cell wall its strength.
Animals cannot digest cellulose, and
so it passes through the gut largely
untouched as roughage.
UNI TY Amino acids
amino acid
peptide bond
polypeptide
Key words
11
C N C
R
H OH
O H
H
Generalized amino
acid structure
variable group (R)
carboxyl group
(acidic)
amino group
(basic)
non-variable part
Natural amino acids
H
Glycine (Gly)
CH
3
Alanine (Ala)
CH
CH
3
CH
3
Valine (Val)
CH
2
OH
Serine (Ser)
C
CH
3
H OH
Threonine (Thr)
CH
2
C
O OH
Aspartic acid (Asp)
CH
2
CH
2
NH
CH
2
C
NH
2
NH
Arginine (Arg)
CH
2
OH
Tyrosine (Tyr)
CH
2
Phenylalanine (Phe)
CH
2
C
O NH
2
CH
2
Glutamine (Gln)
CH
2
C
O OH
CH
2
Glutamic acid (Glu)
CH
2
C
O NH
2
Asparagine (Asn)
CH
2
SH
Cysteine (Cys)
CH
2
CH
CH
3
CH
3
Isoleucine (Ile)
S
CH
2
CH
3
CH
2
Methionine (Met)
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
NH
2
Lysine (Lys)
CH
2
C CH
NH
Tryptophan (Trp)
CH
2
C NH
CH
HC N
Histidine (His)
CH
2
CH
2
NH
CH
CH
2
C
O
OH
Proline (Pro)
CH
CH
3
CH
3
CH
2
Leucine (Leu)
non-variable part
of amino acid molecule
( (

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Chemical structure
G Amino acid molecules are made of
four groups bonded with a single
carbon atom. Three of these groups
are non-variable.
G The amino group NH
2
is a basic group,
which means it behaves as an alkali in
solution.
G At the other end of the molecule is a
carboxyl group (COOH), which acts as
an organic acid.
G The third group is a hydrogen atom.
G The fourth group is variable. It is often
shown in diagrams by the letter R.
Different amino acids have different R
groups.
Natural amino acids
G There are about 20 naturally occurring
amino acids.
G The simplest amino acid is glycine.
The R group here is a single hydrogen
atom.
G More complicated amino acids, such
as proline, have R groups containing
many atoms, complex rings, and
sometimes elements such as sulfur or
phosphorus.
Joining amino acids
G Amino acids can join to make chains
called polypeptides when the acid
group from one amino acid reacts with
the carboxyl group of another. The
reaction releases water and produces a
link called a peptide bond.
G More amino acids can be added at
each end of the new molecule (see
page 12).
Protein structure UNI TY
amino acid
hemoglobin
insulin
peptide bond
protein
Key words
12
Example of protein structure
Phe
Val
Asn
Gln
His
Leu
Cys
Gly
Ser
His
Leu
Val
Glu Ala
Leu
Tyr Leu Val
Cys
Gly
Glu
Arg
Gly Phe Phe Tyr Thr
Pro
Lys
Ala
Cys
Asn
Tyr
Asn
Glu
Leu
Gln
Tyr
Leu Ser
Cys
Val
Ser Ala
Cys
Cys
Gln
Glu
Val
Ile
Gly
B-polypeptide
chain
A-polypeptide
chain
S S
S S
S S
peptide
bond
Insulin
disulfide
bridge
disulfide
bridge
disulfide
bridge
(produced in pancreas)

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Small molecules
G All proteins are made of small amino
acid molecules linked by peptide
bonds in long chains resembling a
string of beads.
G The number and order of amino acids
in the chain decides how the protein
will behave.
G Some proteins have more than one
chain of amino acids and some have
extra groups of atoms added. For
example, hemoglobin, which
transports oxygen from the lungs to
cells throughout the body, is a protein
with four amino acid chains wrapped
around a central group containing
iron.
Protein size
G Insulin (right) is a small protein
molecule with only 51 amino acids on
two chains tethered together by 3
disulfide bridges.
G Some of the large immunity proteins
have thousands of amino acids and are
bigger than some simple living
organisms!
Twisting and turning
G The amino acid chain twists as it
grows. The twisted chain then forms a
spiral. The spiral shape is held
together by links along its length.
UNI TY Classification of proteins
collagen
enzyme
hemoglobin
hormone
peptide bond
Key words
13
fibrous
globular
structural
(e.g., collagen)
contractile
(e.g., myosin)
enzymes transport
(e.g., hemoglobin)
protective
(e.g., antibodies)
hormones
(e.g., insulin)
proteins
Types of protein

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Types of protein
G There are two main groups of
proteins: fibrous and globular.
G Both groups have the same basic
structurethey are long chains of
amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
G The difference between the two
groups depends on the way the
protein chains are arranged.
Fibrous proteins
G Fibrous proteins have chains twisted
into spiral shapes held together by
strong bonds to make the molecule
look like a spring.
G Fibrous proteins can be divided into
structural and contractile proteins.
Structural proteins form the structure
of an organism. For example, they can
be found in skin and hair. Collagen
fibers in the skin give it elasticity and
keep it smooth. Contractile proteins
such as myosin help muscles contract.
Globular proteins
G Globular proteins have chains that
wind in and out of each other, twisting
into complex shapes that look like a
ball of wood. Their chains are held
together with a mixture of strong and
weak bonds.
G Globular proteins often have more
than one chain and can contain extra
non-protein groups. For example,
hemoglobin contain iron ions.
G Globular proteins are often delicate
and easily damaged by heat or
chemicals. If their molecular shape is
changed by heat they cannot work
properly.
G There are various types of globular
proteins. Some transport smaller
molecules. Some act as enzymes,
controlling the rate of chemical
reactions. Some have a protective
function. Still others are hormones,
the chemical messengers of the body.
Enzymes: mechanism
Enzyme + substrate
product
molecule
Enzyme-substrate
complex
Enzyme + product
unchanged
enzyme
used again
enzyme
substrate
molecules
active site
active site
Lock-and-key hypothesis
Induced-fit hypothesis
UNI TY
Enzymes and reactions
G Enzymes are proteins that control the
rate of reactions in living things. Sugar
reacts easily with oxygen to give
carbon dioxide and waterbut
outside organisms it needs to be
heated to well above 300F (150C)
to start the reaction. Inside living
organisms, enzymes make the same
reaction work at temperatures as low
as the freezing point.
G Each reaction has its own enzymeif
the enzyme is missing the reaction
does not take place. An enzyme for
one reaction will not work on another
reaction.
G Most reactions in living things are
broken down into many stepsand
each step needs its own enzyme.
G There are two hypotheses of enzyme
action: lock and key and induced fit.
Lock-and-key hypothesis
G In this hypothesis, when the chemicals
involved in a reaction (the substrates)
get near an enzyme molecule, they
fit into a part of the molecule called
the active site, like a key in a lock. The
enzyme is shaped so that the
important parts of each chemical are
close enough to each other to react
together.
G When the reaction has occurred, the
new chemicals (the products) do not
fit in the lock and are released. This
leaves the enzyme free to catalyze
another reaction.
Induced-fit hypothesis
G This hypothesis suggests that the
substrate helps the enzyme to form
the correct shape to receive it.
active site
enzyme
substrate
Key words
14

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UNI TY
Coenzymes
G Coenzymes are usually small
molecules that are needed in some
enzyme reactions to help the reaction
work properly.
G As with enzymes, many coenzymes
only work with particular enzyme
reactions. If the coenzyme is missing,
the reaction will not work properly.
The coenzyme from another reaction
will not do the job.
G Vitamins and minerals are often
involved in reactions as coenzymes.
The coenzyme mechanism
G Most enzymes will not react with any
chemical other than their substrate.
This is known as specificitythe
enzyme is specific for a particular
substrate.
G Some enzymes can only react in the
presence of a coenzyme. The
coenzyme binds to the enzyme and
changes its shape. The active site is
now ready to receive its normal
substrate.
G The substrate bonds to the enzyme
and reacts to produce the required
product.
Reusing the coenzyme
G When the enzyme-catalyzed reaction
has occurred, the product is released
from the enzyme-coenzyme complex.
G The coenzyme is also released and
becomes available for another
reaction.
G Respiration in cells is a good example
of a complex enzyme pathway that
depends on a collection of coenzymes.
Enzymes and coenzymes
The coenzyme mechanism
enzyme
Enzyme
+ coenzyme
Enzyme
+ coenzyme
+ substrate
molecules
Enzyme-
substrate
complex
Enzyme
+ coenzyme
+ product
Unchanged
enzyme +
coenzyme
are used again.
coenzyme
product
molecule
active site
substrate
molecules
active site
coenzyme
enzyme
enzyme-
coenzyme
complex
substrate
Key words
15

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Enzymes and inhibitors UNI TY
active site
enzyme
inhibitor
substrate
Key words
16
A competitive inhibitor binds
to the active site and blocks it.
enzyme
competitive
inhibitor
The inhibitor
is displaced
by excess
substrate
molecules.
substrate
molecules
active
site
The inhibitor is
not displaced by
excess substrate
molecules.
noncompetitive
inhibitor
A noncompetitive inhibitor binds to another
part of the enzyme and blocks the active site.
substrate
molecules
enzyme
Inhibitors

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Inhibitors
G Inhibitors reduce or destroy the
activity of an enzymesometimes to
dangerous levels.
G There are two types of inhibitors:
competitive inhibitors and non-
competitive inhibitors.
Competitive inhibitors
G Competitive inhibitors bind with the
active site of an enzyme. In effect,
they compete with the normal
substrate for this site and block it.
G Many competitive inhibitors are
released from the active site so the
enzyme can be regenerated. The
higher the concentration of the
normal substrate compared with the
inhibitor, the less effect the inhibitor
has.
Non-competitive inhibitors
G A non-competitive inhibitor does not
bind to the active site. It binds with a
different part of the enzyme molecule.
G This distorts the shape of the enzyme
so it cannot function properly.
G Non-competitive inhibitors are not
released from the enzyme molecule so
the enzyme cannot be regenerated.
G Even a low concentration of a non-
competitive inhibitor can be very
dangerous.
G Cyanide is a non-competitive inhibitor
that completely blocks an essential
enzyme in the respiration pathway. It
is therefore a very powerful poison.
UNI TY Fatty acids and glycerol
fatty acid
glycerol
Key words
17
single bond
double bond
Glycerol: molecular
structure
Stearic acid (saturated): model
Oleic acid (unsaturated): model
Glycerol molecule
Three fatty acid molecules
Tristearin (triglyceride)
C
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
C
C
C
O
O
O
O
O
O
C
H
OH H
C
C
OH H
OH H
H
HO
HO
HO
C
C
C
O
O
O
H
2
O
H
2
O
H
2
O
stearic
acid
stearic
acid
stearic
acid
H C
H
C
OH
OH H
C OH H
H
C
O
HO
C
O
HO

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Glycerol
G Glycerol is a small molecule with three
OH groups emerging from a short
carbon chain. It is important in the
formation of lipids, substances
insoluble in water that include fats and
oils.
Fatty acids
G Fatty acids are long chains of carbon
atoms (sometimes up to 30 or 40) with
a COOH group at one end. The
COOH group means that they behave
as acids in solution.
G Fatty acids may be saturated (having
only a single carbon-to-
carbon bond [see stearic
acid], or unsaturated (one or
more double or triple
carbon-to-carbon bonds [see
oleic acid]). The number and
location of double bonds
varies.
G Fatty acids are the building
blocks of fat.
G Fatty acids react with glycerol
to bond their long chains to
the OH group in glycerol.
When three fatty acids join
on all three of the OH groups
in glycerol, a triglyceride (fat)
is formed.
G Some triglycerides are simple and have
only one type of fatty acid joined to
the glycerol molecule. Other
triglycerides are mixed: they have
three different fatty acids joined onto
one glycerol molecule.
Triglycerides
G The fat on meats such as bacon
consists of a variety of mixed
triglycerides.
G Different fats have different mixtures
of these triglycerides.
Light microscope UNI TY
18
diaphram
stage
body tube
high power
objective
lens
mirror
base
arm
fine
adjustment knob
coarse
adjustment knob
eyepiece containing
ocular lens
low power
objective lens
revolving
nose piece
mirror
diaphram
Image formation
eye
objective
lens
specimen
lamp
eyepiece
(ocular lens)
Light microscope

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Two lenses
G A light microscope uses two
sets of lenses, objective and
ocular lenses, to create
magnifications of up to 1000X.
G The lens near the specimen is
called the objective lens. This
cannot produce an image by
itself.
G The lens in the eyepiece at
the end of the viewing tube is
called the ocular lens. This
helps to focus the beams of
light to produce the image.
G To calculate the magnification
of the microscope, you have
to multiply the magnification
of the objective lens by the
magnification of the ocular
lens.
Two focusing devices
G Lenses in microscopes are
very delicate. To prevent them
from being damaged by
scratching them against the
sample, the light microscope
uses two-stage focusing.
G The coarse adjustment knob
moves the low power
objective lens through a large
distance. When the area you
wish to observe is in the
center of the field of view and
in sharp focus, you may click
the high power objective lens
into place. The image should
already be nearly in focus. If
any adjustment is needed, use
only the fine adjustment
knob.
A clear light
G The diaphragm regulates the
amount of light reaching the
object.
objective lens
ocular lens
Key words
UNI TY
Cell size
G Typical cells are anything between
.005 and .025 mm (.0002 and .001 in).
This is about ten times smaller than
the diameter of a human hair.
G Light microscopes can only see
relatively large structures in a cell
because they can only magnify up to
1,000X.
Animal cells
G The cell contains a large nucleus,
which helps to control the cell. The
nucleus is separated from the
cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope
(membrane). Inside the nucleus, the
nucleoplasm, the liquid matrix of the
nucleus, surrounds the nucleolus,
where proteins are synthesized.
G The area outside the nucleus but
within the outer membrane is called
the cytoplasm. It often contains a
collection of smaller bodies such as
food or secretory granules, and
sometimes small vacuoles (small sacs
enveloped in a membrane). These are
often very difficult to see with a light
microscope.
Plant cells
G Plant cells are surrounded by a thick
cell wall made of cellulose.
G Immediately inside the cell wall is the
plasma membrane of the plant cell.
This is identical to the plasma
membrane of animal cells.
G Plant cells have a large central vacuole
that occupies much of the cell volume.
It stores salts, water, water soluble
pigments, and potentially toxic
molecules in the form of crystals.
G The cytoplasm contains many of the
inclusions (globules, granules, etc.)
found in animal cells and a large
vacuole. Sometimes large green disc-
shaped bodies called chloroplasts are
present: these carry out
photosynthesis.
Cells: light microscope
nucleoplasm
nucleolus
nuclear envelope
food granules
plasma membrane
secretory granules
cytoplasm
plasma envelope
cell wall of
neighboring cell
cell wall
chloroplast
vacuole
cytoplasm
nucleolus
nucleoplasm
nuclear
envelope
Generalized animal cell
Generalized plant cell
nucleus
nucleus
cellulose
chloroplast
cytoplasm
nucleus
photosynthesis
plasma
membrane
vacuole
Key words
19

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Electron microscope UNI TY
20
HT cable
shield and filament
condenser lens
anode
specimen
door
specimen
airlock
stage
objective
lens
projector lens
intermediate lens
projection
chamber
window
plate camera
camera
door
to vacuum pump
illuminating
system
imaging
system
insulator
eyepiece
fluorescent
screen
Image formation
electron gun
condenser
lens
specimen
objective
lens
objective
lens
aperture
intermediate
lens
projector
lens
fluorescent screen
Simplified section through a simple
transmission electron microscope
Electron microscope

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Electrons not light
G An electron microscope (EM)
uses electrons rather than
beams of light. Magnetic and
electric fields are used to
focus the electrons instead of
glass lenses.
G The use of electrons allows
magnifications up to 10,000X
and beyond.
Function
G Electron microscopes function
just like light microscopes
except that they use a beam
of electrons instead of light to
image the specimen. Through
a series of magnetic lenses
and apertures, the
microscope focuses a beam of
electrons on a specimen. The
beam interacts with the
sample, and the microscope
records the results of the
interaction as an image.
Types of information
G Electron microscopes can
examine the tomography
(surface features) of an object,
the morphology (size and
shape of the particles) of an
object, the composition of the
object, and the arrangement
of the atoms in the object.
Disadvantages
G Specimens need very
complicated preparation
before they can be used in the
EM. This treatment can
sometimes produce artefacts,
objects that have nothing to
do with the sample.
specimen
Key words
UNI TY
centriole
endopasmic
reticulum
Golgi body
lysosome
mitochondrion
plasma
membrane
ribosome
Key words
21
cytoplasm
Animal cell
nucleus
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
lysosome
mitochondrion
smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
plasma membrane
nuclear
envelope
nucleolus
pinocytotic
vesicle
centrioles
chromatin
nuclear
pore
Golgi
body
ribosome
Animal cell:
electron microscope

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Smaller sizes
G The electron microscope can see
much smaller objects than the light
microscope is able to see.
Membrane structures
G The cell uses a double-layered
membrane to build many structures:
the plasma membrane, Golgi body,
lysosomes, and the endoplasmic
reticulum.
G The plasma membrane covers the
whole of the outside of the cell.
G The endoplasmic reticulum is a
meshwork of the same membrane that
runs throughout the cell. It is used for
intracellular transport. Ribosomes,
usually found on the rough
endoplasmic reticulum, synthesize
protein.
G The Gogli body is involved with the
creation of the endoplasmic reticulum
and in the secretion of some
substances from the cell. It is the
packaging center of the cell.
G Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes.
Other structures
G The nucleus controls the cell. It is
separated from the cytoplasm by the
nuclear envelope. The nucleus
contains the nucleolus, which contains
the DNA templates for ribosomal RNA,
and chromatin, the substances from
which chromosomes are made.
Openings in the cell's nuclear
envelope, called nuclear pores, allow
the exchange of materials between the
nucleus and the cytoplasm.
G Mitochondria are the site of aerobic
respiration, which gives the cell
energy. The mitrochondrion is
sometimes referred to as the
powerhouse of the cell.
G Pinocytotic vesicles contain soluble
molecules from outside the cell.
G Centrioles, found only in animal cells,
help the cell to divide.
UNI TY
chloroplast
endoplasmic
reticulum
Golgi body
granum
lysosome
mitochondrion
plasma
membrane
ribosome
Key words
22
Plant cell
nucleus
Golgi body
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
nuclear envelope
nuclear pore
nucleolus
chromatin
granum
vacuole
tonoplast
(vacuole membrane)
cell wall
plasma
membrane
mitochondrion
ribosome
cytoplasm
cell wall of
neighboring cell
Plant cell:
electron microscope

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Plant and animal cells
G Many of the structures found in animal
cells are also present in plant cells.
However, plant cells do not contain
centrioles.
Membrane structures
G The plant cell uses a double-
layered membrane to build
many structures: the plasma
membrane, Golgi body, lysosomes,
and endoplasmic reticulum. These
membrane-based structures carry out
exactly the same functions in plants
and animals (see page 23).
G The plasma membrane in plants has
the same double-layered structure as it
has in animals but is further supported
by a cell wall. The cell wall is a tough
cellulose-rich structure that surrounds
the plant cell. The plasma membrane
is not attached to the cell wall, but
when a plant cell is fully filled with
water, the membrane is pressed
tight against the cell wall.
Other structures
G Plant cells have a large central
vacuole enclosed by the
tonoplast.
G The nucleus controls the cell.
G Mitochondria are the site of
aerobic respiration, which
gives the cell energy by
breaking down glucose.
G Ribosomes, usually
found on the rough
endoplasmic reticulum,
make protein.
Chloroplasts
G Chloroplasts are only found in green
plants. They are green-colored bodies
that carry out photosynthesis to make
sugar for the plant.
G The grana in the chloroplasts contain
the photosynthetic pigments.
UNI TY
chlorophyll
chloroplast
cytoplasm
endoplasmic
reticulum
Golgi body
lysosome
mitochondrion
organelle
plasma
membrane
ribosome
Key words
23
Cell contents
mitochondrion
plasma membrane cytoplasm organelles
Golgi body
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
ribosome
lysosome
chloroplast
nucleus
cell
Cell substructure

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Plasma membrane
G All cells are surrounded by a plasma
(cell) membrane, which separates and
protects the cell and controls
movement in and out of it. The plasma
membrane is composed of unit
membrane, a two-layered structure
with proteins on the outer surfaces
and hydrophobic (water insoluble) fat
molecules on the inside.
Cytoplasm
G Inside the plasma membrane,
cytoplasm takes up most of the cell
volume. It maintains the shape and
consistency of the cell and stores
chemical substances needed for life.
The cytoplasm is also the site of vital
metabolic reactions such as protein
synthesis.
Organelles
G Suspended in the cytoplasm are
organelles, specialized structures that
carry out particular functions.
G The nucleus contains the cells genetic
material.
G Chloroplasts are concerned with
photosynthesis and contain
chlorophyll.
G Lysosomes are membrane-bound
vacuoles containing digestive enzymes.
G Ribosomes are involved in protein
synthesis and are sometimes attached
in groups to the endoplasmic
reticulum (ER) to produce rough ER.
G Many plant cells also contain a large
vacuole that stores waste.
G The endoplasmic reticulum is a
network of unit membranes running
throughout the cell.
G The Golgi body is an area of the ER
particularly concerned with secretory
functions.
G Mitochondria carry out respiration
and are surrounded by a plasma
membrane, as are chloroplasts.
Plasma membrane:
structure
UNI TY
24
hydrophilic head
hydrophobic tail
hydrophilic head
hydrophobic tail
phospholipid
Membrane structure
membrane
proteins
lipid bilayer
Three-dimensional model of membrane structure
glycoprotein
phospholipid
hydrophilic
head
hydrophobic
tail
external
layer
internal
layer
lipid bilayer
hydrophilic
regions of
proteins
outside cell
inside cell
hydrophobic
regions of
proteins
glycolipid
glycoprotein
hydrophilic channel
lipid
plasma
membrane
protein
Key words

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Protein-lipid mix
G All membranes in the cell are made of
the same basic structure. This is called
the unit membrane and consists of
two main chemicals: proteins
(glycoproteins, etc.) and lipids
(glycolipids, etc.).
G Lipids are organic molecules that are
insoluble in water.
G The main lipid components of plasma
membranes are phospholipids
molecules composed of glycerol,
phosphate, and fatty acid residues
and heads with different chemical
properties (see bottom diagram). The
tails are hydrophobic (water insoluble)
fatty acid residues that face the center
of the membrane. The heads, which
are hydrophilic (water soluble), form
the surface.
Membrane structure
G Phospholipids form wide, thin
bilayers. In between these
phospholipids are membrane proteins
floating like icebergs in a sea of lipid.
G Some proteins reach completely
across the lipid molecules. Others
protrude above the lipid layer on
one side but only get halfway
through the fat layer in the middle
of the membrane.
G Many of the protein molecules are
not fixedthey can drift around in
the lipid sea. This fluidity is
essential for the proper function of
proteins in the membranes.
Double membranes
G A unit membrane consists of one lipid
layer with protein found on each side.
However, the membranes in cells are
made of two unit membranes laid on
top of each other.
UNI TY
Semipermeable
membranes
G The plasma membrane is semi-
permeable. It lets small molecules like
water pass very easily but holds back
larger solute molecules like proteins.
G Water can diffuse through a
semipermeable membrane almost as
if it were not there. Water always
moves from areas of high
concentration to areas of low
concentration.
G If two areas are separated by a
semipermeable membrane and there
is a higher concentration of water on
one side, water moves through to
equalize the concentration on both
sides. This type of water movement is
called osmosis.
Concentration gradient
G The difference in concentration of a
substance between two areas is called
a concentration gradient.
G The movement of materials along a
concentration gradient depends on
the size of the gradient and the
permeability of the space between
them.
G High concentration gradients give
faster movements. Lower permeability
slows down movement.
G The concentration of water within a
cell is lower than the outside when it
is placed in de-ionized water. This is
because some of the space inside the
cell is taken up by other chemicals
(sugars, proteins, fats etc.). Water
rushes in to equalize the
concentrations, which makes the cell
swell and burst.
Osmosis Red blood cell
placed in water
outside cell
inside cell
Model showing osmosis across
red blood cell membrane
Red blood cell takes
in water and bursts.
plasma
membrane
pore in
membrane
plasma membrane
arrow indicating
movement of
water
water
molecule
solute molecule
in cell cytoplasm
membrane
concentration
gradient
osmosis
permeability
plasma
membrane
semipermeable
membrane
solute
Key words
25
Plasma membrane:
osmosis

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UNI TY
Active or passive?
G Passive transport occurs when
particles move down a
concentrationfrom areas of high
concentration to areas of low
concentration. Passive transport does
not require any energy input by the
cell. The movements of carbon dioxide
and oxygen are good examples of
passive transport in living cells.
G Active transport can occur either up
or down a concentration gradient,
so active transport can move
materials from areas of low
concentration to areas of
high concentration. Active
transport requires an
energy input by a cell.
Absorption of vitamins
by the gut in mammals
is a good example.
Active transport
G Energy released from
adenosine
triphosphate (ATP)
the main chemical-
energy carrier in all
organismspumps
materials across the
membrane.
G Carrier proteins in the cell
membrane may change shape
to take in particles (called
passenger molecules) on one
side, twist configuration and then
release the particle on the other side.
G Low oxygen concentrations or low
temperatures will slow down active
transport by reducing the energy
available for this reaction.
G Some active transport mechanisms are
used to create electrical imbalances
between the inside and outside of
cells.
absorption
active transport
adenosine
triphosphate
concentration
gradient
passive
transport
Key words
26
ADP
ATP
outside cell
passenger molecule
inside cell
Energy release from ATP
(adenosine triphosphate)
causes a conformational
change in carrier protein.
carrier protein
plasma membrane
A passenger molecule moves
toward a carrier protein.
The passenger molecule
binds to the carrier
protein.
The passenger molecule
is released into the
cytoplasm.
Active transport
Plasma membrane:
active transport

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UNI TY
27
Phagocytosis
Large particle
taken up by
phagocytosis.
Particle is
enclosed
in vacuole.
lysosome
Lysosome fuses
with vacuole.
Digestion occurs
in vacuole and
products are
absorbed.
Exocytosis of
waste product.
cytoplasm
plasma
membrane
small particles
adsorption to
cell surface
vacuole formed
Vacuole breaks down,
releasing particles
into cytoplasm.
cytoplasm
plasma
membrane
Pinocytosis
pinocytotic
Vacuole with
waste products
moves toward
cell membrane.
Plasma membrane:
endocytosis

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cytoplasm
endocytosis
enzyme
exocytosis
lysosome
phagocytosis
vacuole
Key words
Taking materials into the
cell
G Endocytosis moves materials into the
cell. The Greek word endo means
inside.
G Endocytosis is further broken down
into two forms: phagocytosis, which
moves relatively large particles into the
cell, and pinocytosis, which moves
smaller particles (often in groups) into
the cell.
Phagocytosis
G In microorganisms, food particles are
often absorbed by phagocytosis.
G The cytoplasm of the cell flows
around small microorganisms and
encloses them in a vacuole. Lysosomes,
which contain digestive enzymes, next
fuse with the cell. Enzymes then break
down the particles into simpler
chemicals, which can then be
absorbed into the cell.
G Indigestible materials in a phagocytotic
vacuole are often released back to the
outside of the cell through a process
called exocytosis (see page 28).
Pinocytosis
G Pinocytosis is a slightly simpler
procedure than phagocytosis because
the contents of the pinocytotic vacuole
generally need less processing before
they can be absorbed into the cell.
Plasma membrane:
exocytosis
UNI TY
active process
exocytosis
Golgi body
mytochondrion
plasma
membrane
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Key words
28
Pancreatic duct
Transverse section
Pancreatic duct (acinar) cell illustrating secretory exocytosis
inactive enzyme (zymogen)
Golgi body
mature secretory vesicle
rough endoplasmic
reticulum produces
and transports
proteins
proteins
move through
Golgi body
vesicle from
rough endoplasmic
reticulum
energy used
in protein
synthesis
plasma
membrane
nucleus
mitochondrion
fine branch of
pancreatic duct
acinar cell
exocytosis

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Moving materials out of
the cell
G Exocytosis moves materials out of the
cell. The Greek word exo means
outside. These materials may be
secretory, excretory, or may be the
undigested remains of materials in
food vacuoles.
G Exocytosis is an active processit
requires energy input from the cell.
G Exocytosis is common in cells that
produce secretions, such as the acinar
cells of the pancreas, which furnish
pancreatic juice.
Manufacture of chemicals
G In the example at right, the rough
endoplasmic reticulum deep in the
cell uses energy produced by aerobic
respiration in the mitochondrion to
synthesize and transport proteins.
G The proteins are collected in the Golgi
body and then packaged in small
vacuoles made of plasma membrane.
G Vacuoles are pinched off the Golgi
body and move toward the outside of
the cell.
Release of materials
G When the vacuoles reach the outer cell
membrane, the membrane forming
the vacuole merges with the plasma
membrane. The vacuole then releases
its contents (such as the inactive
enzyme zymogen) to the outside
world.
UNI TY Lysosomes
cytoplasm
enzyme
exocytosis
Golgi body
lysosome
phagocytosis
Key words
29
Lysosomes and phagocytosis
Lysosomes and autophagy
phagocytosis
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Golgi body
secondary
lysosome
worn out
mitochondrion
in vacuole
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Golgi body
primary Iysosome
produced by
Golgi body
residual
body
digestion
residual body
primary Iysosome
produced by
Golgi body
digestion
phagocytic
vacuole
plasma membrane
exocytosis
secondary lysosome
merged with phagocystic vacuole

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Waste disposal systems
G Lysosomes are vacuoles that contain a
powerful collection of enzymes that
can break down a range of compounds
into simpler molecules that can be
absorbed through a cell membrane.
Lysosomes and
phagocytosis
G When a relatively large particle is
engulfed by phagocytosis, it cannot be
absorbed into the cell until it has been
broken down.
G Lysosomes, produced by the Golgi
body, merge with the phagocytotic
vacuole so that the enzymes are
released into the vacuole and can start
to act on the engulfed particle.
G Once the enzymes have broken down
the particle, the products can be
absorbed. Any indigestible
components are released to the
outside world through exocytosis
when the phagocytotic vacuole merges
with the plasma membrane of the cell.
Lysosomes and autophagy
G Lysosomes destroy worn out or
damaged cell components through a
process called autophagy.
G The cell component is surrounded by
a membrane, and lysosomes then
merge with this vacuole. The enzymes
break down the damaged cell
structure, and the important
components can be reabsorbed into
the cytoplasm through the membrane.
4
5
2
2
1
4
Plant cell
1 Sunlight energy
2 Carbon dioxide
3 Water
4 Glucose
5 Oxygen
chloroplast
Chloroplast
granum
Light-dependent
stage in grana Light-independent
stage in stroma
1 Sunlight energy
2 Water
3 Oxygen
4 Carbon dioxide
5 Glucose
thylakoid
1
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
sunlight energy
chlorophyll
Simple equation
for photosynthesis
3 5
NADPH
2
ATP
3
UNI TY
Reaction pathways
G Photosynthesis is a biochemical
process (see top diagram) by which
plants harness the energy from light
(1) to take carbon dioxide (2) and
water (3) and produce glucose (4) and
oxygen (5).
G Photosynthesis is a complex series of
reactions that fall into two groups: the
light-dependent reaction and the light-
independent reaction.
G Both of these reactions occur in
organelles called chloroplasts. Within
the chloroplasts are disk-shaped
membrane structures called
thylakoids, which contain the
chlorophyll needed for
photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are made
up of stacks of these disks called
grana (see middle diagram).
Light-dependent reaction
G The light-dependent reaction (LDR),
also called photolysis, captures energy
in light (bottom diagram 1) and
converts it into chemical energy in the
form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
and nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). The
energy is then available for the rest of
the photosynthetic reaction.
G The LDR produces oxygen by splitting
water molecules (bottom 2, 3).
Light-independent reaction
G The light-independent reaction (LIR),
sometimes called carbon fixation,
occurs in the light and the dark
provided the LDR has provided
enough energy and raw materials to
drive it.
G Energy captured by the LDR is used to
reduce carbon dioxide in a complex
series of reactions to produce glucose
(bottom 4, 5).
chloroplast
granum
light-dependent
reaction
light-independent
reaction
organelle
photosynthesis
thylakoid
Key words
30
Summary of
photosynthesis

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UNI TY
Size and distribution
G Chloroplasts are found in all
photosynthetic plants and are usually
large enough to be seen with the light
microscope as green disks embedded
in the cytoplasm.
G Chloroplasts are not present in cells
that receive no light, e.g., cells of the
root or deep inside plant bodies.
G Chloroplasts are particularly rich in
cells in leaves and green stems.
G Chloroplasts are the site of starch
production in photosynthesis and of
starch storage.
G Chloroplasts are bounded by a double
membraneone derived from the
enclosing cell and one from the
chloroplast itself.
Grana
G Embedded in the
stroma is a complex
network of stacked
sacs called grana.
G The grana consist of
interconnected
thylakoids. Tube-like strands
connecting thylakoids from granum to
granum are called stroma lamellae.
G Chlorophyll and other pigments that
initiate photosynthesis are found on
the outer layer of the thylakoids.
G The light-dependent reaction takes
place in the thylakoids.
Stroma
G Inside the inner membrane is a
complex mix of enzymes and water
called stroma. It is the site of the light-
independent reaction.
Chloroplast: structure
chloroplast
cytoplasm
granum
light-dependent
reaction
light-independent
reaction
stroma
thylakoid
Key words
31
thylakoid
Chloroplast
Detail of granum
detail of granum
starch grain
outer membrane
chloroplast membrane
inner membrane
stroma
granum
stroma stroma lamella
Plant cell
chloroplast

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UNI TY
32

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Two linked
pathways
G Photosynthesis is a
multistepped process
consisting of two linked
reaction pathwaysthe
light-dependent reaction
(LDR) and the light-
independent reaction
(LIR).
G Photosynthesis is usually
shown as creating glucose,
but this is also the starting
point for a range of other
pathways. Much of the
sugar produced will be
converted to starch for
storage or be respired to
produce energy to drive
other reactions.
Light-dependent
reaction
G This reaction produces
chemicals (ATP and
NADPH) that contain
energy in a form that can
be used by the LIR.
G The outputs are shown as
electrons (e
-
), which are
carried by chemicals that
link them to the LIR. The
main carrier is the
coenzyme NADP.
Light-independent
reaction
G This reaction uses energy
from the LDR to build
sugars.
G Carbon dioxide is
absorbed by the plant and
reduced to form sugar.
G Some of the intermediate
products of the reaction
can be shunted into other
reaction pathways to build
fats and even proteins.
1 Electron acceptor
2 ATP formation from ADP by
chemiosmotic mechanism
3 Electron carrier chain
1 Carbon dioxide
2 Ribulose diphosphate
3 Phosphoglyceric acid
4 Phosphoglyceraldehyde
Photosystem II
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
NADP
NADPH
2
2e

2H
+
2e

O
2
1
2
3
3
2
1
Photosystem I
H
2
O
3
NADP
ADP
ATP
ADP
ATP
NADPH
2
Light-dependent
reaction (photolysis)
Light-independent reaction
(carbon fixation)
ACETYL
COENZYME A
AMINO ACIDS PROTEINS
FATTY ACIDS
LIPIDS
GLYCEROL
GLUCOSE
STARCH,
CELLULOSE
1
2
1
2
3
4
flow of electrons in non-cyclic
photophosphorylation
sunlight energy
flow of electrons in cyclic
photophosphorylation
passage of protons to NADP
other chemical reactions
reactions of Calvin cycle
carbohydrate synthesis
lipid synthesis
protein synthesis
other chemical reactions
glucose
light-dependent
reaction
light-independent
reaction
NADP
NADPH
photosynthesis
Key words
Chemistry of
photosynthesis
UNI TY
33
Summary of aerobic
respiration

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Fuel-oxygen systems
G Living things use a fueloxygen
system to manage energy.
Energy is released when the
fuel and the oxygen react, and
is transferred to other
chemical systems that pass it
on to other reactions in a cell.
G The energy release and
management system in living
things is called respiration. If
oxygen is involved, it is known
as aerobic respiration.
The energy
currency
G Glucose releases far too much
energy for living things if it
reacts with oxygen all at once,
as happens in combustion.
The respiration system allows
the sugar to react in a series of
small steps that release smaller
amounts of energy. These
energy packets are collected
by a chemical called adenosine
triphosphate (ATP).
G ATP passes these packets of
energy onto other reactions in
the cell. ATP is sometimes
called the energy currency of
the cell.
Three step process
G Aerobic respiration has three
main components: glycolysis,
the Krebs cycle, and the
electron transfer chain (ETC).
Glycolysis occurs in the
cytoplasm and splits glucose
into a smaller molecule. This
passes into the mitochondria,
where it is further broken
down during the Krebs cycle,
releasing carbon dioxide and
high-energy electrons. The
ETC then harvests the energy
in these electrons.
2ATP
H
2
O
Mitochondrian Aerobic respiration
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy (38 ATP)
glycolysis/Krebs cycle reactions
ATP produced by oxidative
phosphorylation
ATP produced by substrate-level
phosphorylation
hydrogen transferred by acceptor
to electron carrier chain
reduction of oxygen to water
1 Glucose
2 Pyruvic acid
3 Acetyl coenzyme A
4 Carbon dioxide
Krebs cycle
(mitochondrion)
Simple equation for aerobic respiration
m
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oxidative
phosphorylation
oxidative
phosphorylation
inner
membrane
electron
carrier chain
(mitochondrion)
Krebs
cycle
1
2
3 4
glycolysis (cytoplasm)
2ATP
38ATP
34ATP
4
1 Glucose
2 Pyruvic acid
3 Oxygen
4 Carbon dioxide
5 Water
6 Energy (ATP)
4
5
3 6
O
2
1
2
2
1
glycolysis
(cytoplasm)
adenosine
triphosphate
aerobic
respiration
electron
transfer chain
glycolysis
Krebs cycle
respiration
Key words
Mitochondrion: structure UNI TY
adenosine
triphosphate
cristae
Krebs cycle
matrix
mitochondrion
ribosome
Key words
34
Cell
Mitochondrion
(part sectioned)
outer membrane
mitochondrion
inner membrane
crista
matrix
Mitochondrion: section
outer membrane
cristae intermembrane space
inner membrane
matrix

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Size and distribution
G Mitochondria are present in all cells
with a nucleus. The more
metabolically active a cell, the more
mitochondria they are likely to have.
G Mitochondria generally have a sausage
shape, but some can be almost
spherical. They are roughly the size of
bacteria, typically about half to a
quarter as long as the cell nucleus
diameter.
Double membranes
G Like chloroplasts, mitochondria have a
double membrane. The outer one is
smooth and separates the inside of the
mitochondria from the cytoplasm of
the cell.
G The inner membrane is folded inward
to produce many ridges called cristae.
These project into the central space of
the mitochondrion called the matrix.
The infolding of the christae provides
more surface area for chemical
reactions to occur.
G The matrix contains strands of DNA,
ribosomes, or small granules.
Enzyme systems
G Enzymes floating freely in the matrix
are concerned with the Krebs cyclea
part of the respiration pathway that
produces excited electrons.
G The cristae formed by the infolded
inner membrane contain enzymes that
handle the transfer of electrons from
the Krebs cycle and produce
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through
a series of complex reactions.
UNI TY ATP structure
adenosine
triphosphate
respiration
Key words
35
Simplified structure
1 Adenine
2 Ribose
3 Phosphate
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
adenine
Molecular structure
ribose
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
phosphate
NH
2
C
N
N
C H
C
C
N
N
C H
C
H
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
O
C
H
CH
2
O P
O
O
O P
O
O
P
O
O
O OH
ATP structure
2 3 3 3
1

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The energy currency
G Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a
molecule that can collect and give out
energy when its phosphate groups
join or leave the adenosine molecule.
You can think of the phosphate groups
as rechargable batteries or energy
moneythey make other reactions
that need energy happen.
G When a phosphate group is released
from ATP, the phosphate group
attaches itself to a molecule that needs
energy to take part in a reaction. The
energy in the phosphate groups
passes into the other molecule, and
the reaction can take place.
G Once the energy has been
transferred, the phosphate
group is released as low
energy inorganic phosphate.
This can then be
reconnected to the
adenosine molecule,
provided energy is supplied
by respiration. In this way
the battery is recharged.
The phosphate pool
G The energy available to
reactions in the cell
depends on ATP, and if the
concentration of ATP falls,
reactions will fail or slow
down. Since ATP can be
reused many times, this
does not happen often. The
limiting factor is how
quickly the ATP can be
recycled from adenosine
diphosphate (ADP) and
inorganic phosphate.
G The phosphate pool is the
supply of inorganic
phosphate groups in the cell
that could be used to build
ATP. If this pool dried up,
then the cell would suffer a
lack of useful energy.
Electron transfer chain UNI TY
adenosine
triphosphate
electron transfer
chain
Krebs cycle
NAD
NADP
Key words
36
2
3
4
5
6
oxidized
reduced
reduced
oxidized
reduced
oxidized
oxidized
reduced
energy
energy
ATP ADP + Pi
ATP ADP + Pi
reduced
oxidized
high energy
low energy
1 NAD
2 Flavoprotein
3 Coenzyme Q
4 Cytochrome b
5 Cytochrome c
6 Cytochrome oxidase
Proteolipid complexes
O
2
H
2
O
ATP ADP + Pi
energy
1
2H
Krebs
cycle
reduced
oxidized
1
2

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Energetic electrons
G The Krebs cycle transfers energy into
electrons that become excited.
These electrons carry more energy
than normal electrons.
G Electrons are difficult to move around
the cell, so the cell uses hydrogen
ions, which have a positive charge and
can drag the negatively charged
electrons along with them.
G Compounds like nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide phosphate
(NADP) can bind to these hydrogen
ions (and so the electrons) to shuttle
them between the various parts of the
respiration pathway and the start of
the electron transfer chain.
Redox reactions
G A chemical is oxidized when it gains
oxygen or loses an electron. A
compound is reduced when it loses
oxygen or gains an electron. Reduction
involves losing oxygen or gaining an
electron.
G Redox reactions usually involve the
transfer of energy between chemicals.
Energy transfers
G High energy electrons are fed into the
electron transfer chain at one end and
pass through a series of redox
reactions until they are linked with
oxygen to make water (H
2
0).
Remember that although we talk of
electrons moving, we are really
moving hydrogen ions.
G At various stages in this process,
enough energy is released to build
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and
inorganic phosphate (Pi).
UNI TY
Anaerobic respiration
G Anaerobic respiration does not
require oxygen to release energy from
sugar. It is less efficient than aerobic
respiration, producing less energy per
gram of glucose, so it is usually only
used when aerobic respiration is not
possible.
G In animals the supply of oxygen to
actively respiring cells may not be able
to keep up with the demand. The cells
will already be respiring as rapidly as
possible aerobically but need to
produce more energyperhaps due
to excessive stress or physical activity.
At this point anaerobic respiration
begins, so both forms of respiration
are operating at the same time.
G The process converts glucose into
pyruvic acid and makes energy in the
form of ATP.
The oxygen debt
G In mammals anaerobic respiration
gives a useful extra energy boost in
stressful situations. However, it
produces toxic lactic acid (see top
diagram).
G Once the stress is over and oxygen
supplies are plentiful again, the lactic
acid must be destroyed. The amount
of oxygen needed to do this is called
the oxygen debt.
Alcoholic fermentation
G Anaerobic respiration produces
alcohol (ethanol) in yeasts and many
other fungi (see bottom diagram). This
is the basis of the brewing and baking
industries.
G Alcohol is toxic, and yeasts will poison
themselves if the alcohol they produce
as a waste product of respiration
exceeds about seven percent of their
environment.
Anaerobic respiration
Lactic acid fermentation in animals
Alcoholic fermentation in yeast
(glucose) (lactic acid) (energy)
(glucose) (alcohol) (energy)
NADH
2
4ATP
NAD
4ADP
2ADP
2ATP
NADH
2
NAD
C
6
H
12
O
6
2C
3
H
6
O
3
+ 2ATP
C
6
H
12
O
6
2C
2
H
5
OH + 2CO
2
+ 2ATP
4ATP
4ADP
2ADP
2ATP
6
2
1
3 4
2
1
3 4 5
1 Glucose
2 Fructose diphosphate
3 Pyruvic acid
4 Acetaldehyde (ethanal)
5 Ethanol
6 Carbon dioxide
1 Glucose
2 Fructose diphosphate
3 Pyruvic acid
4 Lactic acid
aerobic
respiration
anaerobic
respiration
ATP
glucose
NAD
NADH
Key words
37

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UNI TY
centromere
chromatid
chromatin
chromosome
DNA
gene
Key words
38
Chromosome structure

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Visible during division
G Chromosomes are large structures
found in the nucleus of cells. They are
only visible during cell division. They
take up certain dyes very well, and so
are often treated with these before
they are observed with a light
microscope. Chromosome is Greek
for a colored body.
Chromatids and
centromeres
G Chromosomes have three clear parts:
two pairs of chromatids, which extend
from either side of a cetromere. The
chromatids on one side of the
centromere are always the same
length, but this can be different from
the length of the two chromatids on
the other side.
G During cell division, the centromere
splits to create chromosomes with
single chromatids. These then
duplicate to return to pairs of
chromatids.
Supercoils
G A chromatid is a coiled spring
of protein and
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
called chromatin. The protein
and DNA are, in turn, coiled
into a spiral.
G The spiral coil is called a
supercoil.
G The supercoil unravels when
the cell is not dividing so that
the enzymes of the nucleus can
get easy access to the genes in
the DNA strand.
G The supercoil condenses during
cell division to make it easier to
ensure that each daughter cell
gets a copy of all of the genes from
the parent.
DNA double helix
chromatin is highly
condensed in a supercoil
chromatid centromere
Chromosome
protein and DNA chromatin fiber
Protein and DNA supercoil
UNI TY
Protein synthesis
G Protein synthesis requires two major
processes: translation and
transcription.
Transcription
G Transcription takes place in the
nucleus and involves the creation of a
molecule of mRNA with a base
sequence that mirrors the sequence of
the relevant portion of the DNA
molecule. This means that a single
length of DNA can give rise to many
copies of mRNA.
G The mRNA molecules leave the
nucleus through a nuclear pore and
moves to the ribosomes.
Translation
G Translation is the process of
converting information on the
messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules
into a sequence of amino acids. It is
catalyzed by ribosomes.
G Ribosomes depend on another nucleic
acid, called transfer RNA (tRNA).
G tRNA has a clover leaf shape with an
amino acid attached at one end and a
triplet of bases revealed at the other
end.
G Each tRNA molecule carries a
particular amino acid and has a
particular triplet revealed.
G When the mRNA molecule threads
through the ribosome, tRNA
molecules with corresponding triplet
codes fall into place. Enzymes join the
amino acids at the other end together
to build the new protein chain.
circulation of tRNA
from cytoplasmic
pool to ribosome
to cytoplasmic pool
movement of mRNA
from nucleus to
cytoplasm
Translation
Transcription
free amino acid
tRNA
tRNA carrying amino
acid
polypeptide chain
mRNA
ribosome
Protein synthesis
DNA
nuclear
pore
nuclear
membrane
mRNA
amino acid
enzyme
messenger RNA
ribosome
transcription
transfer RNA
translation
Key words
39
Summary of protein
synthesis

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Base pairing UNI TY
40
Portion of DNA molecule
hydrogen bond
deoxyribose (five-carbon sugar)
phosphate
adenine
bases
thymine
guanine cytosine
bases
N
C C C
C
N C
H
H
N
N H
H
N H N
C C
C
C N
O
O
H
CH
3
N
C C C
C
N C
N
H
N
O H
N H N
C C
C
C N
O
N
H
H
H
H
H

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Nucleotide units
G A nucleotide consists of three
parts: a phosphate group, a
five-carbon sugar, and an
organic base.
G The phosphatesugar part of
the nucleotide joins with
other nucleotide molecules to
form a strong backbone.
G The complete nucleotide
chain is called a nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or
DNA is a nucleic acid.
Organic bases
G There are four possible bases
in DNA: adenine, thymine,
guanine, and cytosine.
G The nucleotides in a molecule
are arranged in a long chain
joined by the
sugarphosphate groups. The
bases protrude from this
backbone.
G If two chains are brought
close together, the bases can
link up by hydrogen bonds to
form a ladder where the
bases links act as the rungs.
However, the bases can only
link up in particular patterns:
adenine links with thymine
and guanine links with
cytosine (see page 41).
G The hydrogen bonds between
the base pairs are weaker than
the sugarphosphate links, so
that pulling on a DNA
molecule splits it down the
middle between these bonds.
G If you have one half of a
nucleic acid molecule, you can
create the other half by
joining the correct bases and
then bonding them with
sugarphosphate groups. This
is how DNA molecules are
copied.
deoxyribonucleic
acid
nucleotide
Key words
UNI TY DNA structure
amino acid
DNA
nucleotide
Key words
41
A
A
A
T
T
T
C G
G
C
paired bases
DNA strand
helix
axis DNA
strand
base pairs
View from above
Arrangement of
nucleotides in DNA
Schematized double helix
phosphate
deoxyribose
Guanine
Adenine
Cytosine
Thymine

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Phosphate-sugar backbone
G DNA consists of two, intertwined
chains of nucleotides that form a
double helix.
G The backbone of these chains, found
on the outside of the helix, is a long
sequence of sugarphosphate groups.
These linkages hold the molecule
together strongly to make DNA a very
resilient molecule. DNA from ancient
sources can still be identified long
after many other chemicals have
decayed beyond recognition.
Information carrier
G The complex structure of DNA allows
it to carry and duplicate information in
the form of a code. The sequence of
bases in a chain can be used to
sequence amino acids in a protein.
This allows the cell to store the
blueprint for any protein as a triplet
code of bases.
DNA replication UNI TY
42
DNA replication
deoxyribose
(five-carbon sugar)
phosphate
Guanine
Adenine
Cytosine
Thymine
free nucleotides
in nucleoplasm
DNA molecule
Enzymes and ATP break
hydrogen bonds and
DNA chains separate.
Free nucleotides find
their complementary
bases.
Two new identical DNA
molecules result.

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Two possible
methods
G DNA consists of two
intertwined chains of
nucleotides that form a
double helix. Two models
have been proposed to
explain how DNA is copied:
the new build or the
semi-conservative model.
G In the new build model a
completely new DNA
molecule would be created
from scratch. The old DNA
molecule would be
untouched, but perhaps
used as a model to copy.
G The semi-conservative
model (see diagram)
assumes that the DNA
molecule unzips to create
two separate but complete
nucleotide chains. New
bases are added to each of
these chains, and these are
then linked together by a
sugarphosphate
backbone.
G Evidence from radiotracers
has shown that the semi-
conservative model is
correct and that each new
DNA molecule contains
half of the original
molecule.
Enzyme controlled
G The replication, or
duplication, of DNA is
closely controlled by
enzymes. This reaction can
be quite rapid. In bacteria
complete DNA molecules
can be copied in fewer
than 20 minutes under
optimum conditions.
DNA
enzyme
nucleotide
Key words
UNI TY DNA transcription
43
Free RNA nucleotides find
their complementary
bases on one of the DNA
chains.
Enzymes and ATP break hydrogen
bonds, and DNA chains separate.
As the newly formed RNA chain
is extended, it dissociates from
the DNA strand to become
messenger RNA (mRNA).
R
R
R
R
R
DNA transcription
free RNA
nucleotides
in
nucleoplasm
R
R
R
R
R
DNA molecule
R
R
R
R
R
Guanine
Cytosine
Adenine
Thymine
Uricil (substituted for
thymine in RNA)
deoxyribose
(five-carbon sugar)
phosphate

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Types of nucleic acid
G There are two major groups
of nucleic acids:
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
G DNA is always found in the
nucleus and has the
characteristic double-helical
structure.
G RNA has a more variable
structure than DNA and has
two major forms: messenger
RNA (mRNA) and transfer
RNA (tRNA). mRNA moves
between the nucleus and the
rest of the cell.
Copying the message
G The genes containing
essential information for
building proteins are kept in
the cell nucleus. These genes
are coded lengths of DNA.
G The information is copied
onto mRNA in a process
called transcription. This
copying is essential to get the
information from the store
(the DNA) to the ribosomes,
where the manufacture of
proteins occurs.
Building mRNA
G Enzymes break open the DNA
molecule (top right) at the
correct point to reveal the
base sequence in the middle
of the molecule.
G Individual RNA nucleotides
can then line up with the
DNA using base-matching to
ensure they are in the correct
order. Enzymes build the
mRNA molecule and the
mRNA leaves the nucleus.
The enzymes are left behind
and can be re-used to build
more mRNA molecules.
DNA
enzyme
messenger RNA
nucleotide
ribosome
transcription
transfer RNA
Key words
UNI TY
polypeptide chain
ribosome
rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
Key words
44
Ribosome
Schematic structure of rough
endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
large
subunit
small
subunit
ribosome
cavities
lamellae (layers)
made up of two
membranes
ribosomal subunits
containing ribosomal
RNA (rRNA)
Animal cell
schematic structure
of rough endoplasmic
reticulum
nucleus
mitochondrion
rough endoplasmic
reticulum
plasma membrane

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Rough endoplasmic
reticulum: structure
Endoplasmic reticulum
G The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a
network of flat open spaces within a
cell. The membrane bounding it is
continuous with the plasma
membrane surrounding the cell. This
means materials can pass along the
endoplasmic reticulum until they are
deep within the cell without having to
cross over the plasma membrane.
G There are two types of ER: smooth
endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
G Both SER and RER are made up of
plasma membrane, but RER has small
bodies called ribosomes attached.
These ribosomes made the ER look
studded or rough.
G Ribosomes are giant enzymeRNA
complexes concerned with protein
manufacture. They consist of two
subunits that fit together (top right
diagram) and work as one, using
information from mRNA to create
polypeptide chains during protein
synthesis.
G These peptide chains pass into the
space in the ER to fold and assemble,
creating more complex proteins.
UNI TY Transfer RNA
amino acid
anticodon
codon
nucleotide
polypeptide chain
transfer RNA
Key words
45

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Transfer RNA
G Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an essential
part of the protein manufacturing
process. During translation (see page
46), it transfers a specific amino acid
to a polypeptide chain at the
ribosome, where protein is
synthesized. In order for this to occur,
a specific tRNA molecule must bond
with a specific amino acid.
Structure
G The twisted, clover
shaped tRNA molecule
has two functional sites.
At one end of the molecule
is a site for amino-acid
attachment and codon recognition.
Condons specify the amino acid to be
linked into the polypeptide chain
being synthesized. At the other is the
anticodon, three nucleotide bases
that are specific for that amnio acid.
G The distance between the amino acid
binding site and the anticodon is
constant no matter how long the tRNA
chain is or how many folds it has.
Anticodons
G There are many different types of
tRNA. Each type transfers one
particular amino acid to a growing
polypeptide chain.
G When messenger RNA (mRNA) enters
the ribosome, tRNA anticodons on the
tRNA molecule recognize and bind to
the appropriate codon on an mRNA
molecule, bringing the correct amino
acid into sequence for the formation
of the polypeptide chain.
A
C
C
Cloverleaf model of
tyrosine transfer
RNA (tRNA)
amino acid
binding site
Three-dimensional
representation
of tRNA
amino acid
binding site
anticodon (mRNA
binding site)
anticodon (mRNA
binding site)
nucleotide chain
Transfer RNA models
nucleotide chain
hydrogen bond
UNI TY
46
Messenger RNA
translation

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Codons
G Proteins are molecules made
of amino acids joined in a
particular sequence. If these
amino acids are arranged in
the wrong order, the protein
will not function.
G The sequence of amino acids
is coded by a sequence of
organic bases in DNA
molecules in the nucleus.
Each amino acid is coded by a
sequence of three bases called
a codon (see top diagram).
So MET codes for methionine,
ACC codes for tryptophan.
G Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a
copy of the codons on the
DNA. The mRNA molecule can
pass out of the nucleus to the
ribosomes on the endoplasmic
reticulum.
Translating the
message
G At the ribosome the mRNA
acts as a template for other
RNA molecules to attach to.
These molecules are the
transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules
that carry amino acids needed
for protein synthesis.
G A tRNA molecule with an
anticodon that fits the next
available space on the mRNA
molecule slots into position.
Its amino acid is held in the
correct position for enzymes
to join it to a growing chain of
amino acids formed at the
other end of the tRNA
molecule.
G Once the amino acid is joined
on, it is released from the
tRNA, which detaches from
the mRNA. The tRNA can be
reused when it has had the
correct amino acid reattached
from the pool in the cell.
U A G U G G A U C G C C
A U G C G G
M
E
T
TRP ILE ALA
A
C
C
MET TRP ILE
U A G U G G A U C G C C
C A C U A
G
U
A
C
A
L
A
C
G
G
MET TRP
U A G U G G A U C G C C
A U C A C C
I
L
E
U
A
G
tRNA molecule
with the correct
anticodon binds
to the codon at
the second site.
It carries
tryptophan
(TRP).
U A G U G G A U C G C C
A U C
MET
T
R
P
A
C
C
mRNA translation in the cytoplasm
mRNA
tRNA
codon
peptide bond
anticodon
ribosome
tRNA with
anticodon UAC
and carrying
methionine
(MET) binds to
correct codon
AUG on mRNA.
A peptide bond
forms between
methionine and
tryptophan.
The first tRNA
molecule returns
to the cytoplasm
to pick up another
methionine
molecule. The
ribosome shifts,
and a third tRNA
molecule binds
to mRNA.
The process is
repeated.
anticodon
codon
messenger RNA
ribosome
transfer RNA
Key words
UNI TY Gene control
DNA
enzyme
operon
Key words
47

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Regulator
gene
Promoter Operator Structural
gene
Regulator
gene
Promoter Operator Structural
gene
Operon repressed
(structural gene switched off)
operon
Gene induction
-galactosidase in Escherichia coli
Operon derepressed
(structural gene switched on)
RNA
polymerase
repressor bound to
operator blocking
RNA polymerase
binding site
repressor
RNA polymerase
bound to promoter
repressor
inactivated
by inducer
inducer (lactose)
lactose
Only when needed
G -galactosidase is an enzyme
involved in the breakdown of
lactose. The gene that produces
this enzyme is usually switched
off, and yet when lactose is
found, the gene switches on
quickly, and the enzyme is
produced.
Gene types
G The gene that produces -galactoside
consists of two lengths of DNA: the
regulator gene, and the operon
containing structural operator and
promoter genes.
G The structural gene produces the
enzyme when the operator switches it
on. The operator, in turn, is controlled
by the promoter. The promoter works
with an enzyme called RNA
polymerase to switch on the operator
and the structural gene.
G However, RNA polymerase must be
able to link with the promoter for
this to happen, and this is
normally blocked by a chemical,
called a repressor, that binds to
the operator.
Blocking the repressor
G The repressor is a molecule produced
by the regulator gene. If no lactose is
present, the repressor binds to the
operator. When lactose is present, it
binds with the repressor and prevents
it from binding with the operator. This
allows RNA polymerase to bind with
the promoter and so switch on the
structural gene.
Transformation UNI TY
transformation
Key words
48

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Pneumococcus
G Pneumococci are a group of bacteria
that can cause illness in animals and
humans. One particular type can kill
mice and has two distinct types: rough
(R-type), which does not kill, and
smooth (S-type), which is always fatal.
G Rough and smooth refer to the outer
coat of the Pneumococcus organisms.
Dead bacteria
G Dead bacteria cannot cause illness.
Experiments with heat-killed bacteria
in mice showed this.
G When heat killed S-type bacteria were
injected into mice with live R-type
bacteria, the mice died. Live R-type do
not kill mice, so the S-type must have
influenced them in some way. The R-
type were said to be transformed by
the dead S-type.
The active component
G Further work looked at what
component in the S-type bacteria was
producing the transformation.
G S-type bacteria were killed, and the
various components separated.
Different mice were injected with
different extracts from the S-type
bacteria along with live R-types.
G The only mice that died had been
injected with DNA from the S-type.
This showed that it was the DNA that
had the power to transform the R-type
bacteria.
+
+
+
rough (R-type)
non-virulent
Pneumococcus
Genetic transformation of pneumonia bacteria
Experiments of Griffiths, 1928
The dead mice had living S-type
Pneumococcus in the bloodstream.
smooth
(S-type) virulent
Pneumococcus
heat-killed R-type
Pneumococcus
heat-killed S-type
Pneumococcus
rough (R-type)
non-virulent
Pneumococcus
rough (R-type)
non-virulent
Pneumococcus
rough (R-type)
non-virulent
Pneumococcus
heat-killed
S-type
Pneumococcus
protein from
S-type
Pneumococcus
DNA from
S-type
Pneumococcus
Experiments of Griffiths, 1928
The dead mice had living S-type
Pneumococcus in the bloodstream.
Experiments of Avery, et al, 1944
Transferring genes
Bacterium
Plasmid
Cleavage
Plasmid is cleaved by
restriction endonuclease.
Annealing
Plasmid and foreign DNA
join at their sticky ends.
Foreign DNA
Transformation
Bacterium picks up
modified plasmid.
nucleoid
plasmid
nucleoid
reconstituted plasmid
acting as vector for
foreign DNA
sticky end
sticky
end
complementary
strands of DNA
complementary
strands of DNA
UNI TY Genetic engineering
plasmid
restriction
enzyme
Key words
49

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Bacterial chromosomes
G Bacteria do not have a nucleus. Their
DNA is found in a compacted mass
called the nucleoid. Bacteria also
contain a plasmid, a small DNA
molecule that can be transferred from
one cell to another. Plasmids are
commonly used in genetic
engineering to transfer genes.
Sticky ends
G The two strands in the DNA helix of
the plasmid are mirror images of
each other. Where one side has
adenine the other has thymine; where
one has cytosine the other has
guanine.
G Restriction enzymes, which recognize
specific, short nucleotide sequences,
can cut the plasmid to produce a gap
with sticky ends. These enzymes do
not cut straight across the DNA
strandthey split the two strands
apart so that one end sticks out
beyond the other. Because the single
strands of DNA have complementary
bases, they can bind to a portion of
DNA with appropriate bases
protruding from their sticky ends.
Plasmids
G Careful use of restriction enzymes
allows genetic engineers to cut out
lengths of DNA with sticky ends that
correspond to the gaps in a broken
bacterial DNA. The foreign genes can
then be added and the DNA rejoined
to make a circular plasmid.
G The plasmid can be inserted into
another bacterium where it can be
expressed. In this way, for example,
the gene responsible for producing
the hormone insulin can be spliced
into a bacterium.
Mitosis in an animal cell CO NT I NUI T Y
Cell division
G All li vi ng cellsdi vi de. There are two
methodsof di vi si on: mitosis, whi ch
producescopi esof the ori gi nal cell,
and mei osi swhi ch i sonly used to
produce gametes, the reproducti ve
cellsi n plantsand ani mals.
Interphase
G Cellsdo not di vi de all of the ti me
they are present i n a state called
interphase. I n i nterphase, the DNA i n
the chromati n threadsi sdi vi di ng and
multi plyi ng to produce copi esof all
the genesi n the cell but thi sprocess
i si nvi si ble.
Mitosis
G Mi tosi si sa conti nuousprocessthat
i nvolvesfour mai n stages.
G I n prophase, chromati n i scondensed
i nto short, thi ck chromosomes. Each
chromosome hasdupli cated and now
consi stsof two si ster chromatids
vi si bly connected at thei r centromeres.
The nuclear envelope di si ntegrates,
and the nucleolusdi sappears.
G I n metaphasethe chromosomes
arrange themselvesaround the
equator of the cell. Mi crotubulesform
the mi toti c spi ndle.
G Anaphasebegi nswhen the
centromere i n the chromosome
di vi desand startsto move to opposi te
endsof the cell.
G By telophasethe chromosomesare at
opposi te endsof the cell, and a new
nuclear membrane begi nsto form. I t
endswhen the cell pi nchesi n to
produce daughter cells.
Uses of mitosis
G Mi tosi sproducesdaughter cellsthat
are geneti cally i denti cal to the parent
cell. The growth and repai r of
multi cellular organi smsrequi re mi tosi s
to produce new cells.
anaphase
centromere
chromatid
chromosome
gamete
interphase
metaphase
mitosis
prophase
telophase
Key words
50
Mitosis
p la sm a m e m b ra n e
c y to p la sm
n u c le o lu s
n u c le a r
m e m b ra n e
c h ro m a ti n th re a d
ce n tri o le s ce n tro m e re
si ste r c h ro m a ti d s
Interphase Prophase Metaphase
ce n tro m e re
a tta c h e d to
sp i n d le e q u a to r
ce n tri o le s
ce n tri o le s
re p li ca te
n u c le a r
m e m b ra n e
re fo rm s
c y to p la sm
d i v i d e s
Late telophase Daughter cells
Early anaphase Late anaphase Early telophase
sp i n d le fi b e r c h ro m a ti d s
se p a ra te
sp i n d le
fi b e r

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Two types of fission
G Fission i sthe spli tti ng of a parent cell
i nto a number of daughter cells. I n
bi nary fi ssi on two cellsare produced.
I n multi ple fi ssi on many more
daughtersare produced.
G The daughtersproduced by fi ssi on are
geneti cally i denti cal to the parent, i .e.
they are clones.
Binary fission
G I n Amoeba proteus( ameba) , bi nary
fi ssi on begi nswhen the pseudopodia
( false feet) are wi thdrawn to make a
sli ghtly more spheri cal shape.
G The nucleusdi vi desby mitosisto
produce two i denti cal nuclei . These
move to opposi te endsof the cell.
G The ameba constri ctsaround the
mi ddle and formstwo daughter cells.
Multiple fission
G I n multi ple fi ssi on the ameba
wi thdrawsi tspseudopodi a to form a
more spheri cal shape asi n bi nary
fi ssi on but then secretesa wall around
the cell to form a cyst.
G The cyst can survi ve harsher
condi ti onsthan the normal ameba
cell.
G I nsi de the cyst the ameba di vi des
multi ple ti mesby mi tosi sto produce
many small daughter cells. These
daughtersare released when the cyst
wall breaks.
Asexual reproduction:
fission
Fission in amebas
Fully grown ameba
Binary fission
Multiple fission
A m e b a
wi th d ra ws i ts
p se u d o p o d i a ,
a n d i ts n u c le u s
d i v i d e s b y
m i to si s.
D a u g h te r
n u c le i se p a ra te ,
a n d c y to p la sm
co n stri c ts.
D a u g h te r
a m e b a s
A m e b a
wi th d ra ws i ts
p se u d o p o d i a .
A m e b a
se c re te s
a c yst wa ll.
A m e b a
d i v i d e s m a n y
ti m e s b y
m i to si s.
U n d e r fa vo ra b le co n d i ti o n s th e c yst
ru p tu re s, re le a si n g d a u g h te r a m e b a s.
p se u d o p o d i a
n u c le u s
clone
cyst
fission
mitosis
pseudopodium
Key words
51

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Asexual reproduction:
vegetative propagation
Potato reproduction
Strawberry reproduction
1 A sh o o t
g ro ws fro m
a la te ra l
b u d .
2 T h e sh o o t
fo rm s le a ve s,
a n d ro o ts
g ro w.
3 S i d e ste m s
g ro w o u t a n d
swe ll u p i n to
tu b e rs.
4 Fo o d m a d e i n
th e leaves is sto re d
i n th e tu b e rs.
5 T h e le a ve s, ste m ,
a n d o ld tu b e r d ie, b u t
n e w tu b e rs re m a i n
d o rm a n t i n th e so i l.
ru n n e r
n e w p la n t
d e ve lo p i n g
fro m ru n n e r
ro o t
p a re n t p la n t
CO NT I NUI T Y
Vegetative propagation
G I n vegetati ve propagati on a plant wi ll
produce daughtersthat are geneti cally
i denti cal to the parent. These clones
are produced wi thout any sexual
processand develop from roots,
stems, or leaves.
Potato tubers
G Potato plantsform fleshy stemsi n the
rootsthat act asa store for starch.
These organs, called tubers, can grow
i nto new plantsi f separated from the
parent plant.
G I n the second half of the growi ng
season, partsof the root wi ll swell as
starch i sdeposi ted i n them. Thi s
starch actsasan energy store for the
plant.
G At the end of the growi ng season, the
aeri al partsof the potato wi lt and di e,
leavi ng the tubersunderground
protected from frost. I n the next
season the tuberswi ll use thei r starch
to provi de energy to develop i nto new
potato plants.
Strawberry runners
G Strawberry plantsproduce shootsthat
grow out from the si de of the plant
hori zontally. These above ground
stemsare called runners.
G Where runnerstouch the ground, they
develop thei r own rootsand aeri al
shoots. These develop i nto a new
strawberry plant.
G O ver ti me the ori gi nal runner can
decay to produce a completely
i ndependent plant.
clone
starch
tuber
Key words
52

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Meiosis
G Meiosisi sa two-stage form of cell
di vi si on used only i n the sex organsto
produce gametes.
G Mei osi sdi ffersfrom mi tosi si n that
duri ng prophase geneti c materi al may
be exchanged between the
chromati ds.
Meiosis I
G I nterphase i n mei osi si si denti cal to
i nterphase i n mi tosi s( see page 50) .
G I n early prophase I , homologous
chromosomes,whi ch have the same
genesbut may have di fferent alleles,
are attached along thei r lengthsi n a
processcalled synapsi s.
G Synapsi si scompleted i n mi d-
prophase I , and the chromosomesare
sai d to be bi valent, a reference to the
fact that two chromosomesare uni ted.
G I n late prophase I , chromosomesmay
exchange segmentsof geneti c
i nformati on at locati onscalled
chi asmata ( see page 55) .
G Duri ng prophase, the centri oles, when
present, begi n mi grati ng to the two
polesof the cell.
G I n metaphase I , the chi asmata sli p
apart, and the chromosome pai rsali gn
on ei ther si de of the metaphase plate.
G Duri ng anaphase I , spi ndle fi berspull
the chromosomestoward each pole of
the cell, and the cell elongatesi n
preparati on for di vi si on.
G Duri ng telophase I , spi ndle fi bers
di sappear, a cleavage furrow forms,
and the cell spli ts. Each daughter cell
now haploi d. I t hashalf the number of
chromosomesasthe parent.
Meiosis: first division
anaphase
chiasma
chromatid
gamete
gene
haploid
homologous
chromosome
interphase
meiosis
prophase
telophase
Key words
53
Meiosis I
Interphase Early prophase I Mid prophase I
p la sm a
m e m b ra n e
c y to p la sm
n u c le a r
m e m b ra n e ce n tri o le s
c h ro m a ti n
th re a d
n u c le o lu s
h o m o lo g o u s
c h ro m o so m e s
ce n tro m e re s
h o m o lo g o u s
c h ro m o so m e s
b i va le n t
Telophase I
sp i n d le
fi b e rs
Late prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I
c h i a sm a
c le v e a g e fu rro w
m e ta p h a se
p la te
c e n tri o le
c h ro m a ti d

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Meiosis: second division
Meiosis II
Prophase II
ce n tro m e re
c h ro m o so m e
Metaphase II
ce n tri o le s
n u c le a r
m e m b ra n e
c h ro m a ti d s
Anaphase II Telophase II
h a p lo i d
d a u g h te r ce lls
si ste r
c h ro m a ti d
sp i n d le
fi b e rs
m e ta p h a se p la te
c e n tro m e re
sp i n d le fi b e rs
CO NT I NUI T Y
Gamete formation
G MeiosisI I , i sthe mi toti c di vi si on of the
haploid cellsproduced i n mei osi sI .
Second stage: cell division
G I n prophase II, chromatidsshorten
and thi cken i nto vi si ble chromosomes.
Centrioles( when present) move to
the polesof the cell, spi ndle fi bers
form, and the chromosomesmove
toward the equator of the cell.
G I n metaphase II, the chromosomes
li ne up along the metaphase plate.
G I n anaphase II, the centromeres
di vi de to produce four separate
chromati dsfrom the ori gi nal two
chromosomes. These si ster
chromati dsmove toward opposi te
endsof the cells.
G Telophase II doublesthe number of
cellswi thout a correspondi ng i ncrease
i n the number of chromosomesso
each new cell hasonly one chromati d.
These haploi d daughter cellshave half
the number of chromosomesfound i n
the parent cell.
G These cellsdevelop further i nto
functi onal gametes.
anaphase II
centriole
centromere
chromatid
chromosome
gamete
haploid
meiosis
metaphase II
prophase II
telophase II
zygote
Key words
54

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Homologous chromosomes
G Homologous chromosomeshave the
same genesi n the same posi ti onsbut
may have di fferent vari ants, or alleles,
of the same gene.
G The gene for eye color i n humans
alwaysresi desat a parti cular place,
called a locus, on a chromosome.
However, there are a number of
di fferent forms( alleles) for thi sgene,
for example blue, brown, or green.
Crossing over
G Crossi ng over occurswhen one length
of chromatid i sexchanged for the
equi valent length on a homologous
chromosome.
G Crossi ng over occursduri ng the fi rst
di vi si on i n meiosis. Thi sensuresthat
new arrangementsof allelesare
produced duri ng the processthat
leadsto the formati on of gametes.
G The further apart two genesare on a
chromosome, the more li kely they are
to be separated and remi xed duri ng a
crossover.
Crossed shapes
G Crossi ng over occurswhen chiasmata
form, temporari ly joi ni ng the
chromati dsof homologous
chromosomestogether at a parti cular
poi nt.
G When the chi asmata break apart, the
chromati dscan be re-attached to the
broken end of a di fferent chromati d.
I n thi sway lengthsof chromati d can
be exchanged.
Crossing over and
genetic variation
allele
chiasma
chromatid
gamete
homologous
chromosome
meiosis
Key words
55
Crossing over
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
c
b
a
C
B
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
b
a
c
B
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
B
c
b
a
a
c
b
a
c
b
c
C
b B
A
C
B
A
A
c
b
A
C
B
a
C
B
a
c
b
A
C
B
A
C
b
a
c
B
a
c
b
a
No crossing over Single crossing over Double crossing over
c h ro m o so m e va ri a ti o n s i n th e fo u r h a p lo i d g a m e te s
h o m o lo g o u s c h ro m o so m e s
ce n tro m e re s
a lle le s
c h ro m a ti d s
c h i a sm a ta
c h i a sm a

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Flower structure CO NT I NUI T Y
anther
carpel
fruit
gamete
ovary
pistil
ovule
seed
stamen
stigma
style
Key words
56
Flowers and fruits
G Flowersare the sexual organs
of a group of plantsknown
asangi osperms. They are
responsi ble for produci ng
seedsenclosed i n structures
that ai d i n thei r di spersal. The
combi nati onsof seedsand
these structuresare called
fruits.
Sequences
of rings
G All flowershave
the same basi c
structure a seri esof
ri ngsor whorlsarranged
on each other on
a hi ghly
condensed
stem called
the receptacle.
G The lowest ri ng looks
li ke si mple leavesor bracts
and i sthe sepal.
G The next ri ng up i ncludesthe petals.
I n i nsect-polli nated flowers, the petals
are often bri ghtly colored and may
produce scent, whi ch attractsi nsects.
G I nsi de the ri ng of petalsare the male
partsof the flower. These are the
stamens. The fi nal ri ng i sthe female
part called the pistil or carpel.
Stamens and carpels
G The stamensare arranged i n a ri ng
and consi st of anthers, whi ch produce
pollen grai nscontai ni ng the male
gamete, supported on a fi lament.
G The female part of the flower i n the
i nnermost ri ng i scomposed of the
stigma and style. I t i soften so hi ghly
modi fi ed that i t doesnot resemble
a ri ng.
G The female gametesare completely
enclosed i n the ovulelocated i n the
ovary, whi ch i sfound asthe lowest
part of the carpel.
Vertical section through flower
sti g m a
sta m e n
fi la m e n t p e ta l
se p a l
re ce p ta c le
flo we r sta lk
p i sti l
c a rp e l)
sty le
o va ry
a n th e r
o v u le

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CO NT I NUI T Y Mature stamen
anther
dehiscence
gamete
meiosis
pollen
stamen
Key words
57
The male gametes
G Anthersare the part of the flower that
produce the male gametes, whi ch are
contai ned i n pollen. A speci al form of
cell di vi si on called meiosisi srequi red
for thi sprocess.
Gross structure
G A stamen consi stsof an anther fi xed
on top of a fi lament. The fi lament i s
attached to the stalk of the flower
below the ri ng of female parts.
G The anther i tself hasfour chambersor
pollen sacsarranged around the
fi lament. A bundle of vascular ti ssue
carri eswater and organi c materi alsto
the anther to support the developi ng
pollen.
Microscopic structure
G A layer of cellscalled the tapetum li nes
the i nsi de of each pollen sac and
nouri shesthe growi ng pollen grai n.
Cellsfrom thi stapetum passi nto the
space i n the mi ddle of the sac and
di vi de by mei osi sto form pollen
grai ns often i n tetradsor groupsof
four.
G A ti ssue outsi de the pollen sac i s
suppli ed wi th fi brouselementsthat
stressthe anther asi t dri esout an
essenti al part of the mechani sm
for the release of the mature
pollen.
G When the pollen cellsare
mature, the anther begi nsto
dry out. Thi scausesthe cells
to shri nk asthey lose water.
Thi ssetsup strai nsi n the
ti ssuesof the anther walls,
whi ch eventually spli t to
release the pollen. Thi s
spli tti ng i scalled dehiscence.

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Stamen
Flower: vertical section
fi la m e n t
p o lle n
Anther before dehiscence:
external view
a n th e r b e fo re
d e h i sce n ce :
e xte rn a l v i e w
Anther before dehiscence: transverse section
Anther after
dehiscence:
external
view
Anther after dehiscence:
transverse section
a n th e r a fte r
d e h i sce n ce :
e xte rn a l v i e w
a n th e r b e fo re
d e h i sce n ce :
tra n sve rse se c ti o n
a n th e r a fte r
d e h i sce n ce :
tra n sve rse
se c ti o n
a n th e r lo b e s
li n e o f d e h i sce n ce
ta p e tu m
o u te r fi b ro u s la ye r
i n n e r fi b ro u s la ye r
a n th e r lo b e s
co n ta i n i n g
p o lle n sa c s
p o lle n m o th e r ce ll
m i c ro sp o re
m o th e r ce ll)
d i v i d i n g b y m e i o si s
li n e o f d e h i sce n ce
p o lle n sa c s
va sc u la r
b u n d le
Pollen formation CO NT I NUI T Y
Pollen development
G Pollen developspollen sacsfrom cells
that undergo meiosisto produce
haploid cells, cellsthat contai n si ngle
chromosomesrather than the
pai rsof chromosomesfound i n
most body cells( see mi crospore
mother cell di agram) .
G Si nce pollen grai nsare produced
bymei osi s, each one i suni que,
wi th a sli ghtly di fferent geneti c
makeup than all other grai nsproduced
by the plant.
G Pollen grai nsare mi crospores thi s
meansthey have veryli ttle storage
materi al i n them unli ke eggs.
Pollen: external structure
G The outer wall of a pollen grai n i sa
tough waterproof structure called the
exi ne. I t i soften hi ghly sculpted
( see bottom di agram) .
G A number of poresexi st i n the exi ne.
The pollen tube that formsduri ng
pollen germi nati on growsout of one
of these pores.
Pollen: internal structure
G The i nternal structure of a pollen grai n
i sfai rly si mple. I t i sbounded by
the i nti ne, or i nner wall, and
contai nstwo nuclei : the
generative( sperm)
nucleusand the tube
nucleus.
G The tube nucleus
controlsthe producti on
of a pollen tube ( see page
59) . Thi sstructure grows
out through a pore i n the
exi ne and passesbetween the
cellsof the sti gma and style of
the carpel.
G The generati ve nucleuspassesdown
thi stube toward the female nucleus
found i n the ovule. When i t uni tes
wi th the female nucleus, the fi rst cell
of the new plant hasformed.
dehiscence
generative
nucleus
haploid
meiosis
pollen
Key words
58
Anther before dehiscence:
transverse section
Anther after dehiscence:
transverse section
g e n e ra ti ve sp e rm )
n u c le u s
i n ti n e
tu b e
n u c le u s e xi n e
Pollen grains
Detail of pollen grain
Microspore mother cell
First meiotic division
produces two cells.
Second meiotic division
produces four haploid
microspores.
m i c ro sp o re
m o th e r ce ll
d e ta i l o f
p o lle n g ra i n
m i c ro sp o re )
Pollen formation

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CO NT I NUI T Y
59

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Pollination
Types of pollination
m a tu re sti g m a
to u c h e s b a c k
o f b e e
Insect (entomophilous) pollination
o va ry
Wind (anemophilous) pollination
p ro b o sc i s
n e c ta ry
m a tu re a n th e rs d u st
p o lle n o n to b a c k o f b e e
b e e fli e s to
a n o th e r flo we r
p ro b o sc i s
o va ry
n e c ta ry
p o lle n
la rg e fe a th e ry sti g m a p o lle n re le a se d fro m a n th e rs
h a n g i n g o u tsi d e flo we r
Types of pollination
G Polli nati on i sthe transfer of pollen
from a male anther to a stigma of the
female carpel.
G Pollen i srecei ved by the sti gma, whi ch
ari sesout of the ovary.
G There are two major formsof
polli nati on: i nsect polli nati on and
wi nd polli nati on.
Insect pollination
G Many i nsectsuse thei r proboscusto
collect nectar from flowersfor food.
Nectar i sa soluti on of sucrose i n water
produced by glands, called nectari es,
at the base of petals.
G Whi le the i nsect i scollecti ng the
nectar, pollen from antherscan be
dusted on to i tsbody. When thi si nsect
vi si tsanother flower looki ng for
nectar, the pollen i stransferred to the
sti gma, thereby polli nati ng i t.
G I nsect-polli nated flowerstend to have
ostentati ouspetals, scent, and nectar,
and are often hi ghly adapted to attract
parti cular typesof i nsect.
Wind pollination
G Plantsthat use wi nd polli nati on
produce extremely large amountsof
pollen, whi ch blow onto the sti gmasof
other plants.
G Wi nd-polli nated plantstend to have
large numbersof i nconspi cuous
flowerswi th stamensand large,
feathery sti gmasthat hang outsi de of
the flower.
anther
carpel
pollen
stamen
stigma
Key words
Plant fertilization CO NT I NUI T Y
60

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Fertilization and pollination
G Polli nati on i sthe transfer of pollen
from the male anther to the female
sti gma. Fertilization then occurswhen
the male gametefrom a pollen grai n
fuseswi th the female gamete i n the
ovule.
Pollen tube development
G Pollen grai nscontai n two nuclei : the
tube nucleusand the generative
( sperm) nucleuscontai ni ng the male
gametes. When a pollen grai n begi ns
to grow, i t formsa pollen tube, whi ch
conductsthe nuclei from the pollen
grai n to the embryo sac. The tube
nucleuscontrolsthe growth of the
pollen tube.
G The embryo sac i scontai ned wi thi n
the ovule of the carpel. I t i s
surrounded by thi n membranescalled
i nteguments, whi ch have a small
openi ng at the bottom called the
mi cropyle. The pollen tube entersthe
ovule by way of the micropyle.
Fertilization
G Duri ng the movement of the
generati ve nucleusdown the pollen
tube, i t hasdi vi ded by mi tosi s. The
pollen tube thusdeli verstwo
generati ve nuclei to the mi cropyle at
the base of the carpel.
G The nuclei passacrossi nto the embryo
sac. O ne of the generati ve nuclei fuses
wi th the female nucleusi n the embryo
sac. Thi swi ll become the fi rst cell of a
new plant.
G The other generati ve nucleusfuses
wi th two polar bodi esproduced by
mei osi sto form the endosperm ( food
storage materi al) whi ch hasa triploid
number.
embryo sac
endosperm
fertilization
gamete
generative
nucleus
micropyle
pollen
triploid
Key words
tu b e n u c le u s
g e n e ra ti v e
n u c le u s
tu b e n u c le u s
p o lle n tu b e
sti g m a
Pollen grains before and
after pollination
g e n e ra ti v e
n u c le i
Carpel just after pollination:
vertical section
Carpel with pollen tube
fully developed:
vertical section
Fertilization
g e n e ra ti v e
n u c le i
i n te g u m e n ts
p o lle n tu b e
p o lle n tu b e
tu b e
n u c le u s
g e n e ra ti v e
n u c le i
p o lle n g ra i n
g e rm i n a ti n g
p o lle n g ra i n
m i c ro p y le
sty le
o va ry wa ll
ca v i ty o f o va ry
o v u le
e m b ryo sa c
i n te g u m e n ts
sti g m a
Fertilization and pollination
CO NT I NUI T Y
Seeds and fruit
G The seed developsfrom the ferti li zed
embryo sac. I t startswi th the zygote,
whi ch i sthe fi rst cell of the new
i ndi vi dual created when the
generative( sperm) nucleusand the
egg nucleusfuse. Repeated di vi si on
producesa multi celled embryo plant.
G The frui t developsfrom the remai nsof
the ovary wall. Frui tsshow many
adaptati onsto ai d the di spersal or
eventual germi nati on of the seed.
Endospermic seeds
G At ferti li zati on, the pollen tube deli vers
two generati ve nuclei ( male gametes)
to the embryo sac ( see page 60) . O ne
nucleusfuseswi th the female nucleus
and wi ll become the new plant. The
other fuseswi th the polar bodi esand
developsi nto endosperm ti ssue that
actsasa food store for the growi ng
zygote. Thi sendosperm takesup most
of the space wi thi n the seed.
G Asthe embryo grows, i t wi ll develop
two lobes, called cotyledons. These
are embryoni c leavesthat store a large
amount of food obtai ned by di gesti ng
and absorbi ng the endosperm ti ssue.
G The i ntegumentsthat had surrounded
the embryo sac ( see page 60) toughen
and become the seed coats( testa)
( bottom di agram) .
G The developi ng root i scalled the
radi cle and the developi ng stem the
plumule.
Non-endospermic seeds
G I n non-endospermi c seedsthe
growi ng embryo takesup most of the
space. The cotyledonsbecome swollen
and fi lled wi th materi alsthat act asthe
food store for the growi ng plant unti l
photosynthesi stakesplace.
Seed development
Development after
fertilization
e m b ryo sa c
Carpel after
fertilization:
vertical section
Non-endospermic seed (pea):
longitudinal section
Endospermic seed (castor oil):
longitudinal section
d e ve lo p m e n t a fte r
fe rti li za ti o n
e n d o sp e rm n u c le u s
zyg o te
e n d o sp e rm
n u c le i
e m b ryo
e n d o sp e rm ri c h
i n sto re d fo o d
e m b ryo
te sta
co ty le d o n
p lu m u le
e n d o sp e rm
ra d i c le
ra d i c le
co ty le d o n
p lu m u le
te sta
Seed development
embryo sac
generative
nucleus
zygote
Key words
61

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Human reproductive
system: male
Male reproductive system
Front view
b la d d e r
se m i n a l
ve si c le
p ro sta te
g la n d
va s d e fe re n s
sp e rm d u c t)
e p i d i d y m i s
sc ro tu m
fo re sk i n
te sti s
Side view
se m i n a l ve si c le
re c tu m
p ro sta te g la n d
C o wp e r s g la n d
a n u s
va s d e fe re n s
sp e rm d u c t)
e p i d i d y m i s
te sti s
b la d d e r
p u b i c b o n e
u re th ra
p e n i s
sc ro tu m
CO NT I NUI T Y
Anatomy
G The testesare the organsthat produce
sperm, the gametesi n human males.
They also produce the male hormone
testosterone. They hang outsi de the
body i n the scrotum.
G Seminiferous tubulesi n the testesare
li ned wi th cellsthat di vi de by mei osi s
to produce spermatozoa. Sperm pass
from the testi si nto a convoluted tube
called the epididymis, and from there
i nto another tube, the vas deferens
( sperm duct) . A healthy male can
produce mi lli onsof spermatozoa
every day between puberty and old
age.
G Spermsare dormant whi le they are
stored i n the epi di dymi sand only
become acti ve when mi xed wi th
secreti onsfrom the semi nal vesi cles
along the vasdeferens. Thi ssemi nal
flui d combi neswi th the sperm,
prostati c flui d from the prostate gland,
and mucussecreted by the Cowper s
glandsto form semen, whi ch i s
di scharged from the urethra duri ng
ejaculati on.
Ejaculation
G The peni si snormally flacci d or soft,
but when exci ted, blood i spumped
i nto i t at hi gh pressure maki ng i t
larger and sti ffer. Thi salso allows
sperm to passfrom the testi sto the
outsi de world i n an ejaculati on.
epididymis
gamete
seminiferous
tubule
spermatozoon
testis
vas deferens
Key words
62

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Anatomy
G Unli ke the male, the organsthat
produce the gametesi n femalesare
found deep i nsi de the body. These are
the ovaries. There are two of them
found above the bladder i n the
abdomi nal cavi ty.
G A tube called a fallopian tube
( ovi duct) connectseach ovary to the
top of the uterus. Eggsproduced by
the ovari espassdown thi stube.
G The uterusi sa thi ck-walled structure
sealed by the cervix at the lower end.
Roughly the shape and si ze of a small
pear when the woman i snot pregnant,
i t can swell to many ti mesthi si n the
fi nal stagesof pregnancy.
G The cervi x leadsfrom the uterusi nto
the vagi na, whi ch connectswi th the
outsi de world.
External structures
G The external structuresof the
reproducti ve system i n femalesare
si mpler than the male. The openi ng of
the vagi na i sbounded by a number of
flapsof ti ssue called the labi a. The
cli tori si san area that i sparti cularly
sensi ti ve.
G The bladder connectsto the outsi de
vi a the urethra i n thi sarea aswell.
Human reproductive
system: female
cervix
fallopian tube
ovary
uterus
Key words
63
Front view
u te ru s
wo m b )
ce rv i x
o va ry
fa llo p i a n tu b e
o v i d u c t)
fu n n e l o f
fa llo p i a n
tu b e
va g i n a
va g i n a l
o p e n i n g
Side view
o va ry
fa llo p i a n tu b e
o v i d u c t)
fu n n e l o f
fa llo p i a n tu b e
u te ru s
ce rv i x
re c tu m
va g i n a
a n u s
b la d d e r
p u b i c b o n e
c li to ri s
va g i n a l o p e n i n g
u re th ra
la b i a
Female reproductive system

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Spermatogenesis: testis CO NT I NUI T Y
64
Male human
g e rm ce lls
Testis: vertical section
va s d e fe re n s
e p i d i d y m i s
se m i n i fe ro u s tu b u le s
o u te r wa ll
o f te sti s
te sti s:
ve rti ca l
se c ti o n
Seminiferous tubule transverse section
sp e rm a to g o n i a
sp e rm a to zo o n
L e yd i g ce ll
p ri m a ry sp e rm a to c y te
o u te r wa ll o f te sti s
se co n d a ry sp e rm a to c y te s
a n d sp e rm a ti d s

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Testis anatomy
G Seminiferous tubulesare very long
tubesfound i n the testesof male
mammals. They all drai n i nto the
epididymis, whi ch i sa wi der,
convoluted tube that restson the back
edge of the testi s. Mature but i nacti ve
spermatozoa are stored here unti l
they are passed out of the body
through the vasdeferensand urethra
duri ng an ejaculati on.
G Semi ni feroustubuleshave a space i n
the mi ddle where growi ng
spermatozoa can develop and mature.
Between these tubulesare other
ti ssues( Leydi g cells) that nouri sh
them and produce the hormone
testosterone, whi ch mai ntai nsthe
secondarysexual characteri sti csof
males( faci al hai r, etc.) .
Sperm production
G Sperm producti on i saffected by
temperature and i smost effecti ve at
sli ghtly below body temperature
whi ch i swhy the testeshang outsi de
the body.
G Studi eshave suggested that many
malesare produci ng lesssperm than
previ ousgenerati ons. The weari ng of
ti ght pantsand underwear that hold
the testesclose to the body hasbeen
suggested asa cause of thi schange.
Another possi ble cause i sthe presence
i n the envi ronment of pollutantsthat
are si mi lar to female hormones.
epididymis
seminiferous
tubule
spermatozoon
testis
Key words
CO NT I NUI T Y
65
epididymis
enzyme
haploid
meiosis
mitochondrion
mitosis
seminiferous
tubule
spermatid
spermatozoon
Key words

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Sperm formation
G Spermatogenesi si sthe name gi ven to
the processof produci ng sperm.
G Cellsli ni ng the seminiferous tubules
i n the testesdi vi de i n the fi rst i nstance
by mitosisto form spermatogoni a.
These then develop i nto cellscalled
pri mary spermatocytes.
G A si ngle pri mary spermatocyte di vi des
by meiosisto produce four haploid
cellscalled spermatids.
G The spermati dsmature i nto
spermatozoathe male gametesby
growi ng a tai l and reduci ng the
amount of cytoplasm surroundi ng the
nucleusto a mi ni mum. The
spermatozoa are stored i n the center
of the semi ni feroustubulesand
epididymisunti l released ( see
page 64) .
Sperm structure
G Spermatozoa consi st of a si ngle
haploi d nucleusi n the head wi th a tai l
behi nd i t that can move and so propel
the sperm toward the ovum produced
by the female.
G The acrosome at the front of the head
contai nsa package of enzymesthat are
able to di gest the outer ski n of the
egg, thereby allowi ng the nucleusto
passi nto the cell.
G A collecti on of mitochondria
surround the fi lamentsof the tai l i n
the mi ddle part of the spermatozoa.
These provi de energy i n the form of
ATP, whi ch allowsthe tai l to thrash
si dewaysto dri ve the sperm forward.
Spermatogenesis: sperm
Spermatogenesis: schematic
Spermatozoon
p h a se o f
m u lti p li ca ti o n
b y m i to si s
s
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a
p h a se o f
g ro wth
p h a se o f
m a tu ra ti o n
se co n d a ry
sp e rm a to c y te
m e i o si s I I
sp e rm a ti d
h a p lo i d )
m e i o si s I
p ri m a ry sp e rm a to c y te
sp e rm a to zo o n
a c ro so m e
n u c le u s
h a p lo i d )
n e c k
a xi a l fi la m e n t
m i to c h o n d ri o n
ta i l sh e a th
ce n tri o le
h e a d m i d d le p i e ce ta i l
Oogenesis: meiotic
division
p h a se o f
m u lti p li ca ti o n
b y m i to si s
o o g o n i a
p h a se o f
g ro wth
p h a se o f
m a tu ra ti o n
fi rst p o la r
b o d y
m e i o si s I I
m e i o si s I
p ri m a ry o o c y te
Oogenesis: schematic
g e rm ce ll
Secondary oocyte prior to fertilization
se co n d a ry
o o c y te
p o la r b o d i e s
n u c le u s
c y to p la sm
p la sm a m e m b ra n e
v i te lli n e m e m b ra n e
zo n a p e llu c i d a
o v u m
se co n d p o la r b o d i e s
CO NT I NUI T Y
Oogenesis
G O ogenesi si sthe name gi ven to the
processby whi ch ova are formed.
G Human femalesproduce eggs
regularly, roughly every 30 days, from
puberty to menopause. All of these
eggsdevelop from germ cells
( gametes) i n the two ovaries.
G Germ cellsi ni ti ally di vi de by mitosisto
produce oogonia, cellsthat develop
i nto primary oocytes( i mmature ova) .
At a woman sbi rth, there are
hundredsof thousandsof pri mary
oocytespresent i n the ovari an ti ssues.
Meiotic division
G The next stage i n the processi sthe
producti on of secondaryoocytesby
meiosis. These cellsare haploi d they
have half the chromosomesof thei r
parent cells. O ne of these haploi d cells
wi ll develop i nto the ovum; the other
three wi ll be enclosed wi thi n the
vi telli ne membrane surroundi ng thi s
cell.
G The ovum i sa large cell wi th a good
supply of cytoplasm that helpsto act
asa food store for the fi rst few cri ti cal
daysof development.
G The other nuclei become the polar
bodi es, redundant cellsthat remai n
much smaller than the ovum.
G The vi telli ne membrane can be
di gested by enzymesi n the acrosome
of the sperm to allow the sperm
nucleusto enter. O nce one sperm has
entered, the membrane i smodi fi ed to
prevent entry of other nuclei .
G Around the outsi de of the vi telli ne
membrane i sa clear area of muci lage
called the zona pelluci da.
gamete
germ cell
meiosis
mitosis
oogonium
ovary
ovum
primary oocyte
secondary oocyte
Key words
66

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CO NT I NUI T Y Oogenesis: ovarian cycle
fallopian tube
hormone
ovary
ovum
pituitary gland
uterus
Key words
67
The ovarian cycle
G The producti on of human eggsi s
controlled by hormones. These act on
ti ssuesi n the ovariesto swi tch on
processesthat, i n turn, produce
hormonesthat regulate the cycle.
G Hormonesproduced by the pituitary
gland i n the brai n cause the
development of pri mordi al folli cles
i nto pri mary folli cles. These go
through vari ousstagesunti l a mature
Graafi an folli cle i sformed.
G A Graafi an folli cle contai nsa mature
ovum, and i t movesto the edge of the
ovarywhere i t rupturesto release the
ovum and form a yellow body called
the corpusluteum. The egg passes
down the fallopian tubetoward the
uterus.
G The corpusluteum producesa
hormone called progesterone,
whi ch preventsdevelopment of
further ova.
G I f the egg i s
ferti li zed and the
woman becomes
pregnant, the
corpusluteum
lastsfor up to four
months. I f no pregnancy
occurs, i t degeneratesafter
about two weeks. Hormonesfrom the
pi tui tarycause the maturati on of
another folli cle, and the whole process
begi nsagai n.

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The ovarian cycle
Fo lli c u la r p h a se : d a ys 1 1 4 .
P ri m o rd i a l fo lli c le s d e ve lo p i n to p ri m a ry
a n d th e n se co n d a ry fo lli cle s; th e se se cre te
th e h o rm o n e e stro g e n . D e ve lo p m e n t
p ro ce e d s th ro u g h th e te rti a ry fo lli c le to
th e G ra a fi a n fo lli c le .
Ovulation
T h e G ra a fi a n fo lli c le ru p tu re s, re le a si n g
th e se co n d a ry o o c y te .
L u te a l p h a se : d a ys 1 4 2 8 .
T h e co rp u s lu te u m i s fo rm e d fro m th e
ru p tu re d fo lli cle. I t se cre te s th e h o rm o n e s
p ro g este ro n e a n d estro g e n , fin a lly sh rin kin g
to b e co m e a sca r.
se c ti o n th ro u g h
o va ry, fa llo p i a n
tu b e , a n d
p a rt o f u te ru s
fo lli c le ce lls
fo lli c le
ce lls
Human female
Maturation of Graafian follicle inside human ovary: schematic
p ri m a ry o o c y te
p ri m a ry
fo lli c le
se co n d a ry
fo lli c le
th e ca
te rti a ry
fo lli c le
a n tru m
p ri m o rd i a l
fo lli c le s
G ra a fi a n
fo lli c le
se co n d a ry
o o c y te
a n tru m flu i d -fi lle d sa c )
th e ca sh e a th )
ru p tu re d
G ra a fi a n
fo lli c le
a c ti ve co rp u s
I u te u m
re g re ssi n g
co rp u s
lu te u m
stro m a
se co n d a ry
o o c y te
g e rm i n a I
e p i th e li u m
Sexual intercourse CO NT I NUI T Y
Preparing for coitus
G Coi tus, or sexual i ntercourse,
occurswhen a man i nsertshi serect
peni si nto the vagi na of a woman.
The peni si skept erect by blood
that floodsi nto spongy ti ssue i n the
peni sat hi gh pressure.
G Assperm i sreleased, i t i smi xed
wi th secreti onsfrom the semi nal
vesi cles, prostate, and Cowper s
glands( see page 62) to produce
semen. Semen i sa mi xture of
sperm and a li qui d contai ni ng sugar
that gi vesthe sperm energy to
swi m.
G At the same ti me, the wallsof the
vagi na produce secreti onsthat help
to lubri cate the peni s.
Intercourse
G The man i nsertshi speni si nto the
woman svagi na. The head of the
peni sreachesnear the cervix,
whi ch i sthe base of the uterus
projecti ng sli ghtly i nto the vagi na.
G The male cli max ( the orgasm)
occurswhen semen contai ni ng
sperm i sforcefully ejected from the
peni si nto the vagi na. The female
cli max producesi ncreased
secreti onsfrom the vagi na aswell
ascontracti onsof the uterusand
vagi na.
Conception
G Concepti on occurswhen a
spermatozoon fuseswi th the egg.
Thi smust occur i n the fallopi an
tubes. Consequently, sperm must
swi m from the vagi na up through
the uterus.
cervix
semen
uterus
Key words
68
Human sexual intercourse
Male
fa llo p i a n tu b e
te sti s
Female
p e n i s v a s d e fe re n s
o v a ry
u te ru s
v a g i n a

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Site of fertilization
G Duri ng i ntercourse spermi sdeposi ted
i n the vagi na at the cervix, the
entrance to the uterus.
G Fertilization must occur hi gh up i n
the fallopi an tube so that the ovum
can di vi de by mitosisbefore i t attaches
i tself to the uterus.
G The sperm must swi m up through the
uterusto reach thi spoi nt. Chemi cal
gradi entsgui de the sperm towardsthe
egg. Thi smust occur wi thi n 72 hours
of ejaculati on, or the sperm wi ll be
non-vi able.
Egg formation
G The egg i sreleased when the Graafi an
folli cle, the flui ds-fi lled vesi cle wi thi n
the ovarycontai ni ng the ovum,
rupturesat the surface of the ovary.
The funnel of the fallopi an tube gui des
the egg i nto the tube where i t startsi ts
journey downward.
Fertilization
G The nucleusfrom one sperm
penetratesthe egg and fuseswi th the
egg nucleusto form the fi rst cell of the
zygote. Thi sthen di vi desrepeatedly by
mi tosi sto form a pai r of cellsand then
agai n to form a ball of ei ght cellsand
so on. By the ti me a 64-cell ball has
been formed, i t entersthe uterus.
G Thi sball of cellsthen hasto embed
i tself i n the endometri um, the wall of
the uterus. Further development can
then occur.
Human fertilization
Female human
Section through ovary, fallopian tube, and part of uterus
se c ti o n th ro u g h
o va ry, fa llo p i a n tu b e ,
a n d p a rt o f u te ru s
u
t
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s
fu n n e l o f
fa llo p i a n
tu b e
ru p tu re d
fo lli c le
o va ry
e i g h t-ce ll sta g e
6 4 -c e ll sta g e
e m b ryo d i g e sts
i ts wa y i n to
e n d o m e tri u m
e m b ryo e m b e d d e d
i n e n d o m e tri u m
d e ve lo p i n g
fo lli c le
d e ve lo p i n g
o va
o v u m
flu i d
fo lli c le ce lls
G ra a fi a n
fo lli c le
e n d o m e tri u m
m u sc le la ye r
o v u la ti o n
sp e rm
p e n e tra te s
o v u m
fe rti li za ti o n
fa llo p i a n tu b e
fi rst d i v i si o n b y m i to si s
cervix
fertilization
mitosis
sperm
zygote
Key words
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Contraception CO NT I NUI T Y
Types of contraception
G Contracepti on coversall of the
technologi esthat prevent a vi able
embryo from formi ng or survi vi ng.
G There are three mai n typesof
contracepti on: barri er methods,
steri li zati on, and the i ntrauteri ne
devi ce.
Barrier methods
G Barri er methodsprevent vi able sperm
from meeti ng a vi able egg.
G A condom i sa thi n membrane of latex
that fi tsover the erect peni s. The
sperm cannot passthrough thi s
barri er, and the peni sand condom are
removed from the vagi na after
ejaculati on.
G The di aphragm i sa rubber cap that fi ts
over the cervi x and preventssperm
enteri ng. The di aphragm must be
left i n place after i ntercourse for
some ti me.
Sterilization
G Steri li zati on preventsvi able
gametesfrom meeti ng by cutti ng the
tubescarryi ng them from the gonads
( testesor ovary) to the opposi te
gender. Male steri li zati on cutsthe vas
deferens. Female steri li zati on cutsthe
fallopian tubes. Steri li zati on i s
effecti vely permanent.
Intrauterine devices
(IUDs)
G I ntrauteri ne devi ces, someti mes
called coi ls, prevent ferti li zed eggs
from embeddi ng i n the
endometri um. O nce fi tted, I UDs
normally remai n i n place for months
or years.
contraception
embryo
fallopian tube
gamete
vas deferens
Key words
70
Diaphragm in place Intrauterine device
lo o p
stri n g s
va g i n a
u te ru s
ce rv i x
Diaphragm being
inserted into vagina
Female sterilization
va g i n a
re c tu m
u p p e r p a rt o f
fa llo p i a n tu b e
o va ry
u te ru s
va g i n a
re c tu m
lo we r p a rt
o f fa llo p i a n
tu b e
Condom slipped onto
erect penis
Male sterilization
te sti s
va s
d e fe re n s

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Types of twins
G There are two typesof twi ns: fraternal
or di zygoti c twi nsand i denti cal or
monozygoti c twi ns.
G O ther formsof multi ple bi rths
( tri plets, quadsetc.) fall i nto the same
two categori es.
Identical twins
G Someti mesa ferti li zed ovum spli tsby
mi tosi si nto two cells, each of whi ch
developsi nto a separate embryo.
G Si nce i denti cal twi nscome from the
same egg and sperm, they are
geneti cally i denti cal.
G I denti cal twi nsare much rarer than
fraternal twi nsand are alwaysthe same
gender. Ferti li ty treatmentsdo not
i ncrease the chancesof i denti cal twi ns.
Fraternal twins
G Someti mesmore than one egg i s
released from the ovariesat the same
ti me. I f all of these eggsare ferti li zed,
more than one embryo can be formed.
G Si nce fraternal twi ns( and other
multi ple bi rths) develop from separate
eggsand sperms, they have di fferent
genotypes( geneti c combi nati ons) and
are only assi mi lar asother brothersor
si stersof the same age from the same
parents.
G Fraternal twi nscan be di fferent
genders. Some modern ferti li ty
treatmentsi ncrease the rate of
multi ple egg producti on and so are
more li kely to produce multi ple bi rths.
Twins
embryo
genotype
ovary
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71
I d e n ti ca l twi n s sh a re th e sa m e
g e n e s, a re o f th e sa m e se x, a n d
a re o fte n d i ffi c u lt to d i sti n g u i sh i n
th e i r a p p e a ra n ce .
Fra te rn a l twi n s a re n o t n e ce ssa ri ly
o f th e sa m e se x, a n d a re n o m o re
a li ke i n th e i r a p p e a ra n ce o r th e i r
g e n e s th a n o rd i n a ry si b li n g s.
Monozygotic
(identical) twins
Dizygotic
(fraternal) twins
Ovary
Fertilization
o n e o v u m re le a se d two o va re le a se d
Fertilized egg
splits into two
by mitosis
Each cell
develops
into a new
individual
In the uterus
twi n s sh a re
a p la ce n ta
e a c h twi n
h a s i ts o wn
p la ce n ta
Twins i d e n ti ca l fra te rn a l

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Fetal development CO NT I NUI T Y
The first trimester
G The fi rst tri mester coversthe fi rst
three monthsafter concepti on. Most
of the key structuresare lai d down
duri ng thi speri od.
G Teratogeni c chemi cals( chemi calsthat
produce bi rth deformi ti es) are most
dangerousduri ng thi sti me.
G By the end of the fi rst tri mester the
fetuscan be recogni zed asmale or
female. I t hasa well-developed
placenta li nki ng i t to the mother. The
flui d-fi lled sac called the amnion has
formed and surroundsthe growi ng
fetuswi th a bag of watersto protect i t
from mechani cal damage. The fetus
wi ll be about 3 i nches( 80 mm) long
by the end of thi sstage.
The second trimester
G Development conti nuesduri ng the
second tri mester, and by 20 weeksthe
fetusi sable to produce di gesti ve
enzymesand move i tself. Motherswi ll
feel ki cksfrom the baby by thi sstage.
The third trimester
G Duri ng the thi rd tri mester the fetus
conti nuesto grow i n si ze. Most of the
key body partshave developed by thi s
stage, and babi esborn duri ng
thi sti me can normally
survi ve outsi de the
mother, although they wi ll
be small and wi ll need
speci al care.
G By the end of the thi rd
tri mester, the baby i sready to be born.
I t wi ll now wei gh approxi mately 7 or 8
pounds( 34 kg) . The placenta wi ll
wei gh almost asmuch.
amnion
fetus
placenta
Key words
72
Uterus at 6 weeks
fa llo p i a n
tu b e
Uterus at 10 weeks
Uterus at 20 weeks
Full-term fetus
fe tu s
p la ce n ta
u te ru s
ce rv i x
va g i n a
u m b i li ca l
co rd
a m n i o ti c flu i d
a m n i o n
Fetus at 6 weeks
0.5 inches (12 mm)
Fetus at 10 weeks
2.4 inches (60 mm)
Fetus at 20 weeks
9.8 inches (250 mm)

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Source of the placenta
G The placenta i san organ that
developsfrom cellsfrom the fetusand
the wall of the uterus. Despi te thi s,
the blood suppli esand cellsof fetus
and mother are kept separate,
although chemi calscan passeasi ly
acrossthe barri er.
Function of the placenta
G The placenta suppli esthe growi ng
fetuswi th oxygen and food, and
removeswaste productssuch as
carbon di oxi de.
G The placenta allowsthi sexchange but
also keepsthe fetusand mother
separate they are separate
i ndi vi duals. I f cellsleak acrossthe
barri er, they wi ll produce a rapi d and
potenti ally fatal i mmune response.
Structure of the placenta
G The placenta connectsthe fetusto the
mother by the umbilical cord, whi ch
contai nsan artery and a vei n.
G The amnion i sa structure created by
the placenta that coversthe fetusi n a
bag of amni oti c flui d. When thi s
bursts the watersbreak i t i sa si gn
that the bi rth i sclose.
G Blood from the mother fi llslarge
spacescalled lacunae, villi from the
fetuspenetrate. Thi sgi vesa verylarge
surface area acrosswhi ch exchange
takesplace whi le keepi ng the blood
from each i ndi vi dual separate.
Placenta
Fetus in the uterus
Detail of placenta
u te ri n e wa ll
fe tu s
e m b ryo n i c m e m b ra n e s
a m n i o ti c flu i d
u m b i li ca l co rd
p la ce n ta
d e ta i l o f
p la ce n ta
u
t
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i
n
e
w
a
l
l
p
l
a
c
e
n
t
a
m a te rn a l
a rte ry
m a te rn a l
ve i n
b lo o d
sp a ce
la c u n a )
p la ce n ta l
v i lli
u m b i li ca l a rte ry
u m b i li ca l co rd
u m b i li ca l ve i n
amnion
fetus
placenta
umbilical cord
uterus
villus
Key words
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Birth
7 Delivery of placenta
First stage of labor
1 Cervix starts to flatten 2 Cervix flattens completely
3 Cervix partially opens 4 Cervix fully opens; amnion breaks
Second stage of labor
5 Head rotates
6 Head is born, shoulders and
rest of body follow
Third stage of labor
va g i n a b a c k b o n e
u te ri n e wa ll
ce rv i x
a m n i o n
re c tu m
p u b i c
b o n e
CO NT I NUI T Y
Presentation of the fetus
G The head i sthe heavi est part of the
fetus, and toward the end of
pregnancy i t wi ll fall to rest agai nst the
i nsi de of the cervix. The droppi ng of
the head i nto thi sposi ti on i svi si ble as
the mother sshape changessli ghtly.
G Duri ng the late stagesof pregnancy,
the mother wi ll also start to feel
contracti ons. These are muscle
movementsi n the uteruswall asi t
preparesto expel the baby.
Labor
G The stage pri or to bi rth i scalled labor.
I t can last from asli ttle asan hour to a
few days. Labor extendi ng beyond 48
hoursi sa si gn of potenti al problems.
G Duri ng labor the watersbreak ( thi si s
the bursti ng of the amni oti c
membrane) , and the cervi x begi nsto
open or di late.
Birth
G When the baby i sready to be born,
the cervi x i sdi lated suffi ci ently to let
the head passthrough. The baby s
head wi ll rotate sli ghtly to fi t more
easi ly through the cervi x.
G After the head and shouldershave
passed through the cervi x, the rest of
the body normally followsqui ckly.
G The last stage i sthe deli very of the
placenta, whi ch typi cally follows
momentsafter the baby sbi rth.
cervix
fetus
uterus
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CO NT I NUI T Y
Types of variation
G The term vari ati on i sused to
descri be di fferencesbetween
membersof the same speci es.
G There are two typesof vari ati on:
conti nuousand di sconti nuous.
Continuous variation
G Hei ght and wei ght are examplesof
continuous variation. Thi stype of
vari ati on i sproduced by the acti on of
multi ple genes, and there are no clear
groupsor classesto put i ndi vi duals
i nto. I ndi vi dualsi n a populati on show
a complete spectrum of values
between two extremes.
G To i nvesti gate conti nuousvari ati on,
bi ologi stsassi gn classesto the data,
e.g., all valuesbetween 60 and 64
i nchesi n hei ght, valuesbetween 64
and 68 i nchesetc. The frequency of
i ndi vi dualswi thi n these arbi trary
classescan be plotted.
Discontinuous variation
G Eye and hai r color i n mammals, abi li ty
to roll the tongue or taste certai n
chemi calsi n humans, and flower color
i n peasare examplesof discontinuous
variation. Di sconti nuousvari ati on i s
produced by the acti on of si ngle or a
small number of genes.
G Di sconti nuousvari ati on can easi ly be
sorted i nto groupsor classesand can
be di splayed by hi stograms.
Variation
n
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s
increasing height
Height in human males as an example of continuous variation
Bar graph of continous variation in height
Discontinuous variation in peas
to n g u e
fe m a le
a n d
m a le
li p s
to n g u e
ro lli n g
fre e e a r
lo b e s a n d
a tta c h e d
e a r lo b e s
lo n g
a n d
sh o rt
ste m s
sm o o th
a n d
co n stri c te d
p o d s
ro u n d
a n d
wri n k le d
se e d s
Discontinuous variation in humans
continuous
variation
discontinuous
variation
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Monohybrid cross: peas
T T t
T t T t T t T t
t
TT
tt
T T t
T T T t t T t t
t
Tt Tt
Monohybrids
Parental
phenotype
Parental genotype
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype:
all long-stemmed
lo n g -ste m m e d
ta ll) p la n t
sh o rt-ste m m e d
d wa rf) p la n t
F
1
genotype
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
long-stemmed (tall)
F
2
genotype
lo n g -ste m m e d sh o rt-ste m m e d lo n g -ste m m e d lo n g -ste m m e d
F
1
genotype
CO NT I NUI T Y
Monohybrid crosses
G A monohybri d crossi sa crossbetween
two organi smsthat di ffer by only one
i nheri ted characteri sti c controlled by a
si ngle gene wi th two forms.
G The genotypei sthe combi nati on of
genesi n an organi sm. The phenotype
i sthe physi cal characteri sti csof an
organi sm produced by the expressi on
of i tsgenotype.
G I n certai n typesof pea, the hei ght of
the adult plant, one aspect of i ts
phenotype, i scontrolled by a si ngle
gene wi th two forms: tall and short.
G I f an organi sm hastwo formsof the
same gene at the same ti me, the
dominant form i sexpressed. The
recessiveform i spresent but not
vi si ble i n the adult form of the plant.
First generation (F
1
)
G Pure ( homozygous) breedi ng plantsof
the two forms( tall and short) are
crossed. The seedsproduced by thi s
crossare then collected and sown to
produce the fi rst generati on or F
1
.
G All of the plantsi n the F
1
generati on
are tall. Thi sshowsthat the tall gene i s
domi nant to the short gene.
Second generation (F
2
)
G I f the F
1
plantsare allowed to self-
polli nate and the seedsproduce
plants, the plantsproduced are the F
2
.
G The rati o of tall:short plantsi n the F
2
generati on i s3:1.
G The genotypesT T, Tt, tT all produce
tall plantsbecause a domi nant tall
gene i spresent. O nly the tt genotype
producesa short plant. Thi sexplai ns
why tall plantsare three ti mesmore
li kely than short plants.
dominant
genotype
homozygous
phenotype
recessive
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CO NT I NUI T Y
Dihybrid crosses
G Di hybri d crossesare crossesthat look
at the i nheri tance of two i ndependent
characteri sti cs, each of whi ch i s
controlled by a si ngle gene that exi sts
i n two forms.
G The coat of gui nea pi gsi scontrolled
by two genes: black/brown color and
long/short length.
First generation (F
1
)
G I n the fi rst generati on the phenotype
wasenti rely black short-hai red gui nea
pi gs. Thi sshowsthat black i s
dominant to brown and short i s
domi nant to long hai r.
Second generation (F
2
)
G When the F
1
generati on wasallowed
to crossbreed, the F
2
genotypeswere
i n the rati o 9:3:3:1 of black, short-
hai red:black, long-hai red:brown, short-
hai red:brown, long-hai red.
G The di stri buti on of genotypesshowed
that the geneswere i nheri ted
i ndependently, wi th the rulesfor
monohybri d crosses, whi ch look at
one characteri sti c, operati ng on each
gene pai r separately.
Dihybrid cross:
guinea pigs
Dihybrids
T h e F
1
g u i n e a p i g s h a ve two d i ffe re n t a lle le s fo r e a c h o f th e two c h a ra c te rs i .e . , co a t co lo r
a n d co a t le n g th ) sy m b o li ze d a s B b S s. T h e y a re sa i d to b e d i h y b ri d s.
BBSS
BS BS
bs bs
BbSs BbSs BbSs BbSs
bbss
BbSs BbSs
9 : 3 : 3 : 1
BS
Bs
bS
bs
BBSS BBSs BbSS BbSs
BBSs BBss BbBs Bbss
BbSS BbBs bbSS bbSs
BbSs Bbss bbSs bbss
BS Bs bS bs
Parental phenotypes
Parental genotype
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
F
1
genotype
F
1
phenotype: all black, short-haired
sp e rm
b la c k ,
sh o rt-h a i re d
b ro wn ,
lo n g -h a i re d
sp e rm o v u m o v u m
F
1
phenotypes
(black, short-haired)
F
1
genotypes
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
sp e rm o va
Punnett square showing
possible offspring in
the F
2
generation
F
2
phenotype
ratios
b la c k ,
sh o rt-h a i re d
b la c k ,
lo n g -h a i re d
b ro wn ,
sh o rt-h a i re d
b ro wn ,
lo n g -h a i re d
BS Bs bS bs BS Bs bS bs
allele
dominant
genotype
phenotype
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Codominance
G T h e F
1
p h e n o ty p e i s i n te rm e d i a te wi th re sp e c t to th e p a re n ta l p h e n o ty p e s.
G N e i th e r p a re n ta l a lle le R o r W) ca n e xe rt i ts d o m i n a n ce o ve r th e o th e r.
G S h o rth o rn s wi th two i d e n ti ca l a lle le s i .e . , R R o r WW) h a ve co a ts wi th so li d re d o r wh i te ,
re sp e c ti ve ly.
G T h e i r p ro g e n y th e F
1
i n d i v i d u a ls) h a ve d i ssi m i la r a lle le s i .e . , R W) , a n d h a ve a p h e n o ty p e
th a t i s i n te rm e d i a te wi th re sp e c t to th e p a re n ta l p h e n o ty p e s.
G T h e i r co a t h a s wh i te h a i rs i n te rm i n g le d wi th th e co lo re d h a i rs, g i v i n g a ro a n a p p e a ra n ce .
G M a ti n g b e twe e n F
1
i n d i v i d u a ls ca n b ri n g th e p a re n ta l a lle le s to g e th e r i n ce rta i n o ffsp ri n g ,
a n d so th e so li d co a t co lo r re a p p e a rs.
re d
ro a n
ro a n
wh i te
Codominance and coat color
Parental
phenotype:
red male,
white female
Parental genotype
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
sp e rm
F
1
phenotype: all roan
F
1
genotype
sp e rm o v u m o v u m
F
1
phenotype:
roan male,
roan female
F
1
genotype
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
sp e rm
F
2
phenotype:
1red: 2 roan: 1white
F
2
genotype
sp e rm o v u m o v u m
RR
R R
WW
W W
RW RW
RW RW
RW
R W
RW
R W
WW RW
RR RW
CO NT I NUI T Y
Dominance
G Genesexi st i n pai rs. Where both
members( alleles) of the pai rsare the
same, the i ndi vi dual i ssai d to be
homozygous. I f the two allelesare
di fferent, the i ndi vi dual i ssai d to be
heterozygous.
G I n heterozygousi ndi vi duals, one allele
i susually dominant and the other i s
recessi ve. Thi smeansthat when a
si ngle domi nant allele i spresent, the
phenotypeproduced wi ll be i denti cal
to that of an i ndi vi dual wi th two
domi nant alleles. I n effect, the
recessi ve allele i shi dden and can only
be detected by breedi ng wi th another
heterozygousorgani sm.
G I n codomi nance, the di fferi ng alleles
both have an effect on the phenotype.
Coat color in shorthorns
G Coat color i n shorthorn cattle i s
controlled by a si ngle pai r of genes
that show codomi nance.
G Cattle that breed true for red coats
have the genotypeRR. Cattle that
breed true for whi te coatshave the
genotype WW.
G I f an RR i ndi vi dual i scrossed wi th a
WW i ndi vi dual, the F
1
wi ll be RW. Both
genesare expressed, gi vi ng a roan
coat wi th red and whi te hai rsi n i t.
G Crossi ng the RWi ndi vi dualsproduces
an F
2
wi th the rati o
1 red:2 roan:1 whi te. The red and
whi te coatsare homozygous, whi le the
roansare heterozygous.
allele
dominant
genotype
heterozygous
homozygous
phenotype
Key words
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CO NT I NUI T Y
Karyotypes
G The karyotypei sa pi cture of the
physi cal form of the chromosomes
found i n normal body cellsi n a
speci es.
G Karyotypesusually show pai rsof
chromosomescorrespondi ng to the
diploid number for the speci es. The
di ploi d number i sthe number of
chromosomesi n a normal cell. Where
organi smshave more than two setsof
chromosomes( e.g., wheat plantshave
si x) , the karyotype i smore
compli cated.
Colchicine
G After a sample of metaphasecells
( usually blood cells) hasbeen
extracted from an organi sm, i t i s
poi soned wi th colchi ci ne. Colchi ci ne
i nterfereswi th cell di vi si on, causi ng i t
to stop at metaphase, when all of the
chromosomesare vi si ble.
G The poi soned cellsare broken open
and placed on a sli de often wi th a
dye to stai n the chromosomesto make
them easi er to see.
Sorting the karyotype
G A mi croscope wi th a camera
attachment i sused to photograph a
selecti on of cellsthat show the
chromosomes.
G The photograph i scut up so that the
chromosomesspread randomly wi thi n
a di vi di ng cell can be arranged i n pai rs
on a pi ece of paper. O nly one cell i s
used to create the karyotype, but
photographsof other cellscan provi de
useful extra i nformati on i f some of the
chromosomesare overlappi ng and
obscuri ng each other.
Karyotype preparation
chromosome
diploid
karyotype
metaphase
Key words
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Wa te r i s a d d e d
so th a t re d
b lo o d c e lls
swe ll a n d b u rst.
A b lo o d sa m p le
i s re m o ve d
fro m a d o n o r.
T h e sa m p le i s
su sp e n d e d i n
sa li n e ; re d b lo o d
ce lls se ttle o u t.
C o lch i ci n e i s a d d e d
to sto p ce ll d i vi si o n
a t m e ta p h a se .
T h e ce lls a re o b se rve d
u n d e r a m i c ro sco p e .
T h e ce lls a re
sp re a d o n to
a sli d e .
T h e c h ro m o so m e s a re
p h o to g ra p h e d .
I n d i v i d u a l
c h ro m o so m e s
a re c u t o u t.
C h ro m o so m e s a re a rra n g e d i n
d i m i n i sh i n g o rd e r o f si ze .
Karyotype preparation

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Human chromosomes
Human karyotype
Y X
X X
Female karyotype
S e x c h ro m o so m e s
2 1 3 4
1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 8 1 7 1 9 2 0
2 1 2 2
S e x c h ro m o so m e s
1 2 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6
5
Male karyotype
2 1 2 2
1 2 3 4
1 2 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6
1 9 2 0 1 8 1 7 1 6 1 3 1 4 1 5
5
CO NT I NUI T Y
Chromosomes
G Chromosomesare structuresmade of
DNA and protei n. They are normally
i nvi si ble i n the cell but shorten and
thi cken duri ng cell di vi si on to become
vi si ble assmall X-shaped bodi es.
G The li mbs of the X are called
chromatids. The poi nt where they
joi n, the center of the X, i scalled the
centromere.
Human karyotype
G A karyotypei sa pi cture of the
chromosomesasthey appear duri ng
cell di vi si on. Karyotypesare normally
arranged to show si mi lar
chromosomesi n groupsor seri es.
G The human karyotype shows22 pai rs
of chromosomesand one pai r that
consi stsof two chromosomesthat are
the same i n females( XX) but sli ghtly
di fferent i n males( XY) .
G The pai r of chromosomesthat are
di fferent i n malesand femalesare
called the sex chromosomesand deal
wi th the i nheri tance of gender i n
humans. All of the chromosomesthat
are not sex chromosomesare called
autosomes.
centromere
chromatid
chromosome
karyotype
Key words
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CO NT I NUI T Y
Sexual characteristics
G There are many characteri sti csthat
defi ne maleness. Some are
structuresthat are not present i n
females, e.g., peni s, testes. Some are
sli ght di fferencesi n structuresthat
exi st i n both genders, e.g., faci al hai r.
G Such a large package of characteri sti cs
cannot be controlled by a si ngle gene.
However, all of these characteri sti cs
are i nheri ted asa package that i mpli es
they are li nked together i n some way.
The sex chromosomes
G O ne pai r of chromosomesi sdi fferent
i n malesand females. These are the
sex chromosomesand contai n the
package of genesthat determi ne
whether an i ndi vi dual i smale or
female.
G Femaleshave two X chromosomes
whi le maleshave one X and a shorter
Y chromosome.
Sex inheritance
G A male wi ll produce gametesthat
contai n one chromosome from each
homologouspai r found i n normal
body cells. Thi smeansthat half of the
gameteswi ll have a si ngle X
chromosome and half wi ll have the
correspondi ng Y chromosome.
G Females, wi th two X chromosomes,
only produce gameteswi th X.
G I f a sperm carryi ng an X chromosome
joi nswi th an egg, i t produce XX a
female cell. A sperm contai ni ng a Y
chromosome would produce XY a
male.
Human sex inheritance
XY XX
X Y X X
XX XX XY XY
Parental
phenotype
Parental genotype
F
1
genotype
Gametes produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
sp e rm sp e rm o v u m o v u m
X a n d Y se x
c h ro m o so m e s
X se x
c h ro m o so m e s
m a le fe m a le
fe m a le fe m a le m a le m a le
Sex inheritance
chromosome
gamete
genotype
phenotype
Key words
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Human sex linkage:
hemophilia
H
XY
H
X
h
X
H
X Y
H
X
H
X
H
X
H
X
h
X
H
XY
h
XY
h
X
n o rm a l m a le ca rri e r fe m a le
Parental
phenotype
Parental genotype
F
1
genotype
Gametes produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
sp e rm sp e rm o v u m o v u m
m a le fe m a le
n o rm a l fe m a le ca rri e r fe m a le n o rm a l m a le h e m o p h i li a c m a le
fe m a le fe m a le m a le m a le
Sex linkage
CO NT I NUI T Y
The sex chromosomes
G Femaleshave two X chromosomes
whi le maleshave one X and a shorter
Y chromosome. Geneson these
chromosomesare descri bed assex-
li nked.
G Trai tssuch ascolorbli ndnessand
hemophi li a are sex li nked.
Hemophilia
G Hemophi li a i sa condi ti on i n whi ch
blood doesnot clot. Thi sleadsto
seri ousbleedi ng followi ng even small
cuts. Hemophi li a i scaused by a lack of
a blood chemi cal called factor VIII.
The gene that codesfor factor VI I I i s
on the X chromosome ( H
x
) .
The Y chromosome, whi ch i sshorter,
i smi ssi ng the correspondi ng part.
Carriers and sufferers
G A woman wi th a faulty gene on one X
chromosome (
h
X) wi ll produce factor
VI I I . She wi ll not suffer from the i llness
but could passi t on to her offspri ng
through the damaged gene on one X
chromosome.
G The shorter Y chromosome hasno
space for the factor VI I I gene. I f a male
hasthe defecti ve gene on hi ssi ngle X
chromosome, he suffersfrom the
di sease.
G Malesget an X chromosome from
thei r mother and a Y chromosome
from the father. A father cannot pass
on the faulty factor VI I I gene because
he doesnot passon an X
chromosome.
factor VIII
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CO NT I NUI T Y
The amniotic fluid
G The growi ng fetusi sprotected by flui d
produced by a membrane called the
amnion. Thi samni oti c flui d contai ns
fetal cellsfloati ng freely around i n i t.
Amniocentesis
G Around the 16th week of pregnancy, a
fi ne needle i si nserted i nto the
amni oti c sac and a small sample of
flui d contai ni ng some fetal cellsi s
wi thdrawn. The techni ci an carryi ng
out thi sprocedure usesultrasound
i magi ng to di rect the needle i f i t
were to scratch the fetus, i t could
cause potenti ally seri ouscompli cati ons
for both mother and chi ld. For thi s
reason, the benefi tsto be gai ned from
the procedure must be wei ghed
carefully agai nst the ri sks.
Analysis of fluid
G The amni oti c flui d sample i s
centri fuged to separate out the
floati ng cells. These are cultured and
can be tested for a vari ety of
abnormali ti es. O ne of the commonest
testsi sfor Down syndrome.
G I n Down syndrome the cellsof the
fetushave 47 chromosomesi nstead of
46. The extra chromosome i sfound
wi th the 21st chromosome. Asthe
baby develops, a number of problems
ari se. He or she wi ll grow slowly and
fai l to reach full adult development
ei ther physi cally or mentally.
Amniocentesis
amnion
Down syndrome
fetus
Key words
83
Amniocentesis
Sample of amniotic fluid, including cells
su p e rn a ta n t
so lu b le li q u i d )
p la c e n ta
Amniotic fluid
centrifuged
Cells grown in
nutrient solution
Chromosomal analysis
Cultured cells
Biochemical
analysis
D o wn sy n d ro m e k a ryo ty p e
u te ri n e wa ll
fe tu s
a m n i o ti c
flu i d
u m b i li ca l
co rd
a m n i o n
c e rv i x
v a g i n a
ce lls
c u ltu re d i sh
sy ri n g e

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Inheritance of blood
groups
Inheritance of blood groups
A A A A
O O A A
AB
O A B AB
AB AB AB
I
A
I
A
x i
O
i
O
Parental phenotype
F
1
genotype
Gametes produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
I
A
I
A
i
O
i
O
I
A
i
O
I
A
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I
A
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O
I
A
i
O
i
O
I
A
I
A
i
O
Parental genotype
I
A
i
O
x i
O
i
O
Parental phenotype
F
1
genotype
Gametes produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
I
A
i
O
i
O
i
O
I
A
i
O
I
A
i
O
I
O
i
O
I
O
i
O
i
O
i
O
I
A
i
O
Parental genotype
I
B
I
B
x i
A
i
A
Parental phenotype
F
1
genotype
Gametes produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
I
B
I
B
I
A
I
A
I
A
I
B
I
A
I
B
I
A
I
B
I
A
I
B
I
A
I
B
I
B
I
A
Parental genotype
I
B
i
O
x I
A
i
O
Parental phenotype
F
1
genotype
Gametes produced
by meiosis
F
1
phenotype
I
B
i
O
I
A
i
O
I
A
I
B
I
B
i
O
I
A
i
O
i
O
i
O
I
A
i
O
I
B
i
O
Parental genotype
CO NT I NUI T Y
Multiple alleles
G Allelesare di fferent formsof the same
gene. So the gene for the major ABO
blood groupsi n humansexi stsi n
three formsor alleles: A, B, and O.
G A and B are both dominant to O. I f
the A gene i spresent, the red blood
cellswi ll have a protei n on thei r outer
surface called protei n A. I n geneti c
di agramsthe domi nant allele i susually
shown wi th a capi tal letter and the
correspondi ng recessi ve factor i s
shown wi th a lowercase letter.
G I f the B gene i spresent, the protei ns
on the red blood cellswi ll be type B.
G I f the O gene i spresent, the blood
cellswi ll not contai n ei ther of these
protei ns.
Inheritance of blood
groups
G The blood groupsof the ABO system
are determi ned by three major alleles:
A, B, and O. Both A and B are
domi nant ( I
A
, I
B
) , whi le O i srecessi ve
( i
O
) .
G The ABO allelesfollow the standard
rulesfor a monohybri d cross a cross
i n whi ch only one pai r of trai tsi s
consi dered. I f a parent wi th AA ( blood
group A) i scrossed a parent wi th BB
( blood group B) , the offspri ng wi ll be
AB. Thi smeansthat they wi ll have
both protei n type A and type B on
thei r red blood cells. They wi ll belong
to blood group AB.
G I f a parent i sAO, he or she wi ll be
blood group A because A i sdomi nant
to O. I f thi sparent i scrossed wi th
someone wi th genotype BO, the
offspri ng wi ll di stri bute themselvesi n
the same rati o as: one AB: one AO :
one O B: one O O. Thi sgi vesthe
i ndi vi dual a 25 percent chance of
bei ng blood group AB, A, B, or O.
allele
dominant
gene
genotype
Key words
84

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Chromosome mutations
G Chromosomemutati onsi nvolve
complete packagesof genesrather
than i ndi vi dual genes. For thi sreason
thei r effectscan be very far-reachi ng.
Deletion
G I n deleti on, a porti on of a
chromosome i slost. Thi saffectsthe
codi ng of protei nsthat use the DNA
sequence aswell asother ami no aci ds
that are supposed to be coded from
the sequence.
Inversion
G I n i nversi on, a porti on of the
chromosome i sreversed. Thi saffects
the order of the basesi n the geneti c
code, usually maki ng i t i mpossi ble to
read successfully.
Translocation
G Translocati on i nvolvesa pi ece of DNA
wi thi n a chromosome bei ng moved to
a di fferent posi ti on or even a di fferent
chromosome. Thi seffecti vely shuffles
the genesavai lable to an organi sm
possi bly produci ng i mproved vari eti es.
Duplication
G I n dupli cati on, a porti on of DNA i n a
chromosome i scopi ed and re-i nserted
i nto the chromosome. Si nce there i s
no i ncrease i n the number of genes,
the effectsof dupli cati on tend to be
small.
Chromosome mutation:
types
Types of chromosome mutation
D
E
F
D
E
F
A
B
C
F
E
D
G
H
I
A
B
C
G
H
I
A
B
C
F
E
D
G
H
I
A
B
C
G
H
I
A
B
C
G
H
I
A
B
C
F
E
D
G
H
I
A
B
C
F
E
G
H
I
A
B
C
W
X
Y
X
A
B
C
A
B
C
F
E
D
F
E
D
F
E
D
W
X
Y
X
W
X
Y
X
D
A
B
C
F
E
G
H
I
D
F
G
H
I
Deletion
p o si ti o n
o f jo i n i n
c h ro m o so m e
Inversion
Translocation Duplication
m i d d le p i e ce
o f c h ro m o so m e
ro ta te s th e n
re jo i n s
m i d d le p i e ce o f
c h ro m o so m e lo st
n o rm a l c h ro m o so m e
n o rm a l c h ro m o so m e
p o si ti o n o f
jo i n i n
ch ro m o so m e
p o si ti o n o f
b re a k s i n
c h ro m o so m e
n o rm a l c h ro m o so m e
p o si ti o n o f
b re a k s i n
c h ro m o so m e
p o si ti o n o f jo i n s
i n c h ro m o so m e
n o rm a l c h ro m o so m e
p o si ti o n o f b re a k
i n c h ro m o so m e
p o si ti o n
o f jo i n i n
c h ro m o so m e
n o rm a l c h ro m o so m e
e xtra p i e ce
o f h o m o lo g o u s
c h ro m o so m e
a d d e d o n
chromosome
gene
Key words
85

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Chromosome mutation:
syndromes
CO NT I NUI T Y
Chromosome mutations
G Chromosomemutati onsi nvolve
complete packagesof genes
rather than i ndi vi dual genes. For
thi sreason thei r effectscan be
very far-reachi ng.
G Some mutationsi nvolve addi ng
or removi ng a complete
chromosome. These are usually
lethal, although the sex
chromosomes( XY) seem to be
able to suffer from these sortsof
mutati onsand sti ll produce
vi able, i f damaged, offspri ng.
Klinefelters syndrome
G I ndi vi dualsare male but possess
an extra X chromosome to be
XXY. Thei r sexual development i s
defecti ve, and they are often
steri le unable to produce
sperm. They may have enlarged
breastsand abnornmal body
proporti ons.
Triple X syndrome
G I ndi vi dualswi th tri ple X
syndrome possessan extra X
chromosome to gi ve them a
genotypeof XXX. The extra
chromosome i n thi si nstance
seemsto have very li ttle effect.
Turners syndrome
G The ovum that produced an
i ndi vi dual wi th Turner s
syndrome wasformed wi thout
an X chromosome. I f thi sovum
meetsa sperm contai ni ng an X
chromosome, a vi able female i s
formed, although she i salmost
alwaysi nferti le. I f the ovum
meetsa sperm wi th a Y
chromosome, a vi able embryo
cannot be formed.
86

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Chromosome mutation syndromes
o v u m
wi th two X
c h ro m o so m e s
o v u m
wi th n o se x
c h ro m o so m e s
sp e rm
wi th n o se x
c h ro m o so m e s
sp e rm wi th
Y c h ro m o so m e
sp e rm wi th
X c h ro m o so m e
sp e rm wi th
X c h ro m o so m e
Parental
phenotypes
Homologous
chromosomes fail
to separate
during meiosis
Normal
gametes
Tu rn e r s
sy n d ro m e
Tri p le X
sy n d ro m e
K li n e fe lte r s
sy n d ro m e
o v u m
Fertilization
Possible
genotypes
of offspring
sp e rm
wi th X a n d Y
c h ro m o so m e s
chromosome
genotype
mutation
Key words
CO NT I NUI T Y
Gene mutations
G Gene mutationsi nvolve changesi n
the base sequence ( the order of
nucleoti de bases) of the DNA of a
gene. Almost all of these changeswi ll
be harmful and lead to a malfuncti on
of the gene. Someti mesthey can
produce a new gene, whi ch produces
a characteri sti c that i sbetter sui ted to
the envi ronment.
G Gene mutati onsfall i nto three
categori es: substi tuti on, i nserti on, and
deleti on.
Substitution
G I n a substi tuti on mutati on a si ngle
base i schanged for another one. Si nce
the si ngle base only fi guresi n one
codon, the damage i sli mi ted to
changi ng one ami no aci d i n a
polypetide chain. Thi scould be
si gni fi cant i f the ami no aci d were i n a
cri ti cal place on the chai n or had a
veryspeci fi c functi on i n the molecule.
Insertion
G I nserti on i nvolvesaddi ng a base to a
sequence of DNA. The extra base wi ll
di srupt all of the subsequent codons
because they wi ll now be out of
sequence.
Deletion
G Deleti on removesa si ngle base. Thi s
also di sruptsall subsequent codons
because the gaps between the
codonsare now i n the wrong place.
Gene mutation: types
co d o n co d o n
co d o n co d o n
Types of genetic mutation
Normal DNA and
polypeptide
n o rm a l
D N A
Substitution
Insertion Deletion
n o rm a l
p o ly p e p ti d e
c h a i n
D N A wi th
b a se
su b sti tu te d
m u ta n t
p o ly p e p ti d e
c h a i n
D N A
wi th b a se
i n se rte d
D N A wi th
b a se
d e le te d
m u ta n t
p o ly p e p ti d e
c h a i n
m u ta n t
p o ly p e p ti d e
c h a i n
C G A A C C C G A C C A A C C C G A
ALA TRP ALA GLY TRP ALA
G
C C A C C G A C A G C A A C C C G A
GLY LEU GLY VAL GLY
codon
gene
mutation
polypeptide chain
Key words
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Gene mutation:
sickle-cell shape
CO NT I NUI T Y
Sickle-cell anemia
G Si ckle-cell anemi a i sa di sease of the
red blood cellscaused by an error i n
one tri plet of one of the polypeptide
chainsi n beta ( ) hemoglobi n.
G Sufferersfrom si ckle-cell anemi a have
red blood cellsthat are i rregular
shapes, often crescent moon or si ckle
shapes, whi ch cannot carry oxygen as
well asnormal blood cells. Thi sleads
to a general lack of energy i n the
sufferer. Thei r abnormal shape also
meansthat they tend to get stuck i n
small blood vessels, leadi ng to pai nful
clots.
Glutamine to valine
G The si ckle-cell mutati on i nvolvesa
si ngle tri plet substi tuti on from CTC
( Cytosi ne/Thymi ne/Cytosi ne) to CAC
( Cytosi ne/Adeni ne/Cytosi ne) . Thi s
change leadsto the ami no aci d vali ne
( VAL) bei ng added to the polypepti de
chai n i n place of glutami ne ( GLU) .
Thi schange leads, i n turn, to other
problemswi th the three-di mensi onal
shape of the hemoglobi n
formed, and therefore wi th i ts
functi onali ty.
G Si nce the gene mutati on i sa base
substi tuti on, only one of the codons,
and so one of the ami no aci ds, i s
affected. I n certai n areasof the world,
si ckle-cell anemi a offersa degree of
protecti on agai nst the malari a parasi te.
codon
polypeptide chain
Key words
88
Val His Leu Thr Pro Val Glu Lys Val His Leu Thr Pro Glu Glu Lys
n o rm a l
c h a i n wi th
g lu ta m i c
a c i d
DNA triplet coding for one amino acid in hemoglobin
Part of
hemoglobin
Red
blood
cells
tri p le t wi th b a se
su b sti tu ti o n
Mutant DNA Normal DNA
tri p le t wi th
b a se su b sti tu ti o n
n o rm a l
tri p le t
n o rm a l
tri p le t
a b n o rm a l c h a i n
wi th va li n e
si c k le ce lls n o rm a l ce lls
A C C T C C
Sickle-cell mutation

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Sickle-cell anemia and
trait
G Si ckle-cell condi ti on i scaused by a
defecti ve gene for the protei n beta
hemoglobin. The defect i sa si ngle
base, whi ch leadsto vali ne bei ng
substi tuted for glutami ne i n the
polypeptide chain.
G I f an i ndi vi dual hastwo si ckle genes
( Hb
S
Hb
S
) , they wi ll suffer form the full
condi ti on and exhi bi t symptoms.
G A heterozygousi ndi vi dual wi th only
one si ckle gene ( Hb
A
Hb
S
) wi ll show
si ckle-cell trai t. I n si ckle-cell trai t,
symptomsare not vi si ble, and the
blood can appear normal except i n
condi ti onsof low oxygen ( e.g.,
ai rplanes, some surgi cal procedures) ,
when compli cati onscan occur.
Inheritance of sickle-cell
gene
G The si ckle-cell gene i sa recessiveallele
i nheri ted followi ng all the normal
rulesfor monohybri d crosses. The
gene i snot sex-li nked and i sequally
common i n men and women.
G A homozygousnormal parent ( Hb
A
,
Hb
A
) crossed wi th a homozygous
si ckled parent ( Hb
S
Hb
S
) wi ll produce
offspri ng that are heterozygousand
wi ll have si ckle-cell trai t ( Hb
A
Hb
S
) .
G I n order to produce chi ldren wi th the
full si ckle-cell condi ti on, both of the
parentsmust possessat least one
si ckle-cell allele ( e.g., two parents
wi th si ckle-cell trai t) .
G Si ckle-cell genesare more common i n
Afri cansand thei r descendantsthan
other raci al groups.
Gene mutation:
sickle-cell anemia
Hb
A
Hb
S
Hb
A
Hb
A
Hb
S
Hb
S
Hb
A
Hb
S
Hb
A
Hb
A
Hb
A
Hb
S
Hb
A
Hb
S
Hb
S
Hb
S
m a le wi th
si c k le -ce ll tra i t
Parental phenotype
fe m a le wi th
si c k le -ce ll tra i t
Parental genotype
Gametes
produced
by meiosis
F
1
genotype
F
1
phenotype
sp e rm sp e rm o v u m o v u m
c h i ld wi th
n o rm a l h e m o g lo b i n
c h i ld wi th
si c k le -ce ll tra i t
c h i ld wi th
si c k le -ce ll tra i t
c h i ld wi th
si c k le -ce ll a n e m i a
Genetics of sickle-cell anemia
hemoglobin
heterozygous
homozygous
polypeptide chain
recessive
Key words
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Evidence for evolution:
primitive and advanced
CO NT I NUI T Y
Primitive and advanced
G Pri mi ti ve characteri sti csare
characteri sti csthat exi sted pri or to a
more advanced form that developed
from i t. Pri mi ti ve doesnot always
mean si mpler, assome formsof
development occur that i nvolve lossof
structuresand complexi ty. Pri mi ti ve
and advanced can only be used when
referri ng to parti cular pai rsof
characteri sti cs, and a characteri sti c
may be pri mi ti ve i n one relati onshi p
but advanced i n another.
Increase in size
G The development of the modern
horse i swell-documented through the
fossil record. A gradual i ncrease i n
body si ze i snoti ceable over mi lli onsof
yearsaspri mi ti ve formsgave ri se to
larger, more advanced species.
Decrease in complexity
G Asthe body si ze i ncreased from the
smallest Hyracotheriumof the Eocene
era ( roughly 50 mi lli on yearsbefore
present) to the largest Equus( the
modern horse) , there wasa parallel
fall i n complexi ty of forefoot bones.
G The enti re wei ght of the horse i snow
borne on the thi rd di gi t, wi th the
other di gi tsmuch reduced i n si ze and
i mportance.
fossil record
species
Key words
90
0 . 4 m )
0 . 6 m )
1 .0 m )
1 . 6 m )
1 .0 m )
1 . 3 fe e t
2 . 0 fe e t
3 . 3 fe e t
3 . 3 fe e t
5 . 3 fe e t
Evolution of the horse
Hyracotherium
(Eocene)
Mesohippus
(Oligocene)
Merychippus
(Miocene)
Equus
(Pleistocene
to recent)
Pliohippus
(Pliocene)
Forefoot of Hyracotherium
th i rd d i g i t
fo u rth d i g i t
fi fth d i g i t
se co n d d i g i t
th i rd m e ta ca rp a l
Forefoot of Mesohippus
th i rd m e ta ca rp a l
fo u rth d i g i t
th i rd d i g i t
se co n d d i g i t
fi fth d i g i t
Forefoot of Merychippus
th i rd d i g i t
th i rd m e ta ca rp a l
se co n d d i g i t
fo u rth d i g i t
fo u rth d i g i t
th i rd m e ta ca rp a l
th i rd d i g i t
se co n d d i g i t
Forefoot of Equus
Forefoot of Pliohippus
th i rd d i g i t
fo u rth d i g i t
se co n d d i g i t
th i rd m e ta ca rp a l

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CO NT I NUI T Y
Adaptive radiation
G Adapti ve radi ati on occurswhen a
si ngle pri mi ti ve form of a species
developsi nto a wi der range of
advanced forms, each of whi ch i s
adapted to parti cular envi ronmental
condi ti ons.
G O ne of the best-documented examples
of adapti ve radi ati on i sprovi ded by
Darwi n sfi nchesfrom the Galapagos
I slands.
Galapagos Islands
G The GalapagosI slandsare a remote
group of i slandsi n the Paci fi c O cean
600 mi lesdue west of Ecuador. Each
i sland hasi tsown mi crocli mate wi th
di fferent flora and fauna.
Darwins finches
G The bi ologi st CharlesDarwi n vi si ted
the GalapagosI slandsi n the ni neteenth
century. He noti ced that each i sland
had i tsown local type of fi nches. They
were adapted to eat the food avai lable
on thei r parti cular i sland. All of the
fi ncheswere sli ghtly di fferent from
each other and from the pri mi ti ve
fi nch found on the mai nland of South
Ameri ca.
G Darwi n suggested that certai n
i ndi vi dualson each i sland had a
survi val advantage i f they were better
at eati ng the locally avai lable food.
O ver many generati onsthese local
fi nchesi ncreased i n number, and
because they were i solated from the
fi ncheson the other i slands,
eventually became a separate speci es.
Evidence for evolution:
adaptive radiation
species
Key words
91
Galapagos finches Food sources
Adaptive radiation of Darwins finches
Typical
mainland
type
(ancestral)
la rg e g ro u n d fi n c h la rg e se e d s
ca c tu s g ro u n d fi n c h ca c tu s se e d s a n d n e c ta r
wa rb le r fi n c h fly i n g i n se c ts
i n se c ti vo ro u s tre e fi n c h la rg e i n se c ts
ve g e ta ri a n tre e fi n c h b u d s a n d fru i t
wo o d p e c ke r
to o l-u si n g ) fi n c h
i n se c t la rva e

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Evidence for evolution:
continental drift
CO NT I NUI T Y
Continental drift
G The landmasseson Earth ssurface are
constantly movi ng. They are carri ed by
i mmense forcesgenerated by
convecti on currentsi n the li qui d rock
i n the mantle of the planet.
G Sci enti stscan observe these
movementsusi ng satelli te i magesthat
show, for example, that the North
Ameri can and Eurasi an landmassesare
movi ng apart by approxi mately one
centi meter everyyear. Thi smovement
i scalled continental drift.
G By plotti ng these movements
backward, we can reconstruct the
landmassesasthey were mi lli onsof
yearsago. At one poi nt 250 mi lli on
yearsago, all the conti nentswere
combi ned i n a si ngle landmasscalled
Pangaea ( Greek for all land) . O ver
mi lli onsof years, thi sbroke up i nto
our present-day conti nents.
Fossil relatives
G The Mesosaurusi sa type of li zard that
i snow exti nct. I tsfossi lsare found
only i n South Ameri ca and South West
Afri ca.
G Thi ssurpri si ng fact i seasi ly explai ned
by conti nental dri ft. When Mesosaurus
wasali ve, South West Afri ca and South
Ameri ca must have been joi ned.
G Thi si sevi dence for a si ngle speci es
on a si ngle landmassrather than
two i denti cal speci eshavi ng to
evolve separately a far less
li kely scenari o.
continental drift
Key words
92

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Single landmass Pangaea
(250 million years ago)
P a n g a e a
Breakup of Pangaea into Laurasia and
Gondwana (180 million years ago)
Separation of the continents
(60 million years ago)
Present day
L a u ra si a
G o n d wa n a
E u ro p e
A si a
A fri ca
I n d i a
A u stra li a
N o rth A m e ri ca
S o u th A m e ri ca
A n ta rc ti ca
N o rth A m e ri ca
S o u th
A m e ri ca
A n ta rc ti ca
A si a
I n d i a
A u stra li a
A fri ca
Fo ssi l re p ti le M e so sa u ru s
fo u n d o n ly i n S o u th A m e ri ca
a n d S o u th We st A fri ca
E u ro p e
Continental drift
DI VERSI T Y
Prokaryotes
G Prokaryotesare the si mplest li vi ng
organi smsand i nclude all li vi ng thi ngs
wi thout a proper membrane-bound
nucleus. All prokaryotesare
mi croscopi c, and they i nclude
bacteria and viruses.
Eukaryotes
G Eukaryotesare organi smswi th
membrane-bound structurespresent
i n thei r cells. The most obvi ousof
these structuresi sthe nucleus.
G Eukaryotescan be si ngle or
multi cellular and are more complex
than prokaryotes.
Types of eukaryote
G Eukaryotescan be spli t i nto four mai n
groups: uni cellular organi sms, fungi ,
plants, and ani mals.
G Eukaryoti c uni cellular organi sms
i nclude the Proti sta and a range of
mi croscopi c algae.
G The fungi are plantli ke organi smsthat
do not possesschlorophyll and
depend on organi c matter from other
organi smsfor food. Many fungi are
i mportant i n decomposi ti on and decay
i n the envi ronment.
G Plantsare organi smsthat carry out
photosynthesis. They typi cally have
cellulose-ri ch cell walls.
G Ani malsdepend on plantsor other
ani malsfor food. They do not possess
cell wallsor chlorophyll. Almost all
ani malsare multi cellular.
Classification of living
organisms
Tree diagram of living organisms
M o n e ra
b a c te ri a )
u n i ce llu la r
o rg a n i sm s
m u lti ce llu la r
o rg a n i sm s
P ro ti sta Amoeba proteus, Spirogyra
fu n g i
a ll li v i n g o rg a n i sm s
p la n ta e
tre e)
a n i m a li a
ra b b i t)
P ro k a ryo te s E u k a ryo te s
bacterium
chlorophyll
photosynthesis
virus
Key words
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Kingdom Monera:
Bacteria
DI VERSI T Y
Classification
G Bacteria are prokaryotesand so are
uni cellular organi smsthat do not
possessmembrane-bound organelles.
All are mi croscopi c. Some carry out
photosynthesiswhi le othersrequi re an
external source of organi c matter and
are i nvolved i n decomposi ti on and
decay.
G Bacteri a are sorted i nto groups
dependi ng on thei r cell shape and
how these cellssti ck together.
Cellular structure
G Bacteri a contai n a si ngle large
molecule of DNA that floatsfreely
wi thi n the cytoplasmof the cell. O ther
smaller ci rclesof DNA called plasmids
also exi st and can passbetween
bacteri a to carry genesbetween types.
G The outer surface of the cell i s
someti mescovered by a sli me layer.
I nsi de thi si sa cell wall.
G Someti mespresent i sa flagellum
a long, whi pli ke structure that can
thrash about to propel the cell
forward. Smaller hai rscalled pi li
behave i n a si mi lar way.
G The plasma membranei sfound
i nsi de the cell wall. I t hasa number of
processescalled mesosomesthat
protrude i nto the center of the cell.
They are associ ated wi th the synthesi s
of DNA and the secreti on of protei ns.
G O ther structuresi nclude ribosomes
( si te of protei n synthesi s) , and food
reserves oi l globules( fat stores) and
starch grai ns( food stores) .
bacterium
cytoplasm
mesosome
organelle
photosynthesis
plasma
membrane
plasmid
ribosome
Key words
94
Generalized rod-shaped bacterium (1.5 m)
Some common bacteria
fla g e llu m
so m e ti m e s
p re se n t)
ce ll wa ll
g e n e ti c m a te ri a l D N A )
p la sm a m e m b ra n e
ri b o so m e s
sli m e la ye r
so m e ti m e s p re se n t)
p la sm i d
c y to p la sm p i li so m e ti m e s p re se n t)
m e so so m e
Cocci Staphylococci Streptococci
Diplococci Bacilli Spirillum
Vibrio

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DI VERSI T Y
Classification
G Proti stsare eukaryotesand so
possessmembrane-bound
organelles speci ali zed regi onsi n
the cell that carry out parti cular
functi ons.
G Proti stshave a fully developed
nucleus, but despi te thi s, all are
uni cellular, mi croscopi c organi sms.
G The genusAmoeba i san example of a
non-photosyntheti c proti st that eats
smaller mi croorgani sms.
Cellular structure
G Amebasare mi croscopi c, i n the si ze
range 0.00040.004 i nches( 10100
mi crons) , and are usually i nvi si ble to
the naked eye. A few of the largest
speci esare just vi si ble.
G An ameba hasa si ngle nucleusand a
si mple contractile vacuole, whi ch
pumpsflui d from wi thi n the cell to the
outsi de by alternately fi lli ng and then
contracti ng. I t functi onsi n mai ntai ni ng
osmoti c equi li bri um, regulati ng the
body ssalt and water balance
G An ameba i sbounded by a plasma
membrane, and i tsshape can change
ascytoplasm contai ned wi thi n the cell
flowsforward. The cell bulgesoutward
i n some placesto create a
pseudopodium.
G Amebasfeed by throwi ng pseudopodi a
around a prey organi sm and engulfi ng
i t i n a vacuole. Enzymesare then
secreted i nto thi svacuole to di gest the
food and allow i t to be absorbed i nto
the ameba. I ndi gesti ble remai nsare
ejected from the cell by exocytosis.
G The endoplasm, the cytoplasm near
the ameba snucleus, i shi ghly
granular, but the area i mmedi ately
below the cell membrane i sclear: thi s
i scalled the ectoplasm.
contractile
vacuole
exocytosis
nucleus
organelle
pseudopodium
Key words
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g ra n u la r e n d o p la sm
External view
External view (profile)
Internal structure
co n tra c ti le
va c u o le
n u c le u s
e c to p la sm
fo o d va c u o le co n ta i n i n g
i n g e ste d fo o d
p se u d o p o d i u m
Typical ameba
Kingdom Protista:
Amoeba
Kingdom Protista:
Paramecium
DI VERSI T Y
buccal cavity
cilium
nucleus
organelle
osmoregulation
vacuole
Key words
96
Classification
G Proti stsare eukaryotesand so possess
membrane-bound organelles,
i ncludi ng a fully-developed nucleus.
All proti stsare uni cellular mi croscopi c
organi sms.
G A Parameciumi sa water-dwelli ng,
non-photosyntheti c mi croorgani sm
that i ngestssmall algae and bacteri a
for food.
Cellular structure
G A Parameciumi scovered wi th small
hai r-li ke structurescalled cilia. These
beat i n coordi nated patternsto dri ve
the Parameciumthrough the water.
Tri chocystsare the structures
embedded i n the cell that produce the
ci li a.
G The oral groove, a deep groove i n the
surface of the Paramecium, leads
from the oral vesti bule to the buccal
cavity( the oral regi on) and cytosome
( mouth) , where food can be engulfed
to form a food vacuole. Enzymesare
released i nto thi svacuole to di gest the
food and allow i t to be absorbed i nto
the cell. Ci li a beat to create currents
that push food i nto thi sarea. After
di gesti on, the vacuolesfuse wi th
the cytoproct, whi ch empti esthe
cell swaste materi al to the
outsi de.
G The nucleusi n Paramecium
i scomplex, wi th two
components: the
macronucleus, whi ch
controlsmost of the
functi onsof the cell, and
the smaller mi cronucleus,
whi ch i sconcerned wi th
reproducti on.
G Osmoregulation, the
regulati on of the body s
salt and water balance,
dependson contracti le
vacuolesthat collect excess
water i n the cell and then burst
to expel i t.
Paramecium
External view
c i li a
Internal structure
tri c h o c ysts
p o ste ri o r e n d
a n te ri o r e n d
a n te ri o r co n tra c ti le va c u o le
fo o d va c u o le
p o ste ri o r
co n tra c ti le
va c u o le
la rg e n u c le u s
m a c ro n u c le u s)
o ra l g ro o ve
o ra l ve sti b u le
b u cca l ca v i ty
c y to sto m e
m o u th )
c y to p ro c t
sm a ll n u c le u s m i c ro n u c le u s)

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DI VERSI T Y
Classification
G The Spirogyra i sunusual i n that i t i sa
multi cellular proti st and can form large
matsof i ntertwi ned fi laments( top left
di agram) clearly vi si ble to the naked
eye.
Cellular structure
G The most noti ceable component i n
the Spirogyra cell i sthe large spi ralled
chloroplast that runsaround the
peri phery of the cell i mmedi ately
i nsi de the cell wall. The presence of
the chloroplast meansthat Spirogyra
can carry out photosynthesis.
G Pyrenoidsare small structures
embedded i n the chloroplast that are
concerned wi th the formati on of
starch.
G The cell wall of Spirogyra i smade up
of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate
that sti ffensthe cell wall. I nsi de thi s
are the plasma membrane and a thi n
layer of cytoplasmsurroundi ng a
central vacuoleenclosed by a
membrane called the tonoplast.
G The large nucleusi ssuspended i n the
center of the cell by strandsof
cytoplasm.
Multicellular protists
G Spirogyra cellsjoi n end to end to
create long fi lamentsthat are clearly
vi si ble wi th the naked eye. Growth of
the fi lament occurswhen a cell di vi des
i nto two. Any cell i n a fi lament i sable
to do thi s.
Kingdom Protista:
Spirogyra
cellulose
chloroplast
cytoplasm
photosynthesis
pyrenoid
vacuole
Key words
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Single cell
n u c le u s
to n o p la st
Transverse section
si n g le ce ll
Filament
Single cell: longitudinal section
p la sm a m e m b ra n e
c h lo ro p la st
to n o p la st
c y to p la sm i c stra n d
va c u o le
c y to p la sm i c li n i n g
ce ll wa ll
ce ll wa ll
c h lo ro p la st
c h lo ro p la st p y re n o i d
p y re n o i d
c y to p la sm i c li n i n g
c y to p la sm i c stra n d
c y to p la sm i c stra n d
n u c le u s
va c u o le n u c le u s
c y to p la sm i c li n i n g
c e ll wa ll
Spirogyra
Kingdom Fungi: Rhizopus DI VERSI T Y
enzyme
mycelium
organic matter
photosynthesis
spore
Key words
98
Rhizopus
Mycelium on stale bread
h y p h a
Mycelium (network of hyphae)
m yce li u m
n e two rk
o f h y p h a e)
sp o ra n g i u m
sp o ra n g i o p h o re
sta lk o f sp o ra n g i u m )
h y p h a e g ro wi n g i n fo o d
Classification
G Fungi cannot carry out photosynthesis.
Enzymessecreted by the fungusdi gest
organic matter externally before i t i s
absorbed i nto the cell. Many fungi
have complex reproducti ve structures
that are often the only part of the
organi sm vi si ble to the naked eye.
G Rhizopusi sa mold that growson
damp bread and other foods. I t i sseen
asa whi te network of fi ne hai rs, often
wi th verysmall black pi nheads.
Structure
G The mai n body of the fungusi sa
network of ti ny i nterconnected
threadscalled hyphae. Hyphae are
tubular structuresthat can branch and
fuse to produce a network called a
mycelium.
G Fungi do not have true cells: hyphae
are cut up i nto cell-li ke secti ons, but
the crosswallsdo not fully joi n i n the
mi ddle to separate these parts.
G The large surface area provi ded by the
myceli um allowsboth the rapi d
secreti on of enzymesto break down
food substratesand the absorpti on of
the productsi nto the body.
G Certai n hyphae are speci ali zed to
produce spore-contai ni ng bodi es
called sporangi a. The sporangi a
are often black i n color.
These burst when ri pe
to release si ngle-celled
sporesthat float
on the ai r unti l
they fi nd a
sui table
place
to grow. Here they produce another
myceli um.

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DI VERSI T Y
Plantae
G Membersof the Plantae all share a
number of features: they all possess
cellulosecell walls. The majori ty also
possesschlorophyll and have vessels
or tubesi nsi de thei r bodi esto carry
water.
G Most are multi cellular, and some are
very large.
G The Ki ngdom Plantae i sdi vi ded i nto
Bryophyta, whi ch lack anatomi cal
di fferenti ati on between leavesand
roots, and Tracheophyta, whi ch are
characteri zed by the presence of
vascular ti ssue and the di fferenti ati on
of partsi nto roots, stems, and leaves.
Tracheophyta, i n turn, are di vi ded i nto
Pteri odophyte, plantsthat reproduce
by spores, and Spermatophyta, plants
that produce seeds.
Bryophyta
G These are the mossesand are
pri mi ti ve plantsthat are small
( they never grow more than a few
centi metershi gh) and can only survi ve
i n damp areas. They reproduce by
spores.
Pteridophyta
G These are the fernsand are larger than
mossesbut are sti ll confi ned to fai rly
damp places. They reproduce by
spores.
Gymnospermae
G The gymnospermae i nclude
coni feroustreesand i nclude some
verylarge plants. They produce seeds
but do not have full-developed
flowers.
Angiospermae
G These are called the floweri ng plants
si nce they have both true flowersand
seedsand frui ts. They are the most
successful and advanced plantsand
can survi ve a huge range of
condi ti ons.
Kingdom Plantae:
classification
P la n ta e
B ryo p h y ta
Tra c h e o p h y ta
P te ri d o p h y ta
S p e rm a to p h y ta
G y m n o sp e rm a e A n g i o sp e rm a e
Tree diagram of Plantae
cellulose
chlorophyll
spore
Key words
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Kingdom Plantae:
Bryophyta
Liverwort
th a llu s
a n th e ri d i o p h o re
rh i zo i d s
re ce p ta c le
ca rry i n g
a n th e ri d i a
g e m m a c u p
th a llu s
sp o ro p h y te
a rc h e g o n i o p h o re
re ce p ta c le
ca rry i n g
a rc h e g o n i a
rh i zo i d s
g e m m a c u p
Male ( ) plant
Female ( ) plant
Moss
se ta
a n th e ri d i a
le a f
ste m
rh i zo i d s
sp o ro p h y te
le a ve s
su rro u n d i n g
a rc h e g o n i a
sp o ra n g i u m
c a p su le )
DI VERSI T Y
Bryophyta
G Membersof the bryophyta are small,
si mple green plantsthat carry out
photosynthesis. They are restri cted to
requi re water for reproducti on. They
i nclude the li verwortsand the mosses.
Liverworts
G Li verwortsconsi st of a flattened
branchi ng structure called a thallus,
whi ch hasno obvi ousdi vi si on i nto
leavesand stems. Root-li ke structures
called rhi zoi dsgrow out of the lower
surface to anchor the plant and to take
up nutri ents.
G The sexual partsof li verwortsare
contai ned i n i nconspi cuousstructures
known asantheri di a ( male) and
archegoni a ( female) . These develop
on separate plantsand are borne on
stalked antheri di ophoresand
archegoni ophores, respecti vely.
Ferti li zati on takesplace when
rai ndropssplash sperm to female
plants. The sperm swi m down the
canal i n the archegoni um to the
chamber contai ni ng the egg. The
resulti ng zygotebegi nsthe sporophyte
generati on. Spores subsequently
develop and are di spersed by ai r
currents. O nce they settle i n a moi st
envi ronment, they germi nate, and the
gametophyte generati on begi nsagai n.
Mosses
G Mosseshave clearly i denti fi ed stems
wi th leavesattached.
G Reproducti on i nvolvessporophyte and
gametophyte generati ons. The ti ny
sporophyte ( spore-produci ng moss
plant) i sattached to the top of the
mossgametophyte ( gamete plant) . I t
consi stsof a seta ( slender stalk) and a
termi nal capsule ( sporangi um) , whi ch
producesspores. Asthe sporophyte
dri esout, the capsule releasesi ts
spores, whi ch wi ll grow i nto a new
generati on of gametophytesupon
germi nati on.
gamete
gametophyte
photosynthesis
spore
sporophyte
zygote
Key words
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DI VERSI T Y
Pteridophyta
G Membersof the Pteri dophyta range
from small clubmossesto very large
tree ferns, whi ch can grow to 9 feet
( approx. 3 m) wi th frondsthat stretch
up to 6 feet ( approx. 2 m) i n length.
G All pteri dophytesare restri cted to
damp areas, although they are able to
survi ve dri er condi ti onsthan
li verwortsand mosses.
Adult form
G The typi cal form for a pteri dophyte i s
a central rhi zome ( a hori zontal
underground stem) wi th long fronds
growi ng out of i t. The frondssupport
flat leaves, whi ch grow out from a
central stalk. The leavesare bilaterally
symmetrical wi th a central stalk and
flat leafletscalled pi nna on ei ther si de.
Reproduction
G The vi si ble fern plant i sthe sporophyte
generati on. I t producessporesfrom
sporangi a borne on the undersi de of
the leaf. These sporangi a are called
sori and produce sporesthat resemble
a rusty brown powder.
G The sporesproduced by the sori wi ll
develop i nto the gametophyte
generati on, whi ch gi vesri se to
reproducti ve cells. Thi splant i svery
small and requi resverydamp
condi ti onsto survi ve. I f these
condi ti onsare avai lable, i t wi ll develop
and produce gametesthat wi ll fuse to
produce a zygote ( a ferti li zed ovum) , i f
gametesof the other gender are
avai lable. Thi szygote then growsto
produce an adult fern.
Kingdom Plantae:
Pteridophyta
Typical pteridophyte
p i n n u le
Sporophyte: external view
Pinna:
lower surface
ra c h i s
ste m )
so ru s
m i d ri b o f
p i n n a
fro n d
le a f)
ra c h i s
ste m )
b a se s o f p re v i o u s
y e a r s fro n d s
rh i zo m e
ro o ts a d ve n titio u s)
p i n n a
le a fle t)
p
i
n
n
a

l
e
a
f
l
e
t
)
bilateral
symmetry
gamete
gametophyte
spore
sporophyte
zygote
Key words
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Kingdom Plantae:
Gymnospermae
Typical gymnosperm
cones
co n e s
co n e b e fo re fe rti li za ti o n
co n e a fte r fe rti li za ti o n
co n e
p a i r o f le a ve s
n e e d le s)
Pine tree
cone before fertilization
cone after fertilization
o v u li fe ro u s sca le
co n e
Ovuliferous scale:
upper surface
m a tu re
se e d
wi n g o f
se e d
o v u li fe ro u s
sca le
o v u li fe ro u s sca le :
u p p e r su rfa ce
a p i c a l
b u d
DI VERSI T Y
Seed plants
G Gymnospermae are plantsthat
produce true seeds. These seedsare
di fferent from the sporesproduced by
mossesand fernsbecause they are
diploid they contai n pai rsof
chromosomes and develop di rectly
i nto adult plants.
G Gymnospermsare able to survi ve dri er
condi ti onsthan bryophytesand
pteri dophytesand are found i n many
harsh envi ronments.
G Gymnospermsare di vi ded i nto three
mai n groups: coni ferousplantsli ke
pi nes, fernli ke plantscalled cycads,
and a small and rare group of hi ghly
speci ali zed plantscalled gnetales.
Adult form
G Pi nesand cycadsboth show
secondarythickeningi n thei r stems,
whi ch meansthat they can form tall,
strong structures. The woody stems
gi ve ri se to branchesthat grow out
from the si desand, i n turn, produce
smaller branches.
G Growth occursat the api cal bud at the
apex or termi nal posi ti on on the
branch.
G The leavesof all gymnospermsare
waxy and resi st water losswell.
Reproduction
G Gymnospermsproduce enclosed
seedsheld i n cones. Male and female
conesare separate structures. The
female conestend to be woody and
are covered by ovuli ferousscales,
whi ch protect the developi ng seeds. I n
the mature cone, the scalescurl to
release the seeds.
G Conesthat do not separate open up
so that the seeds, whi ch are equi pped
wi th a wi ng to ai d di spersal by the
wi nd, are released.
diploid
secondary
thickening
seed
Key words
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DI VERSI T Y
Flowering plants
G Angi ospermae are plantsthat produce
true seedsand frui tsfrom flowers.
G Angi ospermsare the most successful
group of plants: they can survi ve a
much wi der range of envi ronments
than other groups.
G Almost all human food comesfrom
angi osperm speci es, wi th the grass
fami ly, i ncludi ng wheat, corn, ri ce, and
barley, contri buti ng the largest
proporti on.
Adult form
G Angi ospermsare a very wi de group
and range from tall woody treesto
small floati ng water plantswi th almost
no stem. However, they all have
flowersthat produce seeds.
G Angi ospermsgenerally have a central
stem beari ng si de brancheswi th leaves
that tend to be smaller than the large
frondsof ferns, and flatter and wi der
than the needlesof pi nes. Rootstend
to be well developed, and water-
conducti ng ti ssuesi n angi ospermsare
more advanced than i n any other plant
group.
Reproduction
G Reproducti on dependson flowers,
whi ch contai n the sex organsof the
angi osperm. The stamen, the male
porti on of the flower, producesand
storespollen, mi crosporescontai ni ng
male gametes. The stamen consi stsof
anthers( contai ni ng two pollen sacs)
posted on stalkscalled fi laments. The
pistil or carpel, the female
reproducti ve organ of the flower,
consi stsof: the stigma, the style, the
ovary, and the ovule.
G The male gamete tendsto leave the
flower when i t i sproduced, whi le the
female gametesare retai ned i n the
ovule for the whole of thei r li fe cycle.
Angi ospermsalso produce frui tsthat
ai d i n the di spersal of seeds.
Kingdom Plantae:
Angiospermae
anther
carpel
gamete
ovary
ovule
pistil
pollen
stamen
stigma
style
Key words
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sh o o t
ro o t
Vertical section through flower
sti g m a
sta m e n
fi la m e n t
p e ta l
se p a l
flo we r sta lk
sty le
o va ry
a n th e r
Typical angiosperm
o v u le
p i sti l
c a rp e l)
Plant body
te rm i n a l b u d
flo we r
le a f
ste m
a xi lla ry b u d
ta p ro o t
la te ra l ro o t
Kingdom Plantae:
Angiospermae: life cycle
a
f Fertilization
n u c le i
h
b
c
d e
f
g
o v u le
d Pollen grains released
e Pollination
tu b e
n u c le u s
p o la r
n u c le i
e g g
n u c le u s
p o lle n tu b e
o va ry wa ll
p o lle n g ra i n
m i c ro sp o re)
n u c le i
p o lle n g ra i n s
m i c ro sp o re s)
p o lle n g ra i n s
m i c ro sp o re s)
c Anther: transverse section
p o la r
n u c le i
e g g
n u c le u s
h Seedling sporophyte a Flower
gSeed with embryo
te sta
e n d o sp e rm
e m b ryo
b Anther
Angiosperm life cycle
DI VERSI T Y
Flowers
G The Angi ospermae are the only group
of plantswi th fully-developed flowers.
They also produce speci ali zed
structuresto support di spersal and
germi nati on of the seedsproduced.
The sporophyte generation
G Aswi th all plantsthere are sporophyte
and gametophytegenerati ons. I n
angi osperms, the sporophyte
generati on i sthe vi si ble plant and i t i s
diploid; i .e. When mature, the
sporophytegenerati on produces
haploid gametesby meiosis. The
gametesfuse duri ng ferti li zati on and
the di ploi d number i sthen restored.
G The male gametes( the pollen grai ns)
are produced by mei osi si n
anthers( b, c) . These are released at
maturi ty ( d) and passto the sti gma of
the ovule. The ovule contai nsthe
female gamete.
The gametophyte
generation
G Angi ospermsare uni que i n that they
undergo double ferti li zati on. Followi ng
polli nati on, the pollen grai n
germi nateson the sti gma of a flower
of the same speci es, and the pollen
tube growsdown through the style to
an ovule i n the ovary( e) . Two sperm
nuclei enter the embryo sac. O ne
fuseswi th the egg nucleus, leadi ng to
the formati on of a zygote, whi le the
other fuseswi th the two polar nuclei
i n the center to produce an
endosperm nucleus( f) . Mitosisthen
leadsto the formati on of the embryo
and cotyledons.
G Another pollen grai n nucleusfuses
wi th other nuclei i n the egg sac to
form a storage ti ssue called
endosperm ( g) .
G The seed i sdi ploi d and producesthe
larger sporophyte generati on ( h) .
diploid
gametophyte
haploid
meiosis
mitosis
sporophyte
zygote
Key words
104

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DI VERSI T Y
Backbone
G Ani malsare classi fi ed at the fi rst level
by the presence of a backbone: those
wi th backbonesare called vertebrates
those wi thout are invertebrates.
G Most of the lower ani malsare
i nvertebratesand i nclude a range of
soft-bodi ed ani malsrangi ng from
plantli ke Pori fera and wormsthrough
through spi ny-ski nned
Echi nodermata to Arthropoda.
The Arthropoda
G The arthropodsdo not possessbones
but do have a hard structure
surroundi ng thei r bodi escalled an
exoskeleton. The most successful
group of arthropodsare the i nsects,
whi ch have three pai rsof joi nted legs
and a segmented body di vi ded i nto
three parts: head, thorax, and
abdomen.
The vertebrates
G Almost all large ani malsare vertebrates
and have a well-developed backbone
and a complex nervoussystem.
Vertebratesare also called Chordata.
G The most pri mi ti ve chordatesare the
carti lagi nousfi sh ( the
Chondri chthyes) , whi ch do not
possesstrue bone but rely on tough
carti lage. The most well-known speci es
i n thi sgroup are the vari oustypesof
shark.
G Mammalsare the most successful
group and are warm-blooded, possess
fur, gi ve bi rth to li ve young, and feed
them on mi lk produced by the
mammaryglands.
Kingdom Animalia:
classification
abdomen
exoskeleton
invertebrate
thorax
vertebrate
Key words
105

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Tree diagram of Animalia
P o ri fe ra
C o e le n te ra ta
P la ty h e lm i n th e s
N e m a to d a
A n n e li d a
M o llu sca
E c h i n o d e rm a ta
A rth ro p o d a
I n se c ta
C ru sta ce a
C h i lo p o d a
a n d D i p lo p o d a
A ra c h n i d a
C h o n d ri c h th ye s
O ste i c h th ye s
A m p h i b i a
R e p ti li a
M a m m a li a
Ave s
C h o rd a ta
A n i m a li a
Kingdom Animalia:
Porifera
DI VERSI T Y
Invertebrates
G The Pori fera or spongesare a pri mi ti ve
group of i nvertebrates. I n many ways
they look li ke plantsi n that they
cannot move themselvesand spend
most of thei r life cycleattached to a
fi rm substrate. There i ssome
di fferenti ati on wi thi n the body,
although they do not show the range
of cell typespresent i n hi gher ani mals
Body structure
G The outer surfacesof Pori fera are
covered wi th thi n, flattened cellscalled
pi nacocytes. Porocytes( cellswi th
pores) located all over the body allow
water i nto the sponge. Because thei r
bodi esare hollow, thei r structure i s
supported by a soft network of fi bers
called spongi n and/or by hard parti cles
called spi cule, whi ch protect the
ani mal. Between the outer body and
the spongocoel ( the central cavi ty) i sa
gelati nouslayer called the mesohyal.
G Wi thi n the sponge, choanocytes, cells
fri nged wi th cilia, force water through
the spongocoel, bri ngi ng i n nutri ents
and removi ng waste. Ameobocytes
take food to other cells. Water leaves
the sponge through a large pore,
usually at the top of the body, called
the osculum. The mechani sm i svery
effi ci ent, wi th some sponges
processi ng 20,000 ti mesthei r own
volume of water i n 24 hours.
Reproduction
G Spongesreproduce sexually and
asexually. Male gametesare released
i nto the i nner space and passout
through the osculum. These
sperm are collected by other
sponges, and female gametesare
ferti li zed i nternally. Spongescan also
reproduce asexually through the
producti on of buds.
cilium
gamete
life cycle
osculum
substrate
Key words
106
Colony of ascon-type sponges: external view
Ascon-type sponge: partially sectioned
o sc u lu m
o sc u lu m
sp i c u le
c h o a n o c y te
p o ro c y te
m e so h ya l
a m e b o c y te
p i n a co c y te s
p i n a co c y te s
sp o n g o c o e l
Typical poriferan

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DI VERSI T Y
Invertebrates
G Cni dari a are i nvertebratesthat can be
di vi ded i nto two major groups: the
colonial polypsthat li ve thei r li ves
attached to a substrate, and the free-
floati ng medusa-li ke formsthat dri ft
around i n the oceans.
Body structure
G Coloni al polypsare enclosed i n a
transparent, chi ti nousexoskeleton
called the peri sarc. I nsi de i sli vi ng
ti ssue, collecti vely called the
coenosarc.
G Coloni al polypshave a body made up
of branched tubular structures
speci ali zed for feedi ng or
reproducti on.
G The feedi ng polyp, the hydranth, i s
enclosed i n a thi n chi ti nouscup called
the hydrotheca. The mouth i slocated
at the openi ng of the gastri c column
atop a low mount called the
hypostome. I t i ssurrounded by a ri ng
of tentaclesused to entangle and
i nject poi son i nto small prey. Food i s
pushed i nto the gastrovascular cavi ty,
where i t i sparti ally di gested and
di stri buted to all partsof the body.
G The reproducti ve polyp consi stsof an
elongated cyli nder called a gonotheca
enclosi ng a blastostyle, a column that
bearssmall medusa budsproduced
asexually. These eventually develop
i nto medusae, whi ch when mature
break free and swi m out the aperture
of the gonotheca i nto the sea.
G Obelia Medusa, shown bottom left,
begi nsli fe asa polyp. The polyps,
i n turn produce medusae, or
jellyfi sh, whi ch reproduce
sexually and, i n turn,
produce polyps.
Kingdom Animalia:
Cnidaria
colonial polyps
epidermis
exoskeleton
gastrodermis
mesoglea
substrate
tentacle
Key words
107

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Colonial polyps
Obelia colony as seen
with naked eye
Medusa:
subumbrellar
view
fe e d i n g p o ly p :
lo n g i tu d i n a l
se c ti o n
re p ro d u c ti ve p o ly p :
e xte rn a l v i e w
re p ro d u c ti v e p o ly p :
lo n g i tu d i n a l se c ti o n
fe e d i n g p o ly p :
e xte rn a l v i e w
g o n a d o va ry)
te n ta c le
m o u th
h y p o sto m e
te n ta c le
g o n o th e ca
m e d u sa b u d
h yd ro th e ca
c u p -sh a p e d )
g a stro va sc u la r
ca v i ty
p e ri sa rc
co e n o sa rc
ra d i a l ca n a l
g a stro va sc u la r ca v i ty
m o u th

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Kingdom Animalia:
Platyhelminthes
DI VERSI T Y
Invertebrates
G The Platyhelmi nthesor flatwormsare
a group of i nvertebrate wormsthat
i nclude two si gni fi cant parasites of
humans: li ver flukesand tapeworms.
They show extensi ve di fferenti ati on of
cell typesand have relati vely complex
bodi eswi th a well-developed nervous
system, i ncludi ng sense organsthat
respond to certai n chemi calsand li ght.
Body structure
G The flatwormsor turbellari anshave
flattened bodi esthat allow di ffusi on of
oxygen i nto everycell i n the body.
Carbon di oxi de di ffuseseasi ly the
other way. Consequently, they do not
have a functi onal ci rculatorysystem.
G The gut i n flatwormsi soften hi ghly
di vi ded and reachesi nto the majori ty
of the body. Agai n, thi si srequi red
si nce they have no ci rculatorysystem
to di stri bute food materi alseasi ly. The
mouth of the gut also functi onsasthe
anus, and waste materi alsare passed
out of i t even asfresh foodsare bei ng
drawn i n.
G Flatwormsare hermaphroditethey
have both male and female sex
organsand the parasi ti c formsli ke
tapewormsand li ver flukeshave hi ghly
speci ali zed li fe cycles, someti mes
i nvolvi ng two hostsand the
producti on of thousandsof eggsfrom
a si ngle worm.
gut
hermaphrodite
parasite
Key words
108
Excretory system
fla m e ce ll e xc re to ry p o re e xc re to ry ca n a l
Reproductive system
g e n i ta l p o re
g e n i ta l c h a m b e r
p e n i s
co p u la to ry sa c
o va ry o v i d u c t te sti s
yo lk sa c
va s d e fe re n s
Digestive system
Nervous system
Typical turbellarian
g u t ce c u m
a n te ri o r g u t b ra n c h
p h a ry n x
p o ste ri o r g u t b ra n c h
m o u th
ce re b ra l g a n g li o n ve n tra l n e rve co rd
h e a d
a n te ri o r
e n d
la te ra l lo b e
p o ste ri o r e n d
e ye sp o t
Dorsal view
DI VERSI T Y
The intestinal tapeworm
G The tapeworm i sa parasitethat li ves
i nsi de the human gut. I t entersthe gut
when meat contai ni ng i tslarvae i s
eaten. An i ngested larva attachesi tself
to the gut wall by a sucker and hooks
on i tshead. The body, whi ch can reach
up to 20 feet ( 6 m) i n length, then
danglesdown i nto the gut space,
absorbi ng food materi alsand releasi ng
wastes.
G Most of the body of the tapeworm i s
devoted to reproducti on asalmost all
of the other essenti al physi ologi cal
processesare carri ed out by i tshost.
Tapewormsare hermaphrodite.
Life in the primary host
G Humansare the pri maryhostsfor
tapeworms. The worm consi stsof a
long seri esof segmentscalled
proglotti ds, whi ch grow from the head
( a) . The segmentsare both male and
female, and ferti li zati on i si nternal. As
the proglotti d ages, i t fi llswi th
ferti li zed eggsand i seventually shed
from the end of the worm. I t passes
out of the body i n the feces( b) and
can get i nto a secondary host i f i t eats
thi scontami nated feces( c) .
Life in the secondary host
G I n the secondaryhost ( pi gs, cows, and
fi sh act assecondary hostsfor di fferent
typesof tapeworm) , the tapeworm
eggshatch i nto larvae, whi ch burrow
i nto the host smusclesand form
cysts( de) .
G I f meat from an i nfected ani mal i snot
cooked properly before i t i seaten, the
cystscan reach the i ntesti ne and
develop i nto a new tapeworm ( f) .
Kingdom Animalia:
Platyhelminthes:
tapeworm
Tapeworm life cycle
a
b
c
d
e
f
a Adult tapeworm
in human intestine
b Mature proglottid
in feces containing
onchospheres
(embryos)
c Onchosphere eaten by pig
ca p su le
e m b ryo p h o re
e n v e lo p e )
h e xa ca n th
si x-h o o k e d ) la rva
d H e xa ca n th la rva
re le a se d i n p i g i n te sti n e
e Hexacanth larva migrates to muscle
to form inverted cysticercus
I Primary host
(human)
II Secondary host (pig)
h o o k s
su c ke r
f Cysticercus everts
when raw pork
is eaten and
develops into
tapeworm
d c e
b
f
a
p ro g lo tti d
feces
gut
hermaphrodite
host
parasite
Key words
109

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Kingdom Animalia:
Platyhelminthes:
liver fluke
DI VERSI T Y
Liver flukes
G Li ver flukesi nfect a number of speci es
i ncludi ng sheep, cattle, and humans.
They have a compli cated life cycle
i nvolvi ng two hostsand can damage
both hoststo some extent. They do
not, i n fact, li ve i n the li ver of the
pri mary host but i n the bi le ducts.
Flukes in sheep
G A fluke entersthe pri mary host when
food contai ni ng a li ver fluke larva
( metacercari a) i seaten ( i ) . The
metacercari a developsi n the gut to
form a small worm that burrows
through the i ntesti ne wall i nto the
abdomi nal cavi ty. Here i t mi gratesto
the li ver and burrowsthrough i t to
reach the bi le duct ( a) . I t i sthi s
burrowi ng through the li ver that
damagesthe host.
G The adult flukesli ve i n the bi le duct
leadi ng from the li ver to the gut. They
produce eggshere and these passi nto
the gut and are expelled i n feces ( b) .
Disaccharides
G The eggshatch i n water ( c) to form a
ci li ated mi raci di um. Thi slarval form
can i nfect the secondaryhost, a
speci esof water snai l ( d) .
G I nsi de the snai l, the mi raci di um
becomesa sporocyst, whi ch changes
i nto a redi a ( e) . The redi a then
producesa very small tadpole shaped
cercari a, whi ch leavesthe snai l and
goesonto grass( fh) . There i t formsa
shell ( i sencysted) ( i ) and wai tsto be
eaten ( j) . The stomach aci dsi n the
ani mal eati ng the contami nated food
di ssolve the cyst, and the li ver fluke
movesto the bi le ductsand restarts
the cycle.
cyst
feces
gut
host
life cycle
Key words
110
a
b
c
d
e
i
h
g
f
j
li ve r flu ke
f Redia with
developing cercaria
a Adult liver fluke in
sheep bile duct
li ve r
j Metacercaria encysted on
grass, eaten by sheep
i Metacercaria
h Free cercaria
g Cercaria escaping
from snail
d Ciliated miracidium
burrows into snail host
c Egg hatches in water
releasing miracidium
ca p su le
o f e g g
ca p su le
o f e g g
d e ve lo p i n g
m i ra c i d i u m
b Fertilized egg in feces
containing developing
miracidium
e Sporocyst with
developing redia
re d i a re d i a ce rca ri a
Liver fluke life cycle

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DI VERSI T Y
Distribution
G Nematodesare the most numerous
multi cellular organi smson Earth, wi th
over 20,000 di fferent speci esknown. A
handful of soi l wi ll typi cally contai n
many thousandsof the worms.
Nematode structure
G Nematode bodi estypi cally have 1,000
cells, wi th a large proporti on of these
i n the reproducti ve system.
G A gut reachesfrom the mouth at the
anteri or end to the anusat the
posteri or end. The mouth often has
adaptati onsto ai d the nematode i n i ts
di et. Some speci eshave a sharp
tubular structure that can penetrate
cellsand suck out the contents.
Nematodesthat feed on li vi ng prey
have teeth-li ke structures. Nematodes
that feed on bacteri a can suck flui ds
i nto the buccal cavity, a tri angular or
cyli ndri cal tube where di gesti on
begi ns.
Reproduction
G Nematodesreproduce sexually and
have male and female formsaswell as
hermaphroditeones. Where the
speci esi shermaphrodi te, the worm i s
male fi rst and then developsfemale
organs.
G Male nematodeshave copulary
spi culesused to hold the female
duri ng reproducti on. The male
nematode usually hasa si ngle testi s
that producesameboi d spermatozoa,
whi ch are released i nto the female
vulva to gi ve i nternal ferti li zati on. The
female form i susually larger than the
male and hasone or two ovari es. Eggs
are lai d that hatch to form new worms.
Kingdom Animalia:
Nematoda
a n te ri o r e n d
Posterior end of
Lateral view
Posterior end of
Lateral view
g e n i ta l
a p e rtu re
d o rsa l I i p
d o rsa l I i n e
ve n tra l li p s
ve n tra l li n e
e xc re to ry
p o re
d o rsa l I i n e
d o rsa l I i p
la te ra l li n e
ve n tra l li p s
ve n tra l li n e
v u lv a
co p u la to ry sp i c u le s
p o ste ri o r e n d
p o ste ri o r
e n d
Lips
Anterior view
Anterior end of worm
Ventral view
a n te ri o r
e n d
Ascaris
lumbricoides
External view
Anterior end
of worm
Dorsal view
Ascaris
lumbricoides
External view
b u c c a l
c a v i ty
Typical nematode
buccal cavity
gut
hermaphrodite
Key words
111

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Kingdom Animalia:
Nematoda: life cycle
DI VERSI T Y
Ascaris lumbricoides
G Ascaris lumbricoidesor roundworms
i nfect humansand pi gs. The speci es
can passbetween humansand pi gsi n
a manner si mi lar to that of tapeworms
but wi th the added compli cati on that
i n humansthe worm also passes
through the lungs.
Reproduction and life cycle
G Adult femalesi n the intestineproduce
eggsthat passout i n the feces.
A typi cal female can produce up to
200,000 eggsevery day.
G The eggscan be i ngested wi th
contami nated food or water and form
the fi rst stage larvae. These burrow
through the i ntesti nal wall i nto the
bloodstream and passthrough
the li ver to the lungs. I n
the blood vesselsof the
lungs, they develop
i nto the next stage and
move i nto the alveoli.
G The larvae i n the lungs
are coughed up and
passdown i nto the
stomach and then to
the small i ntesti ne. I t
i si n the small
i ntesti ne that they
complete development to
become sexually mature
adults.
alveolus
feces
intestine
larva
Key words
112
Roundworm life cycle
Ascaris Iumbricoides adults in human intestine
h u m a n g u t
A n i n fe c ti ve la rva d e ve lo p s wi th i n a n e g g .
T h e e g g p a sse s o u t i n th e fe ce s.
la rva
e g g
ca p su le
h u m a n
lu n g s
h u m a n li ve r
Ascaris Iumbricoides
a d u lts li v e i n th e
h u m a n i n te sti n e .
T h e la rva p a sse s
th ro u g h th e g u t
wa ll i n to th e
b lo o d stre a m .
H a v i n g p a sse d th ro u g h
th e li ve r a n d lu n g s, a
la rva i s co u g h e d u p
a n d swa llo we d .
A n e g g i s e a te n
b y a h u m a n ; th e
la rva h a tc h e s i n
th e i n te sti n e .

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DI VERSI T Y
Earthworms
G The 2,700 earthworm speci esare
membersof the anneli da.
Body structure
G Earthwormshave a segmented
body, wi th each segment beari ng
the same fundamental structures.
G Vi si ble external structures
i nclude the setae, ti ny bri stles
that allow the worm to gri p
surfacesto help wi th
movement.
G Earthwormshave no eyes,
but they do have li ght-
sensi ti ve cellson thei r
outer ski n that help them
detect li ght levels.
G Earthwormseat by pulli ng
food i nto thei r mouth usi ng
thei r prostomi um.
Reproduction
G Earthwormsare hermaphrodite
but cannot ferti li ze thei r own
eggs. Sperm travelsfrom the
openi ng of the vasdeferens
along the semi nal groove to the
cli tellum.
G When two earthwormscopulate,
they li e si de by si de and head to tai l
so that the cli tellum segmentsi n each
are opposi te the segmentscontai ni ng
the sexual organsof the other. Each
exchange sperm, whi ch i sstored i n
i nternal sacscalled spermathecae.
The cli tellum then secretesa sli me
tube, the cocoon, around each
ani mal.
G The earthworm then wi gglesout of
the tube headfi rst. Whi le the tube
passesfrom the cli tellum to the
prostomi um, i t passesover the
ovi duct, whi ch deposi tseggsi nto the
cocoon, and then the spermathecal
openi ng, whi ch release the stored
sperm.
G O nce the worm i sout of the cocoon,
i t sealsto form an i ncubator.
Kingdom Animalia:
Annelida
hermaphrodite
segment
Key words
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Earthworm
Lateral view
se g m e n ts
p ro sto m i u m
m o u th
se ta e
d o rsa l su rfa ce
ve n tra l su rfa ce
c li te llu m
a n u s
se m i n a l g ro o ve
va s d e fe re n s o p e n i n g
o v i d u c t o p e n i n g
sp e rm a th e ca l
o p e n i n g s
Kingdom Animalia:
Mollusca
DI VERSI T Y
Mollusks
G There are over 150,000 speci esof
mollusks, and all have a muscular foot
for locomoti on and a mantle that
coversthe top of the ani mal. Many
mollusksalso have a hard shell made
of calci um carbonate. The space
between the mantle and thi sshell
often housesgills, whi ch can extract
oxygen from water.
Clam body structure
G Clamsare a good example of mollusks
wi th two hard shells, called valves, that
protect the soft body. The largest
clamsare the gi ant clams, whi ch can
reach si zesof four feet ( 1.22 m)
across. Most clamsare only a few
i ncheslong.
G Strong muscles, called the adductor
muscles, open and close the clam.
When i t i sopen, the foot protrudes
from between the valvesand allows
the clam to parti ally buryi tself i n the
sand on the seabed or ri verbed.
G Clamsare fi lter feedersand take i n
water through two holescalled
si phons. Food parti clescan then be
extracted and di gested i n the clam s
gut. The gut i scomplete, runni ng from
mouth to anus. Flow i sone-way.
G Clamsreproduce sexually and are not
hermaphrodite.
G Clamshave a developed ci rculatory
system to passoxygen and food
around thei r bodi es.
gill
gut
hermaphrodite
Key words
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Clam
External view of left side
m
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a
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a n te ri o r
p
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Inside right valve
Internal structure (left side removed)
u m b o
h i n g e
g ro wth li n e s e xh a la n t si p h o n
i n h a la n t si p h o n
p o ste ri o r re tra c to r
p o ste ri o r a d d u c to r
a n te ri o r a d d u c to r
a n te ri o r re tra c to r
a n te ri o r p ro tra c to r
p a lli a l li n e
fo o t
ve n tri c le
re n o -p e ri ca rd i a l o p e n i n g
a u ri c le
p o ste ri o r a o rta
e xh a la n t si p h o n
i n h a la n t si p h o n
v i sce ra l
g a n g li o n
su p ra b ra n c h i a l
c h a m b e r
ri g h t g i ll
m a n tle
sh e ll
re c tu m
a n te ri o r a o rta g e n i ta l o p e n i n g
sto m a c h li ve r
a n te ri o r
a d d u c to r
m o u th
p a lp s fo o t
p e d a l g a n g li o n g o n a d
i n te sti n e
k i d n e y
p e ri ca rd i u m

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DI VERSI T Y
Snail body structure
G Snai lsbelong to the classGastropoda,
whi ch i sthe largest group i n the
Mollusca, wi th up to 75,000 speci es.
G Snai lshave a si ngle coi led shell wi th a
space between the i nsi de of the shell
and the mantle that allowsfor gaseous
exchange. Snai lsdo not have gills, so
the mantle actsasa si mple lung.
G Snai lshave developed eyesand
tentaclesand are much more acti ve
than some of the other mollusks.
Thei r head i swell-developed and hasa
brai n capable of handli ng a si gni fi cant
level of sensoryi nput.
G Snai lshave an organ called a radula.
Thi si san area of the body that i s
toughened and equi pped wi th
teethli ke projecti onsmade of a tough,
fi brousmateri al called chi ti n. Snai ls
use thei r radula to di slodge food from
substrates. The radula can break up
food, maki ng i t easi er for the snai l to
swallow and di gest i t.
G Snai lsreproduce sexually, lay eggs, and
are not hermaphrodite.
Kingdom Animalia:
Mollusca: Gastropoda
gaseous
exchange
gill
hermaphrodite
tentacle
substrate
Key words
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Snail
Lateral view
Internal structure
o vo te sti s
d i g e sti ve g la n d
li ve r
se m i n a l re ce p ta c le
va s d e fe re n s
o v i d u c t
sto m a c h
k i d n e y
h e a rt
fo o t
sa li va ry g la n d s
a n u s
c ro p
e xc re to ry p o re
g a n g li a ra d u la m o u th
e ye
g o n o p o re
g a n g li a
m u co u s g la n d
lu n g
a lb u m e n g la n d
i n te sti n e
sh e ll
te n ta c le s
re p ro d u c ti ve o p e n i n g
e ye
re sp i ra to ry p o re a n u s sh e ll
fo o t
Kingdom Animalia:
Insecta
DI VERSI T Y
The insects
G I n termsof numbers, the i nsectsare
the most successful group on the
planet. There are both more i ndi vi dual
i nsectsand more speci esof i nsects
than all the speci esof all other
Ani mali a groupscombi ned.
Insect body
structure
G I nsect bodi eshave three
regi ons: the head, thorax, and
abdomen. They have si x joi nted legs
and many have pai rsof wi ngs. The
whole of the body i scovered by a
tough exoskeleton made of a tough,
fi brousmateri al called chi ti n.
G The head i swell suppli ed wi th sense
organs, i ncludi ng compound eyesthat
are capable of formi ng accurate
i mages. The antennae can detect
vi brati ons, and some i nsectshave
extremely sensi ti ve chemi cal detectors
that can smell thi ngsover huge
di stances.
G I nsectsdo not possesslungs. Gaseous
exchange takesplace through holesi n
the exoskeleton called spiracles.
These communi cate wi th a network of
tubesrunni ng throughout the i nsect
body. I nsectshave no ci rculatory
system and thi s, combi ned wi th
the absence of lungs, meansthat
they cannot grow beyond a
certai n si ze or they wi ll be unable
to get oxygen to the i nnermost parts
of thei r bodi es.
G Some i nsects( ants, bees) have
complex soci al structureswi th
i ntri cate behavi or patterns. These sorts
of i nsectsoften li ve i n large
communi ti eswi th a si ngle queen,
produci ng most of the young.
abdomen
exoskeleton
spiracle
thorax
Key words
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Grasshopper
Lateral view
Lateral view of head
Leg
h e a d th o ra x a b d o m e n
fo re wi n g
sp i ra c le s
co xa
tro c h a n te r
fe m u r
ti b i a
p re ta rsu s
m a xi lla ry
p a lp
la b i u m
la b i a l p a lp
la b ru m
m a n d i b le
c ly p e u s
fro n s
o ce lli
a n te n n a
m a xi lla
g e n a
co m p o u n d e ye
le g s
co m p o u n d
e ye
a n te n n a
ta rsu s

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DI VERSI T Y
The Crustacea
G The Crustacea are a mai nly mari ne
group i ncludi ng crabs, lobsters,
crayfi sh, and woodli ce. Woodli ce are
terrestri al but need to li ve i n cool
damp placesto avoi d dryi ng out.
Crustacean body structure
G Crustaceanshave hi ghly segmented
bodi es, although i n some of the more
advanced speci esthe segmentshave
fused together i nto larger blocks. The
overall body plan followsstandard
arthropod structure wi th head, thorax,
and abdomen, although the head and
thorax are fused i nto a regi on called
the cephalothorax.
G The head i swell suppli ed wi th sense
organs, i ncludi ng two pai rsof
antennae. I n many crayfi sh and lobster
speci es, a pai r of front legshasbeen
hi ghly modi fi ed i nto pi ncers
( cheli peds) .
G The mari ne crustaceansli ke lobsters
and crayfi sh grow i n si ze by molti ng
thei r exoskeleton, growi ng rapi dly, and
then reformi ng a tough exoskeleton.
Thi scan occur a number of ti mes
duri ng an ani mal sli fe. The molti ng
and redevelopment of the exoskeleton
i mposesa si gni fi cant cost on the
ani mal i n termsof calci um, and thi si s
recovered from the old exoskeleton
before i t i sshed.
G Crustaceanscan lay eggscontai ni ng
ei ther larvae ( small shri mps, lobsters,
and crabs) or fully formed, but small,
adult forms( crayfi sh) .
Kingdom Animalia:
Crustacea
abdomen
exoskeleton
segment
thorax
Key words
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ce p h a lo th o ra x
a b d o m e n
Crayfish
Lateral view
Ventral view
Dorsal view
wa lk i n g le g s p le o p o d s
a n te n n a
c h e la
se co n d
a n te n n a
fi rst
a n te n n a
la b ru m
p a lp o f m a n d i b le
m a n d i b le
th i rd
m a xi lli p e d
fi rst p e re i o p o d
wa lk i n g le g s)
fo u rth
p e re i o p o d
p le o p o d s
ste rn i te ve n tra l e xo ske le to n )
u ro p o d p ro to p o d i te
u ro p o d e xo p o d i te
u ro p o d e n d o p o d i te
t e rg i te d o rsa l e xo ske le to n )
t e lso n
ca ra p a ce
ce p h a li c
g ro o ve
co m p o u n d e ye
c h e li p e d
Kingdom Animalia:
Chilopoda and Diplopoda
Chilopoda (centipede)
Dorsal view
Diplopoda (millipede)
External view
a n te n n a
e ye s
le g s jo i n te d )
d i p lo se g m e n t
a n te n n a
m a xi lli p e d
p o i so n c la w)
le g s
jo i n te d )
t e rg a l p la te
t e lso n
Chilopoda (Scutigera)
Lateral view of head
fi rst m a xi lla
se co n d m a xi lla
m a xi lli p e d p o i so n c la w)
e ye s
fi rst te rg a l p la te
fi rst le g se co n d te rg a l p la te
se co n d le g
DI VERSI T Y
The Chilopoda
G The Chi lopoda are commonly known
ascenti pedes. There are roughly 3,000
speci esof centi pedes, rangi ng from
about 1 i nch ( 3 cm) i n length to 10
i nches( 26 cm) for some tropi cal
speci es.
G Centi pedeshave a si ngle pai r of legs
on each segment, wi th the front-most
onesbei ng modi fi ed i nto claws
equi pped wi th poi son glands. These
front legsare called maxillipedsand
allow the centi pedesto be effecti ve
predators.
G Eyesare si mple rather than
compound.
G The upper and lower surfacesof the
trunk segmentsare armored wi th
thi ckened platescalled tergal plates
and are joi ned by a flexi ble membrane.
G The last di vi si on of the body, the
telson, i snot consi dered a true
segment because i t lackslegs.
G Centi pedesli ve mai nly i n soi l and
humusand under stonesand rocks.
The Diplopoda
G The Di plopoda, commonly known as
mi lli pedes, have two pai rsof legson
each body segment. The average
mi lli pede speci es( of whi ch there are
10,000) wi ll have between 100 and 300
legsi n total, although the Illacme
plenipesspeci eshas750 legs.
Mi lli pede length rangesfrom 0.08 to
12 i nches( 2300 mm) wi th most
speci esbetween 2 and 6 i nches
( 50150 mm) .
G Most mi lli pedesare detri ti voresor
herbivores. They eat decayi ng organi c
matter and plants.
G Eyestend to be si mple.
G Mi li pedesare nocturnal and avoi d
becomi ng prey to the more aggressi ve
centi pedesby produci ng an i rri tati ng
substance from glandsi n the thorax.
Thi ssubstance i sreleased when they
feel threatened.
herbivore
maxilliped
predator
segment
Key words
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DI VERSI T Y
The Arachnida
G The Arachni da hasover 6,000 speci es,
i ncludi ng all spi dersand scorpi ons.
Spiders
G Spi dersare segmented, but thei r
segmentsare fused i nto two mai n
parts the prosoma at the front and
the opi sthosoma at the rear.
G Arachni dsdo not have true lungs.
I nstead, respi rati on occursthrough
rudi mentary book lungs, whi ch are a
seri esof plates. Ai r bathesthe outer
surface of the plates, and blood
ci rculateswi thi n them, faci li tati ng the
exchange of gases.
G Spi dershave ei ght walki ng legsthat
ari se from the prosoma. A pai r of
segmented legs, called pedi palps, at
the front of the ani mal are used to
grab and hold prey. The cheli cera are
used for holdi ng, pi erci ng, and
i njecti ng poi sonsthat paralyze the
prey.
Scorpions
G Scopri onsare large arachni dsthat
li ve i n desert areas. They have a
strong exoskeleton and an
elongated body.
G The scorpi on body i sdi vi ded i nto
two mai n segments: prosoma
( head) and the opi sthosoma
( abdomen) . The abdomen consi sts
of the mesosoma contai ni ng i ts
book lungs, di gesti ve tract, and
sexual organs and the metasoma
or tai l, whi ch bearsthe telson
( sti nger) . The movable tai l i scurled
over the back so that the
venomoussti nger i si n posi ti on
to stri ke prey.
G Li ke spi ders, scorpi onsuse thei r
pedi palps( claws) to grasp prey and
defend agai nst predators. Jawli ke
cheli cera crush the prey and bri ng
food to the mouth.
Kingdom Animalia:
Arachnida
abdomen
exoskeleton
pedipalp
segment
spiracle
Key words
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p ro so m a
Spider
Ventral view
o p i sth o so m a
Scorpion (Pandinus)
Ventral view
p ro so m a o p i sth o so m a
m e so so m a m e ta so m a
c h e li ce ra
p e d i p a lp
wa lk i n g le g sp i ra c le o f b o o k lu n g sti n g
c h e li ce ra
p e d i p a lp
wa lk i n g le g
lu n g b o o k sp i ra c le
Dorsal view
Dorsal view
Kingdom Animalia:
Echinodermata
a rm
AboraI dissection
Transverse section of arm
m o u th
a m b u la c ra l g ro o ve
Starfish
Oral view
a n u s
re c ta l sa c
p y lo ri c
ce c u m
d i g e sti ve
g la n d
p y lo ri c ce c u m
d i g e sti ve g la n d
g o n a d
ra d i a l n e rve
t u b e fo o t
m a d re p o ri te
sto n e ca n a l
p y lo ri c sto m a c h
ca rd i a c
sto m a c h
h e m a l
ca n a l
a m p u lla
ri n g
ca n a l
e so p h a g u s
m o u th
g o n o p o re
g o n a d ra d i a l ca n a l
ra d i a l ca n a l
p a p u la g i ll)
sp i n e
a m p u lla
o ssi c le
la te ra l ca n a l
DI VERSI T Y
The Echinodermata
G The Echi nodermata i nclude over 6,000
speci es, all of whi ch li ve i n mari ne
envi ronments. The phylum i ncludes
the sea urchi nsand starfi shes, but not
fi sh, because echi nodermspossess
nei ther gi llsnor vertebrae.
G Echi nodermsare radi ally symmetri cal,
whi ch meansthat thei r body consi sts
of legsor raysradi ati ng out from a
central hub, li ke a bi cycle wheel.
Starfish body structure
G The central area of the starfi sh
contai nsthe stomach and i ntesti nes,
though these are conti nuouswi th
tubesthat run out along each of the
rays. Starfi sh can take food i nto thei r
gut but often eat by everti ng the
stomach onto the prey and di gesti ng i t
outsi de the starfi sh body. They can eat
bi valvesli ke mollusksby pryi ng apart
the shellssli ghtly and then i nserti ng
thei r stomach i nto the gap. After
di gesti on i scompleted, the mollusk i s
just an empty shell.
G Starfi sh move usi ng many ti ny feet on
the lower surface of the body. These
structures, called tube feet, have
suckerson the end that can hold ti ght
to prey.
G Starfi sh have li mi ted powersof
regenerati on and can grow back an
arm that hasbeen removed gi ven
suffi ci ent ti me and good condi ti ons. I n
some speci es, a severed ray can
develop i nto a complete new starfi sh.
G Starfi sh commonly reproduce by a
processcalled free-spawni ng. They
release thei r gametesi nto the water,
where they are ferti li zed by gametes
from the opposi te sex.
gamete
Key words
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DI VERSI T Y Kingdom Animalia:
Chondrichthyes
calcification
gill
lateral line
Key words
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Cartilaginous fish
G The Chondri chthyesi sa classof
vertebratesthat i ncludessharks,
skates, and raysand hasabout
1,000 li vi ng speci es. None of
these speci eshasany real
bone, so the group i ssometi mes
known asthe carti lagi nousfi sh. O nly
the teeth i n sharksshow calcification
to make a boneli ke materi al, but even
here the calci um i slai d down i n a
di fferent pattern than true bone.
G Carti lagi nousfi sh have a long fossi l
hi story stretchi ng back 450 mi lli on
years, and are regarded asmore
pri mi ti ve than the bony fi sh.
Sharks and dogfish
G These ani malsshare the same basi c
body pattern and are extremely well
streamli ned. They are both predators,
feedi ng on mollusksand other fi sh.
G Sharksare feroci oushuntersand have
a seri esof sense organsrunni ng down
thei r bodi escalled a lateral line. Thi s
li ne can detect mi nute changesi n
pressure caused by the presence of
fi sh i n the i mmedi ate area. Sharksalso
have a very good sense of smell
and so can detect chemi cals
i n the seawater at very low
concentrati ons. Thei r
eyesi ght i s, however,
poor.
G Sharksdo not pump
water over thei r gi lls,
I nstead, they must
move forward at all
ti mesto mai ntai n
respi rati on. The gi llsare
found on verti cal arches
that form the wallsof the
external gi ll sli ts. When water
passesover the gi lls, capi llari esi n the
gi llsabsorb oxygen from the water.
Shark netski ll sharksby preventi ng
them from movi ng, whi ch effecti vely
drownsthem.
Lateral view
Dogfish
ventral view
Lateral dissection
p e c to ra l fi n d o rsa l fi n s ca u d a l fi n : u p p e r lo b e
ca u d a l fi n : lo we r lo b e
ve n tra l fi n
p e lv i c fi n g i ll sli ts
e ye
n o stri l
m o u th
p e c to ra l fi n
c la sp e r
c lo a ca
re c ta l g la n d p a n c re a ti c d u c t b i le d u c t
ve n tra l a o rta
p h a ry n x
h e a rt
sto m a c h
li ve r
p a n c re a s
i n te sti n e
re c tu m
a n u s
Kingdom Animalia:
Osteichthyes
DI VERSI T Y
Bony fish
G The O stei chthyeshave skeletonsmade
of bone and are someti mescalled the
bony fi sh. They are a more vari able
classthan the carti lagi nous
fi sh and consi st of 29,000
speci esspread across
mari ne and fresh water.
G Bony fi sh have the good
sense of smell and lateral
linesof carti lagi nousfi sh
but also possessgood
eyesi ght.
Gaseous exchange
G Bony fi sh have a flapli ke structure
called an operculum that coversthe
gillson ei ther si de of the body. By
movi ng thi soperculum the fi sh i sable
to draw water acrossi tsgaseous
exchangemembranes( the gi lls) even
when the fi sh i sstati onaryi n the
water.
G Bony fi sh also have structurescalled
swi m bladders, whi ch allow them to
control thei r buoyancy. Agai n, thi s
helpsthe fi sh remai n stati onary i n
water. I n some fi sh, oxygen can be
extracted from the ai r i n the swi m
bladder so that i t actsasa very
pri mi ti ve lung.
Fins and skin
G Bony fi sh have pai red fi ns
that help i n movement
through the water both i n
termsof creati ng a propulsi ve
force and stabi li zi ng the fi sh s
movement. The fi nsare
strengthened by flexi ble skeletal rays
and do not contai n muscle.
G The ski n of bony fi sh i scovered wi th
overlappi ng scales.
gaseous
exchange
gill
lateral line
Key words
122
Perch
InternaI structure
Lateral view
m o u th
e ye
o p e rc u lu m
p e c to ra l fi n a n te ri o r d o rsa l fi n
la te ra l li n e
p o ste ri o r d o rsa l fi n
ca u d a l fi n
a n a l fi n
p e lv i c fi n
b ra i n
n e rve co rd
g i ll
ve rte b ra e m u sc le s
m u sc le s
a n u s
swi m b la d d e r
g o n a d s o va ry o r te ste s) i n te sti n e sto m a c h
li ve r
h e a rt

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DI VERSI T Y
The Amphibia
G The classAmphi bi a i ncludesover
5,000 speci esdi vi ded i nto three mai n
groups: the frogsand toads, the newts
and salamanders, and the caeci li ans,
whi ch are li mblessamphi bi ansthat
look more li ke snakes.
G The oldest amphi bi an fossi lsare about
360 mi lli on yearsold.
G Amphi bi ansspend part of thei r li vesi n
water and part on land.
Gaseous exchange
G When amphi bi anshatch from eggs,
they have gillsfor gaseous exchange
rather li ke fi sh. I n tadpoles( the
juveni le stage for frogsand toads) ,
these gi llsare external. Asthe tadpoles
age, they lose thei r gi lls, the tai l
shortens, and they develop legsand
si mple lungs. The metamorphosisi s
complete when the tadpole leavesthe
water asan adult frog.
G Adult frogscarryout most of thei r
gaseousexchange through thei r ski n,
whi ch i skept permanently moi st for
thi spurpose. Resi dual lungsare
present but probably make a li mi ted
contri buti on to gaseousexchange.
Close contact wi th the envi ronment
may explai n the recent decli ne i n
amphi bi an speci esnumbersacrossthe
globe, aspollutantsbui ld up i n the
envi ronment.
Reproduction
G Amphi bi ansferti li ze thei r eggsi n a
vari ety of ways. Most frogsand toads
employ external ferti li zati on. Male
salamandersdeposi t a packet of sperm
onto the ground, and the female then
pullsi t i nto her cloaca where
ferti li zati on occursi nternally.
Caeci li ansand tai led frogsuse i nternal
ferti li zati on just li ke repti les, bi rds, and
mammals.
Kingdom Animalia:
Amphibia
p h a la n g e s
External view
Skeleton
Frog
n o stri l
e ye
ty m p a n u m
fo re li m b
m o i st sk i n
h i n d li m b
sp h e n e th m o i d
m a xi lla
p te ryg o i d
q u a d ra to ju g a l
m e ta ca rp a ls
ca rp u s
ra d i o -u ln a
h u m e ru s
m e ta ta rsa ls
ca lca n e u m
a stra g a lu s
t i b i o -fi b u la
fe m u r
u ro sty le
i li u m
sa c ra l ve rte b ra
ve rte b ra
su p ra sca p u la r
e xo cc i p i ta l
p ro o ti c
sq u a m o sa l
fro n to -p a ri e ta l
n a sa l
p re m a xi lla
cloaca
gaseous
exchange
gill
metamorphosis
Key words
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Kingdom Animalia:
Reptilia
DI VERSI T Y
The Reptilia
G The classRepti li a i ncludesover 7,000
speci esdi vi ded i nto two very large
groups: the snakesand the li zards, and
smaller numbersof turtlesand
crocodi les.
G Repti lesare found i n a wi de range of
envi ronments, from mari ne and
freshwater to dry deserts.
Life in dry areas
G Repti lescan survi ve i n dri er areasthan
amphi bi ansbecause thei r eggsare
surrounded by an extra membrane
called the amnion. Thi smembrane
helpsto reduce water lossfrom the
developi ng eggand fetus.
G Repti leshave lungsfor gaseous
exchangethroughout thei r li ves. Thei r
heart and ci rculatory systemsare well-
developed, wi th mi ni mal mi xi ng of
oxygenated and deoxygenated
blood i n the heart, although
the separati on of the two i snot
complete asi t i si n mammals
and bi rds.
G Repti lesdo not generate
enough heat to mai ntai n thei r
body temperature. I nstead, thei r
body temperature vari es. Certai n
behavi or doeshelp to moderate the
effect of external temperature, e.g.,
some li zardsmove i nto sunli ght on
cold morni ngsto absorb more heat.
G Most repti lesdi splay elaborate
courtshi p ri tuals.
G Repti le ferti li zati on i si nternal: the
male ssperm ferti li zesthe female s
eggsi nsi de the female sbody.
amnion
egg
fetus
gaseous
exchange
lung
Key words
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Lizard
sk u ll
Dorsal view
Ventral view
Dorsal view of skeleton
e xte rn a l n a re s
m e ta ca rp a ls
ra d i u s
h u m e ru s
sa c ra l ve rte b ra e
ca u d a l
ve rte b ra e
lo we r ja w
o rb i t
ce rv i ca l ri b s
a xi s ve rte b ra
c la v i c le
ri b ca g e
p h a la n g e s
u ln a
ca rp a ls
n e u ra l sp i n e
n e u ra l a rc h
ve rte b ra
ri b
fe m u r
fi b u la
t i b i a
t a rsu s
m e ta ta rsa ls
p h a la n g e s
i li u m
t ra n sve rse p ro ce ss
ce rv i ca l ve rte b ra e
su p ra sca p u la r
p u b i s
c lo a ca m o u th
ta i l
sc u te s h o rn y sca le s)
e ye
d i g i ts
DI VERSI T Y
The Aves
G The classAves, or bi rds, i ncludesabout
10,000 speci es, and the group i s
present i n almost every envi ronment
and acrossevery conti nent.
G Bi rdsare characteri zed by the
adapatati onsneeded for the strenuous
muscle acti vi ty requi red for fli ght.
Wings
G A bi rd'swi ng i scomposed of three
li mb bones: the humerus, ulna, and
radi us.
G The pri mary feathers, attached to the
carpometacarpus, propel the bi rd
through the ai r. They are the largest of
the fli ght feathersand are the farthest
away from the body. The secondary
fli ght feathersrun along the ulna of
the wi ng and sustai n the bi rd i n the
ai r, gi vi ng i t li ft.
G A group of feathersattached to the
alula reduce turbulence and drag, and
also assi st wi th steeri ng.
Warm blooded
G Fli ght requi resa rapi d metabolism,
and bi rdsmai ntai n thei r body
temperature above the envi ronmental
temperature.
G Avi an ci rculatory systemsare well
developed, wi th complete separati on
of oxygenated and deoxygenated
blood i n a double circulation system.
Thi si ncreasesthe rate at whi ch
oxygen can be suppli ed to the
powerful fli ght muscles.
Reproduction
G Ferti li zati on i n bi rdsi si nternal.
G Development of the young occurs
outsi de the body i n hard-shelled eggs.
There i soften si gni fi cant parental
behavi or to protect the eggsand rai se
the young.
Kingdom Animalia: Aves
u p p e r
m a n d i b le
p ri m a ri e s
Skeleton
Wing
se co n d a ri e s
Pigeon
External view
e ye
ce re
b e a k
wi n g
h i n d li m b s
sk u ll
lo we r
m a n d i b le
ce rv i ca l ve rte b ra e
h u m e ru s
sca p u la
co ra co i d
c la v i c le
ste rn u m
ke e l o f ste rn u m
fi b u la
ti b i o -ta rsu s
fu se d ta rsi a n d m e ta ta rsi
p h a la n g e s
fe m u r
p yg o sty le
p e lv i s
ri b
se co n d d i g i t
ca rp o -m e ta ca rp u s
ra d i u s
u ln a
ra d i u s
u ln a
h u m e ru s
ca rp o m e ta ca rp u s
a lu la
re c tri ce s
double circulation
metabolism
Key words
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Kingdom Animalia:
Mammalia
DI VERSI T Y
The Mammalia
G Although mammalscontai n only about
5,000 speci esi n total, the classi soften
regarded asthe most successful ani mal
group because of the sophi sti cati on of
i tsmembers, and thei r relati vely late
arri val i n evoluti onary terms.
G Mammalsare di vi ded two mai n
groups: the marsupi als, who gi ve bi rth
to li ve but very undeveloped young,
and placentals, who gi ve bi rth to well-
developed young.
Hair
G All mammalshave hai r or fur on thei r
bodi es. Even mari ne mammalsli ke
whalesand walruseshave some hai r.
G Hai r i si mportant i n: heat
i nsulati on ( all mammalsare
warm-blooded) ; protecti on
agai nst sunli ght; sensi ti vi ty
( asi n whi skers) ; and for
i denti fi cati on, e.g., males
and femalesof the same
speci esmay have di fferent hai r color.
Reproductive advantages
G Mammalshave enti rely i nternal
ferti li zati on, wi th the peni sof the male
bei ng i nserted i nto the vagi na of the
female. Development of the fetusi s
also i nternal due to the presence of
the placenta, an organ that allows
materi alsto be exchanged between
the mother and the fetus.
G After bi rth the young are fed on mi lk
produced by mammary glands. I n
some speci esextensi ve parental
behavi or also helpsto protect and
rai se the young.
fetus
mammary glands
placenta
Key words
126
flo a ti n g ri b s
External view
Rabbit
Lateral view of skeleton
sk u ll lo we r ja w ce rv i ca l
ve rte b ra e
ri b s
th o ra c i c ve rte b ra e
lu m b a r ve rte b ra e
p a te lla
fe m u r
lli u m
fi b u la
sa c ra l
ve rte b ra e
p u b i s
ca u d a l
ve rte b ra e
i sc h i u m
ti b i a
ta rsa ls
m e ta ta rsa ls
m e ta ca rp a ls
ca rp a ls
u ln a
ra d i u s
h u m e ru s
sca p u la
fu r
p i n n a
wh i ske rs
n o stri l
p h a la n g e s p h a la n g e s

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M AI NT ENANCE
Organic matter
G Bi ologi stsregard organic matter as
materi al that hasbeen produced by
li vi ng organi sms.
G I norgani c matter i sregarded assi mple
materi alsli ke water, mi neral salts, and
carbon di oxi de. The vast majori ty of
materi al i n the world i si norgani c. To
convert si mple i norgani c matter i nto
more complex organi c matter requi res
an i nput of energy.
Autotrophic nutrition
G Autotrophi c organi smsare able to
produce organi c matter from si mple
i norgani c materi als. They consequently
create thei r own food but requi re a
source of energy to do thi s.
G Photoautotrophsharvest energy from
li ght to produce organi c matter.
G Chemoautotrophsuse energy from
i norgani c reacti onsi n the envi ronment
to dri ve the creati on of organi c matter.
Heterotrophic nutrition
G Heterotrophi c nutri tri on i stypi cal of
ani mals. These organi smseat organi c
matter i n other organi sms ei ther
ali ve ( ashunters) or dead ( as
scavengers) .
G Saprotrophi c organi smsare the decay
organi sms. They di gest dead materi als
usi ng enzymesthat they secrete
externally. Fungi and many bacteri a are
saprotrophes.
G Parasites( bi otrophs) feed on li vi ng
organi smswi thout ki lli ng them.
Nutrition: types
organic matter
parasite
Key words
127
Tree diagram of nutrition types
a u to tro p h i c h e te ro tro p h i c
o rg a n i sm s
sa p ro tro p h i c
so m e b a c te ri a ,
fu n g i )
p h o to a u to tro p h i c
g re e n p la n ts,
so m e p ro ti sts,
p u rp le su lfu r
b a c te ri a )
c h e m o a u to tro p h i c
e . g . , n i tro g e n
c yc le b a c te ri a )
h o lo zo i c
m o st a n i m a ls,
ca rn i vo ro u s p la n ts,
so m e p ro ti sts)
p a ra si ti c
so m e b a c te ri a ,
fu n g i , p ro ti sts,
a n i m a ls, p la n ts)

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Nutrition: Protista
Feeding and intracellular digestion in Amoeba proteus
ce ll
m e m b ra n e
n u c le u s c y to p la sm
E xo c y to si s:
i n d i g e sti b le
m a te ri a l i s
e xp e lle d .
P re y i s d e te c te d .
A m e b a
p re y a lg a )
I n g e sti o n : p se u d o p o d i a
su rro u n d p re y.
fo o d
va c u o le
p se u d o p o d i a
l yso so m e
I n g e sti o n : a fo o d
v a c u o le i s fo rm e d .
D i g e sti o n : I yso so m e s e m p ty
e n zy m e s i n to th e fo o d v a c u o le .
S o lu b le p ro d u c ts a re
a b so rb e d i n to th e c y to p la sm .
M AI NT ENANCE
Ameba feeding
G Amebasare examplesof Proti sta that
feed by engulfi ng thei r prey i n
extensi onsof the body called
pseudopodi a. Amebaswi ll eat bacteri a
and small algae.
Ingestion
G Pseudopodia extend from the
ameba to surround the prey. These
pseudopodi a joi n up to completely
engulf the prey and form a food
vacuole, whi ch then passesi nto the
cell body.
G O nce i nsi de the cell, lysosomes,
membrane-bound organelles
contai ni ng di gesti ve enzymes, joi n
wi th the vacuole membrane and
empty thei r contentsi nto the vacuole.
G Powerful enzymesbreak down the
food i n much the same way asoccurs
i n mammali an guts. I nteresti ngly, the
vacuole contentsare at fi rst aci d, then
neutral, and then fai ntly alkali ne
mi rrori ng the sequence i n the gutsof
hi gher ani mals.
Absorption and exocytosis
G The di gested materi alspassi nto the
cell body of the ameba by di ffusi on
and selecti ve absorption.
G I n a processknown asexcocytosis,
i ndi gesti ble remai nsare passed to the
outsi de world when the food vacuole
fuseswi th the cell membrane.
absorption
exocytosis
gut
lysosome
organelle
pseudopodium
vacuole
Key words
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M AI NT ENANCE
Photosynthesis
G Leavesare structuresthat carry out
photosynthesisi n green plants.
G I n order to do thi sthey need to be
able to collect sunli ght, water, and
carbon di oxi de, and get ri d of waste
oxygen.
Harvesting light
G The larger the surface area, the more
li ght that can be collected.
G The upper surface of the leaf tendsto
recei ve more li ght than the lower
surface. Plantsconcentrate thei r most
effecti ve photosyntheti c cellsnear the
upper surface for thi sreason.
Carbon dioxide supply
G O nly 0.03 percent of the atmosphere
i scarbon di oxi de. Plantsneed to
processlarge volumesof ai r to gather
enough carbon di oxi de for
photosynthesi s. Holesi n the lower
surface of the leaf ( called stomata)
allow ai r to enter the leaf and get
di rectly to the acti ve photosyntheti c
ti ssues.
G Waste oxygen can also leave through
the stomata.
Water supply
G Photosynthesi srequi resa supply of
water. Thi si sprovi ded through the
veinsof the leaf. A constant supply of
water i salso requi red to replace the
water lost by transpiration through
the stomata.
G Vei nsalso carrythe productsof
photosynthesi sto the rest of the plant.
Nutrition: leaf structure
Typical flowering plant (dicotyledon) Leaf: surface view
le a f:
tra n sve rse se c ti o n
v e i n
le a f b la d e la m i n a )
m a rg i n
m i d ri b
p e ti o le le a f sta lk)
le a f: su rfa ce v i e w
a p i ca l
te rm i n a l) b u d
le a f
la te ra l a xi lla ry) b u d
n o d e
m a i n ro o t
la te ra l ro o ts
i n te rn o d e
ro o t
sh o o t
le a f b la d e la m i n a )
p h lo e m
m i d ri b
v e i n
v e i n
xy le m
va sc u la r b u n d le
Leaf: transverse section (low power)
u p p e r
e p i d e rm i s
Leaf: transverse section (high power)
le a f:
tra n sve rse
se c ti o n
h i g h p o we r
p a li sa d e
m e so p h y ll
sp o n g y
m e so p h y ll
lo we r
e p i d e rm i s
ce ll wa ll
v a c u o le
n u c le u s
c h lo ro p la st
c y to p la sm
xy le m
p h lo e m
p a re n c h y m a
a i r sp a ce
v e i n
g u a rd ce ll sto m a p lu ra l sto m a ta ) c u ti c le
photosynthesis
stoma
transpiration
vein
Key words
129

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Nutrition: stomata
Stomata
Stoma open during day
Surface view
Cross section
Cross section
Stoma closed at night
Surface view
ce ll wa ll
c y to p la sm
c h lo ro p la st
va c u o le
n u c le u s
g u a rd ce ll
sto m a o p e n )
e p i d e rm a l ce ll
g u a rd ce ll
g u a rd
ce ll
sto m a o p e n ) th i c k ce ll wa ll i n n e r
th i n ce ll wa ll o u te r
g u a rd ce ll
tu rg i d )
g u a rd ce ll
fla cc i d ) sto m a c lo se d )
M AI NT ENANCE
Diffusion
G Diffusion i sthe random movement of
parti clesfrom areasof hi gh
concentrati on to areasof low
concentrati on. I t requi resno energy
i nput from a li vi ng organi sm.
G Gasesdi ffuse i n and out of leavesvi a
leaf pores( stomata) .
Stomatal structure
G Stomata are made of pai rsof cells
called guard cellsthat are joi ned at
the ends. The cell wallsof guard cells
are not equally thi ck all around the
cell the thi ckest partsare the walls
i mmedi ately adjacent to the next cell
i n a pai r. The cell wallshere are also
separated by a small space called the
stoma or pore.
Stomatal functioning
G Stomata can i ncrease the si ze of thei r
openi ng. Thi soccurswhen the guard
cellstake i n water by osmosisand
swell. The unequal thi cknessof the
cell wallsleadsto the cellsbulgi ng
outward i n the area farthest away from
the thi ck walls. Forcesi n the cell walls
then push the thi ckened cell walls
away from each other and so the
pore wi dens. Deflati ng the guard cells
closesthe pore agai n.
G Stomata tend to open duri ng dayli ght
hourswhen the plant needscarbon
di oxi de for photosynthesi s. Duri ng
ti mesof drought, the stomata wi ll
close to conserve water.
diffusion
guard cell
osmosis
stoma
Key words
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M AI NT ENANCE
Materials
G Plantshave two separate transport
systems: xylem, whi ch moveswater
and mi neral saltsfrom the rootsto the
leaves, and phloem, whi ch moves
sugarsand organi c materi alsfrom the
leavesto all other partsof the plant.
G Both of these transport systems
use tubesof conducti ng cells.
These are found i n the vascular
bundlesseparated by the
cambium, whi ch di vi desto
produce new xylem and phloem.
G Parenchyma cellsbeneath the
epidermisconsti tute the cortex, the
outer porti on of the stem, and are
used for stori ng food. Parenchyma
cellsi n the center of the stem form
the pi th, the soft spongeli ke core of
the stem.
Xylem
G Xylem ti ssue consi stsof long columns
of cellsstacked one on top of the
other. These cellsare dead at maturi ty
and have lost thei r end walls. A xylem
vessel looksli ke a hollow tube made
up of many cyli ndri cal secti ons.
G Xylem cell wallsare thi ckened wi th
lignin, whi ch gi vesthem strength and
also makesthem waterproof ( see page
132) . Perferati onsallow water to enter
and leave the vessels.
Phloem
G Phloem ti ssue hastwo cell types: si eve
tube elementsand compani on cells.
G Si eve tube elementsare arranged i n
columnsasthey are i n xylem, but thei r
end wallsare sti ll present, though
perforated wi th many holes. The cell
contentsof the elementsare also
hi ghly modi fi ed to form a sli me plug
wi th no vi si ble organelles.
G Compani on cellssupport and nouri sh
si eve tube elementsi n the phloem.
cambium
epidermis
lignin
organelle
phloem
vascular bundle
xylem
Key words
131
Stems
Generalized plant
le a f
Stem: transverse section
xy le m
p h lo e m
p i th
p a re n c h y m a )
co rte x
p a re n c h y m a )
e p i d e rm i s
fi b e rs
xy le m ve sse l
si e ve tu b e
co m p a n i o n
ce ll
p a re n c h y m a c e ll
p i th )
p h lo e m :
Vascular bundle: transverse section
s
h
o
o
t
r
o
o
t
ste m :
tra n sve rse
se c ti o n
ste m
va sc u la r b u n d le :
tra n sve rse
se c ti o n
ca m b i u m
v
a
s
c
u
l
a
r
b
u
n
d
l
e
ca m b i u m
Transport: stem structure

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Transport: woody stem M AI NT ENANCE
The need for light
G Food i smanufactured i n the leaves
and green stemsof plantsby
photosynthesis. Photosynthesi s
requi resa constant energy i nput i n the
form of li ght. Plantsthat are shaded
make lessfood.
G Plantswi th tall stemsare lessli kely to
be shaded than plantswi th short
stems. However, the stem needsto be
strengthened to prevent i t collapsi ng:
rei nforcement producesri gi d woody
stemsthat can support the leavesi n
the li ght.
Lignin
G The strengtheni ng of stemsi s
provi ded by a complex carbohydrate
called lignin, whi ch li nesthe wallsof
xylemvessels.
G Xylem vesselsare produced by the
di vi si on of cambiumcells, whi ch
form a conti nuouscyli nder
separati ng the phloemon the
outsi de and xylemon the
i nsi de.
G Li gni n i swaterproof, so
the xylem vessels
are suppli ed wi th
perforati onsthat allow
water to passi nto and
out of the xylem
vessels.
Annual rings
G More vesselsare
produced duri ng the
acti ve growi ng seasons
( spri ng and summer) .
G These peri odsof growth
produce annual ri ngs, whi ch can
be seen i n a transverse secti on of
the mai n trunk. Counti ng the number
of annual ri ngsprovi desan esti mate of
the age of the tree.
cambium
lignin
phloem
photosynthesis
xylem
Key words
132
Woody stems
Generalized tree
ca n o p y
fo li a g e)
ro o ts
Branch: transverse section
b ra n c h
t ru n k
b ra n c h :
tra n sve rse se c ti o n
v a sc u la r ra y
se co n d a ry p h lo e m
co rte x
a n n u a l ri n g
se co n d a ry
xy le m wo o d )
co rk
re m a i n s o f e p i d e rm i s
co rk ca m b i u m
p i th
b a rk :

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M AI NT ENANCE
Roots and stems
G The root i sthe part of the stem that i s
adapted to condi ti onsunderground.
G I t hasthe same basi c ti ssuesasthe
stem ( xylemand phloem) but
arranged i n sli ghtly di fferent
confi gurati ons.
Epidermis and cortex
G The epidermisof a root i s
suppli ed wi th many root
hairs. These are
concentrated near the growi ng
ti psof the root and are concerned
wi th absorpti on of water and
mi neralsfrom the soi l.
G I mmedi ately i nsi de the epi dermi s
i sa regi on of the root called the
cortex. Thi si smade up of
parenchyma cells, and water
and mi neralsfrom the soi l
can flow easi ly between
these cells.
The stele
G A conti nuouscyli nder of cellscalled
the endodermissurroundsthe i nner
part of the root, the stele. Endodermal
cellshave a waterproofi ng substance
called suberin i n thei r cell walls, whi ch
blocksmovement of water from the
cortex between the cells. Water now
hasto passthrough the cellsrather
than between them: thi sgi vesthe
plant a degree of control over water
and mi neral salt movement i nto the
stele.
G The peri cycle conductswater and
nutri entsi nward to the xylem and
phloem.
G The stele i sthe central core contai ni ng
the xylem and phloem ti ssues. Thi si s
usually arranged i n a crossshape wi th
xylem i n the mi ddle. Asthe root ages
the structure changesto the bundles
more typi cal of the stem.
Transport: root structure
endodermis
epidermis
phloem
root hair
suberin
xylem
Key words
133
s
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Dicotyledon root structure
Generalized plant
e p i d e rm i s ro o t h a i rs
e n d o d e rm i s
xy le m
co rte x
p a re n c h y m a )
p h lo e m
Root: transverse section
p a ssa g e ce ll
Stele: transverse section
e n d o d e rm i s
p e ri c yc le
xy le m
si e ve tu b e
co m p a n i o n
ce ll
sp a ce fi lle d wi th
p a re n c h y m a
ro o t: tra n sve rse
se c ti o n
p h lo e m
ste le

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Transport: water and
minerals in plants
Transport of water
and minerals
Generalized plant
e va p o ra ti o n o f wa te r fro m le a f tra n sp i ra ti o n )
flo w o f wa te r a n d m i n e ra ls
p i th
xy le m
so i l
p a rti c le s
ro o t h a i r
p a re n c h y m a co rte x)
e p i d e rm i s
Root: longitudinal section
fi b e rs
xy le m
ca m b i u m
p h lo e m
p a re n c h y m a co rte x)
e p i d e rm i s
Stem: longitudinal section
g u a rd ce ll sto m a
Leaf: transverse section
e p i d e rm i s
p a li sa d e
m e so p h y ll
sp o n g y
m e so p h y ll
e p i d e rm i s
c u ti c le xy le m a i r sp a ce p h lo e m
ste m
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ro o t
h a i r
M AI NT ENANCE
Xylem tissues
G Water movement i n plantsi slargely
through xylemvessels.
G Xylem vesselsare made of elements
stacked on top of each other. The end
wallshave been lost, effecti vely leavi ng
empty cyli ndersreachi ng from the
root to the leaves.
Absorption of water and
salts
G Water i sabsorbed through the root by
osmosis. Mi neral saltsare si mi larly
transported i n soluti on and passup
the plant through the xylem.
G Some mi neralsare also absorbed by
active processesrequi ri ng an energy
i nput by the plant.
Transpiration suction
G Water i sconstantly evaporati ng from
the aeri al partsof the plant. Thi s
processi scalled transpiration and
occursmai nly through the leaves
duri ng dayli ght hours. I n opti mal
condi ti onsa typi cal herbaceousplant
can transpi re up to 40 ti mesi tsown
wei ght i n water every day.
G Transpi rati on reduceswater
concentrati on i n the leaves. Thi s, i n
turn, createsa force on the water i n
the vei nssucki ng water outward. The
vei nsare conti nuouswi th the xylem
vessels, so the force i stransmi tted
through the water column all the way
down to the roots. Thi sforce, called
transpi rati on sucti on, pullswater up
the plant. I t requi resno energy i nput
from the plant.
active process
osmosis
transpiration
xylem
Key words
134

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M AI NT ENANCE
Sources and sinks
G Food i smanufactured i n the leaves
and green stemsof plantsby
photosynthesis. These areasare called
the sources.
G Food i sused i n all partsof the plant.
Some areasare parti cularly adapted to
store food, for example tubersi n
potatoesand many frui tsi n floweri ng
plants. These areasare called si nks.
Leaves and stems
G Leavescreate glucosefrom carbon
di oxi de and water usi ng li ght asan
energy source. Glucose i sdi ffi cult to
transport through plantsbecause i t
requi reslarge amountsof water.
Leavesconvert thi sglucose i nto
another sugar called sucrose, whi ch i s
easi er to move.
G Vei nsi n the leaf contai n vascular
bundlesthat contai n two typesof
conducti ng vessels: xylemand
phloem.
G Phloem transportssugarsaway from
the leaf.
G Xylem conductswater and di ssolved
mi neralsfrom the rootsto the stem
and leaves.
Roots and fruits
G Vascular bundlesi n the leaf connect
wi th si mi lar structuresi n the roots.
Each si eve tube, a part of the phloem,
i sconti nuouswi th those i n the roots.
Sugar i sloaded i n and passesdown by
active transport. I n the rootsthe
sugar i staken out of the phloem tubes
and converted to starch for storage, or
i sused to keep the root ali ve.
G Frui tsand flowersrequi re sugar
because they do not carry out
photosynthesi s.
Transport: food in plants
Transport of food
Generalized plant
xy le m
ca m b i u m
p h lo e m
p a re n c h y m a
e p i d e rm i s
Leaf: transverse section
e p i d e rm i s
p a li sa d e
m e so p h y ll
sp o n g y
m e so p h y ll
e p i d e rm i s
ste m
s
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le a f
Stem: longitudinal section
flo w o f fo o d
c u ti c le
p h lo e m
xy le m
active transport
glucose
phloem
photosynthesis
vascular bundle
xylem
Key words
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Transport: frog
p u lm o n a ry
Arterial system
li n g u a l
i n te rn a l
ca ro ti d
e xte rn a l
ca ro ti d
su b c la v i a n
g e n i ta l
syste m i c a rc h
re n a l
d o rsa l a o rta
i li a c
sc i a ti c
c u ta n e o u s
Venous system
p o ste ri o r
m e se n te ri c
h e p a ti c
g a stri c
a n te ri o r m e se n te ri c
m a n d i b u la r
li n g u a l
i n te rn a l
ju g u la r
e xte rn a l
ju g u la r
su b sca p u la r
m u sc u lo c u ta n e o u s
su b c la v i a n
b ra c h i a l
a n te ri o r
ve n a ca va
p u lm o n a ry
h e p a ti c
p o ste ri o r
ve n a ca va
m e se n te ri c
a n te ri o r
a b d o m i n a l
fe m o ra l
sc i a ti c
re n a l
re n a l
p o rta l
g e n i ta l
h e p a ti c
p o rta l
Heart
Ventral view
d i re c ti o n o f
b lo o d flo w
p u lm o n a ry
ve i n
ri g h t
a tri u m
si n u s
ve n o su s
p o ste ri o r ve n a ca va
v e n tri c le
le ft
a tri u m
a n te ri o r ve n a ca va
ve n tri c le
t ru n c u s
a rte ri o su s
le ft
a tri u m
ri g h t a tri u m
Heart
Dorsal view
M AI NT ENANCE
Circulatory system
G Frogshave a well-developed
ci rculatory system wi th blood that i s
held wi thi n tubesthat penetrate the
whole body.
G Frog blood i ssuppli ed wi th a form of
hemoglobin that reactsreversi bly wi th
oxygen to collect oxygen from the
exchange surfacesand deli ver i t to the
cellsof the body.
Circulatory system plan
G The ci rculatorysystem of the frog has
arteriesthat carry blood away from
the heart and veinsthat carryi t back.
G Arteri esand vei nsare named after the
organ they take blood to ( i n arteri es)
or away from ( i n vei ns) .
G O rganshave a si ngle arteryand vei n
although i t may subdi vi de i nto smaller
vesselsbefore i t entersthe organ.
I nsi de the organ the vesselssubdi vi de
further to form capillariesthat are
ulti mately one blood cell wi de. No cell
i n the body i sfurther than 0.004 i nch
( 0.1 mm) from a blood capi llary.
Materi alsare exchanged wi th the
blood at thi spoi nt.
Frog heart
G The heart pushesflui d around the
vesselsto mai ntai n a constant supply
of fresh oxygenated blood.
G Wi th a si ngle ventricle, the frog heart
i slessdeveloped than mammali an
hearts.
artery
capillary
hemoglobin
vein
ventricle
Key words
136

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M AI NT ENANCE
Respiration in plants
G Plantscarry out respiration at all ti mes
of the day and ni ght.
G Duri ng dayli ght hours, the plant
obtai nsall the oxygen i t needsasa by-
product of photosynthesis. The leaves
are thusnet exportersof oxygen.
G Duri ng the ni ght, or when
photosynthesi si shalted for some
other reason, plantstake i n oxygen for
respi rati on by diffusion through the
leaves.
Woody stems
G Woody stemsdo not carryout
photosynthesi s, so they need to
obtai n oxygen di rectly from the
atmosphere.
G The bark of treespreventsthe
passage of oxygen, so plantshave
structurescalled lenticels, whi ch are
breaksi n the bark coveri ng. O xygen
can di ffuse i nto the stem through
these. O nce i nsi de the plant, the gas
movesi n soluti on between the cells
by di ffusi on.
G Lenti celshave cellsthat are less
ti ghtly packed than most cellsi n the
stemsto provi de an i ncreased
surface area for the exchange of
oxygen wi th the atmosphere.
Roots
G Si nce rootsdo not recei ve li ght, they
cannot carry out photosynthesi s, so
are alwaysnet i mportersof oxygen.
G The gasdi ffusesi nto the root through
root hairs, whi ch penetrate ai r spaces
i n the soi l.
Respiration: plants
diffusion
lenticel
photosynthesis
respiration
root hair
Key words
137
ve i n
Respiration in plants
Generalized tree
ca b o n d i o xi d e
Leaf: transverse section
Root: longitudinal section
Lenticel: longitudinal section
ro o t h a i r
e p i d e rm i s
p a re n c h y m a
so i l p a rti c le s
lo o se co rk ce lls
co rk
ca m b i u m
co rk
re m a i n s o f
e p i d e rm i s
ro o t:
lo n g i tu d i n a l se c ti o n
o xyg e n
g u a rd ce ll sto m a
e p i d e rm i s
p a li sa d e
m e so p h y ll
sp o n g y
m e so p h y ll
e p i d e rm i s
c u ti c le
a i r sp a ce
ca n o p y
fo li a g e)
t ru n k
ro o ts
b ra n c h
le a f: tra n sve rse se c ti o n
le n ti ce l:
lo n g i tu d i n a l
se c ti o n

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Respiration: gas exchange
across body surfaces
M AI NT ENANCE
Oxygen source
G O xygen i savai lable i n the envi ronment
ei ther asa gasor di ssolved i n water.
G The poi nt at whi ch oxygen passesi nto
the body of an ani mal i scalled the
respi ratory surface. I t must be kept
moi st.
Animals without
circulatory systems
G I n ani malswi thout speci ali zed
ci rculatory systems, such asamebas
and Hydras, oxygen di ssolvesi n the
moi sture on the surface of the body
and passesby diffusion to adjacent
cells. Carbon di oxi de passesthe other
way.
G Si nce respi rati on usesup oxygen and
producescarbon di oxi de, a
concentration gradient i n the gases
ensurestransport i n the correct
di recti on. An i ncrease i n acti vi ty
i ncreasesthe gradi ent, leadi ng to a
faster rate of di ffusi on.
G However, si nce di ffusi on cannot
rapi dly move materi alsover large
di stances, a si ze li mi tati on i si mposed
on si mpler ani mals. To reduce thi s
li mi tati on, a number of these ani mals
have flattened body shapesto i ncrease
the surface avai lable for gaseous
exchangeand reduce the di stance the
oxygen needsto di ffuse i nsi de the
body e.g., flatworms.
Animals with
circulatory systems
G The earthworm hasa si mple
ci rculatory system that transports
oxygen absorbed through the ski n
deeper i nto the body.
G Carbon di oxi de produced i nsi de the
body i smoved by the same
mechani sm i n the opposi te di recti on.
Thi sallowsthe earthworm to have a
rounder body shape than the more
pri mi ti ve flatworms.
concentration
gradient
diffusion
gaseous
exchange
Key words
138
Gas exchange across body surfaces
lo n g i tu d i n a l m u sc le
Ameba
o xyg e n
ca rb o n d i o xi d e
Hydra
Flatworm
Earthworm
Earthworm body wall: vertical section
fla two rm
b o d y wa ll:
ve rti ca l
se c ti o n
e a rth wo rm
b o d y wa ll:
ve rti ca l
se c ti o n
e
p
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e
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i
s
c u ti c le ca p i lla ry
p a re n c h y m a
Flatworm body wall: vertical section
c i rc u la r m u sc le
e p i d e rm i s
c i li a
d o rso -ve n tra l m u sc le
b a se m e n t
m e m b ra n e
g la n d ce ll

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M AI NT ENANCE
Mass flow
G I n the si mplest ani mals, the respi ratory
surface i sthe whole of the external
body surface. I n ani malswi th gillsor
lungs, the surface i scontai ned wi thi n
the body.
G The oxygenati ng medi um must be
acti vely pumped acrossthi ssurface to
provi de constant fresh suppli es. Thi si s
an example of massflow.
Gills
G Gi llsare organswi th extensi ve folded
membranessuppli ed wi th blood
vessels.
G I n i nternal gi lls, a massflow
mechani sm mai ntai nsa flow of the
oxygenati ng medi um: the water
contai ni ng the di ssolved oxygen.
G I nternal gi llsare lesssuscepti ble to
mechani cal damage than external gi lls.
Tracheoles
G I nsectshave thi n tubescalled
tracheolesto carry ai r deep i nto the
body.
G I nsectshave very li mi ted massflow
systems. Thi spreventsgrowth of
i nsectsabove a certai n si ze.
Lungs
G Lungshave a very large surface area
i nsi de the body, and a system of
musclesand tubesmai ntai nsthe flow
of ai r acrossthese surfaces.
Respiration: respiratory
surfaces in animals
g u t
e xte rn a l g i ll
g u t
lu n g
i n te rn a l g i ll
g u t
g u t
b o d y su rfa ce
tra c h e o le
tra c h e a
sp i ra c le
g u t
g u t
fla tte n e d b o d y su rfa ce
Entire body surface (Hydra, earthworm)
Tracheal system (grasshopper)
Internal gills (fish)
Flattened body (flatworm)
External gills (young tadpole)
Lungs (human)
Surfaces for gaseous exchange in a range of animals
gill
lung
tracheole
Key words
139

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Respiration: fish M AI NT ENANCE
Oxygen source
G O xygen i savai lable to fi sh di ssolved i n
water.
G The oxygen that formspart of water
moleculescannot be used by fi sh.
Mass flow
G Fi sh have two massflow systems: one
to force oxygenated water acrossthe
respi ratory surface and one to
carryoxygenated blood
around the body.
G Water i staken i n through the
mouth and pumped over the
gill surfaces. The flow i sone-
way, wi th water leavi ng
through the operculum, a flap
of ti ssue coveri ng the exi ts
from the gi llsbehi nd the head
of the fi sh.
Gill structure
G Gi llsare made of a seri esof
archesthat are suppli ed wi th a
stack of flattened structurescalled gi ll
fi laments.
G The gi ll fi lamentsare well-suppli ed
wi th blood through an afferent vessel
( a vessel carryi ng blood toward the
heart) . Blood passesalong the
fi lamentsand i nto gi ll platesthat are
held perpendi cular to the fi lament. I t
i si n the gi ll platesthat gaseous
exchange occurs.
G Blood flowsthrough the plate i n the
opposi te di recti on to the water. Thi s
countercurrent multi pli er system
meansthat the freshest water meets
the most oxygenated blood. The
oxygen concentration gradient i s
mai ntai ned further back because,
although some of the oxygen hasbeen
removed from the water, i t i snow
passi ng over the least oxygenated
blood.
concentration
gradient
gill
Key words
140
g i ll fi la m e n t
g i ll p la te
Detail of gill filament
Head (operculum removed)
g i ll a rc h g i ll fi la m e n ts
Respiration in fish
External view
Gill
g i ll a rc h
e ffe re n t ve sse l c a rry i n g b lo o d fro m th e h e a rt)
a ffe re n t ve sse l g i ll p la te
g i ll fi la m e n t
o p e rc u lu m
m o u th
Expulsion of water
Ventilation
Intake of water
flo w o f wa te r flo w o f b lo o d o xyg e n ca rb o n d i o xi d e
m o u th o p e n
g i ll fi la m e n t
o p e rc u lu m c lo se d
o p e rc u lu m o p e n
g i ll fi la m e n t
m o u th c lo se d
d e ta i l o f g i ll fi la m e n t
g i ll

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M AI NT ENANCE
Sites of gaseous exchange
G I n common wi th all amphi bi ans, frogs
spend part of thei r life cyclei n water
and part on land. Thi srequi resa
complex mi xture of mechani smsfor
gaseous exchangethat develop and
change throughout the li feti me of the
creature.
G The adult frog useslungsand the
surface of i tswhole body for gaseous
exchange. The larval stage ( tadpoles)
usesexternal gills.
Ventilation
G Movi ng ai r i nto and out of the lungsi s
called venti lati on. Venti lati on ensuresa
constant supply of fresh oxygen and
allowsthe removal of carbon di oxi de-
ri ch ai r. However, i t also leadsto the
lossof moi sture i n exhaled ai r.
G The floor of the buccal cavity( the
mouth or oral cavi ty) can be dropped
i n the frog to create a zone of low
pressure. Thi ssucksai r i n, and i f the
entrance to the lungsi sclosed thi s
must come from the outsi de through
the nostri l.
G Closi ng the nostri l and rai si ng the
floor of the buccal cavi ty createsa ri se
i n pressure. I f the tube to the lungsi s
opened at the same ti me, ai r i sforced
i nto the lungswhere gaseous
exchange can take place. Thi sallows
i nhalati on.
G Exhalati on occurswhen the
proceduresare reversed.
Respiration: frog
m o ve m e n t o f flo o r o f b u cca l ca v i ty
m o ve m e n t o f a i r
ca rb o n d i o xi d e
o xyg e n
Respiration in frogs
sk i n
Ventilation of lungs
Inhalation
Exhalation
lu n g
n o stri l
m o u th
g lo tti s
p h a ry n x
n o stri l
m o u th
flo o r o f
b u cca l ca v i ty
g lo tti s
lu n g
p h a ry n x
flo o r o f b u cca l ca v i ty
buccal cavity
gaseous
exchange
gill
life cycle
lung
Key words
141

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Coordination:
nervous systems
M AI NT ENANCE
Nerve nets
G The si mplest nervoussystemsare nets
wi th no central control.
G For example, ani malsli ke Hydra have
a nervoussystem that i sspread across
the enti re body wi th no di sti nct head
area.
Heads
G Asani malsdeveloped the abi li ty to
move i n a parti cular di recti on, they
began to develop heads. Thi si sthe
front end of the organi sm and tendsto
have the hi ghest concentrati on of
sense organsto gather i nformati on
about the envi ronmentsi nto whi ch
the ani mal i smovi ng.
G Processi ng thi ssensory i nformati on
requi resa large amount of nervous
ti ssue, so the nerve ti ssue close to
these organsbegan to swell i n si ze.
Thi swasthe begi nni ng of a brai n.
Central nervous systems
G At the same ti me asthe headswere
developi ng, ani malswere also
developi ng backbonesand spi nal
cords. Vertebrateshave a well-
developed spinal cord that can carry
i nformati on to and from the brai n.
The brai n and spi nal cord together
are called the central nervous
system.
G I nvertebratesli ke the grasshopper
tended to develop smaller brai ns
called gangli a, whi ch were di stri buted
throughout the body, rather than a
brai n and spi nal cord arrangement.
Even i n these cases, however, the
most i mportant gangli on wasi n the
head near the sense organs.
central nervous
system
spinal cord
Key words
142
Hydra
n e two rk o f
n e rve ce lls
t e n ta c le
g a n g li o n
m o u th
Earthworm
Longitudinal section anterior end
Grasshopper
Lateral view
Dorsal view
ve n tra l
n e rve
co rd
n e rve co lla r
m o u th
ce re b ra l g a n g li o n
b ra i n )
p h a ry n x
se g m e n ta l
n e rve s
g a n g li o n
ve n tra l
n e rve co rd
ce re b ra l g a n g li o n b ra i n )
n e rve co lla r
a n te n n a
co m p o u n d e ye
ce re b ra l g a n g li o n b ra i n )
n e rve co lla r
g a n g li o n
se g m e n ta l n e rve s
ve n tra l n e rve co rd
Nervous systems

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M AI NT ENANCE
Excretion and
osmoregulation
G Excreti on i sthe removal of the waste
productsof metabolismfrom the
organi sm.
G Osmoregulation i sthe mai ntenance of
the correct water potenti al wi thi n a
cell. Thus, osmoregulati on i snot
pri mari ly concerned wi th the products
of metaboli sm.
Excretion
G Waste productsof metaboli sm i n
Proti sta di ffuse through the cell
membrane. Si nce the proti stsare
uni cellular organi sms, diffusion i s
rapi d enough to clear away all
unwanted chemi cals, and no
speci ali zed excretorystructuresare
requi red.
Osmoregulation
G Water constantly entersproti stsli ke
ameba due to osmosis. I f thi swater
were not removed, the cell would
swell and could burst. Even before thi s
occurred, the cell contentswould be
di luted to such an extent that essenti al
metaboli c processescould be
di srupted.
G The ameba collectswater i n the cell by
an acti ve processand pumpsi t i nto a
sac called a contractile vacuole. Thi s
swellsasi t gai nswater and when full
mi gratesto the edge of the cell, fuses
wi th the cell membrane, and releases
the water i nto the envi ronment.
Excretion and
osmoregulation: Protista
contractile
vacuole
diffusion
metabolism
osmoregulation
osmosis
Key words
143
ca rb o n d i o xi d e
wa te r wa ste
Excretion and osmoregulation in amebas
Excretion
C o n tra c ti le va c u o le e le c tro n m i c ro sco p e)
C o n tra c ti le va c u o le fo rm a ti o n a n d d i sc h a rg e
co n tra c ti le va c u o le
e le c tro n m i c ro sco p e)
Osmoregulation
Osmoregulation
ce ll
m e m b ra n e
n u c le u s
c y to p la sm
co n tra c ti le
va c u o le
n u c le u s
ce ll m e m b ra n e
c y to p la sm
m i to c h o n d ri o n
v e si c le fu si n g
wi th va c u o le
m e m b ra n e
co n tra c ti le va c u o le
v a c u o le m e m b ra n e
v e si c le co n ta i n i n g wa te r
c o n ta c ti le
v a c u o le

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Locomotion: earthworm
Transverse section: intestinal region Circular muscles contracted,
longitudinal muscles relaxed
Longitudinal muscles contracted,
circular muscles relaxed
Movement
Locomotion in earthworms
n e rve co rd
se g m e n t lo n g a n d th i n
se g m e n t sh o rt a n d fa t
se p tu m
se p tu m d i v i d i n g wa ll
b e twe e n se g m e n ts)
re tra c ti n g
re g i o n
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a n te ri o r e n d
se ta
se g m e n t
se ta
se ta
re tra c to r m u sc le
se ta
p ro tra c to r m u sc le
i n te sti n e
lo n g i tu d i n a l m u sc le
c i rc u la r m u sc le
e p i d e rm i s
co e lo m
h yd ro sta ti c ske le to n )
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M AI NT ENANCE
Pushing and pulling
G Earthwormsmove through the soi l by
alternately contracti ng and relaxi ng
setsof muscles. Thi smakesthe
earthworm stretch or contract body
segments, whi ch are pushed or pulled
through the soi l.
Setae
G Setae are small hai r-li ke projecti ons
from the surface of the earthworm s
body.
G They can be extended or retracted by
muscles. When extended, they
effecti vely anchor that part of the
earthworm i n place.
Movement
G An earthworm at rest tendsto be short
and fat, wi th i tsci rcular muscles
relaxed.
G To move, the earthworm extendssetae
at the back of i tsbody and contracts
ci rcular musclesi n the segmentsat the
front. The contracti ng muscles
squeeze on the body contents, rai si ng
the pressure, and the segments
elongate.
G The earthworm then extendssetae
from the frontmost segmentsand
retractsthem i n the rear segments.
Ci rcular musclesi n the front relax, and
longi tudi nal musclescontract. The
rear segmentselongate or are pulled
sli ghtly forward.
G Step by step the front segments
contract and fatten whi le the rear
segmentsare fi rst elongated and then
dragged forward.
muscle
segment
Key words
144

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M AI NT ENANCE
Exoskeleton
G Grasshoppers, aswi th all i nsects, have
a ri gi d exoskeleton coveri ng thei r
body.
G Musclesare attached to the i nsi de of
the skeleton.
G Joi ntsi n the exoskeleton allow the
li mbsto bend.
J oints
G The ri gi d exoskeleton cannot bend,
and joi ntscan only operate i n one
plane. The joi ntsare connected by a
peg and socket arrangement. Thi s
meansthat i n order to allow a wi der
range of movement li mbsare broken
up i nto a number of secti onswi th the
joi nt between each secti on allowi ng
movement i n a di fferent plane.
G Muscleswork i n antagonistic pairsas
i n mammals, wi th flexorsbendi ng
li mbsand extensorsstrai ghteni ng
them.
Wing movement
G The musclesthat move the wi ngsup
and down are attached to the
exoskeleton. Musclesrunni ng from the
top of the body to the bottom contract
to pull the wi ngsup. The elasti ci ty of
the exoskeleton and musclesrunni ng
along the length of the body help to
pull the wi ngsdown.
G Si nce the musclesmovi ng the wi ngs
are held i nsi de the body, the wi ngscan
be veryli ght i n wei ght. Thi smakes
them easi er to move and allowsthem
to be larger, creati ng more downdraft,
whi ch helpsthe grasshopper to fly.
Locomotion: grasshopper
antagonistic pair
exoskeleton
muscle
Key words
145
wi n g
Locomotion in grasshoppers
External view
e xte n so r
m u sc le
re la xe d
le g
Limb movement
Extended Flexed
Wing movement
Downstroke Upstroke
a b d o m e n th o ra x h e a d
wi n g m o ve m e n t tra n sve rse se c ti o n : th o ra x) li m b m o ve m e n t
sc h e m a ti c
se c ti o n o f le g )
fle xo r m u sc le
co n tra c te d
lo n g i tu d i n a l
m u sc le s re la xe d
d o rso -ve n tra l
m u sc le s co n tra c te d
t e rg u m
d o rso -ve n tra l
m u sc le s re la xe d
lo n g i tu d i n a l
m u sc le s co n tra c te d
wi n g
ste rn u m
p e g a n d
so c ke t
jo i n t
te n d o n
p e g
fle xo r m u sc le re la xe d
c u ti c le
e xo ske le to n )
e xte n so r
m u sc le
co n tra c te d
m u sc le a tta c h m e n t
so c ke t
Schematic section of leg
Transverse section: thorax

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Reproduction: viruses
Reproduction in viruses
co lla r
Bacteriophage structure
Lysi s: a b a c te ri a l
ce ll b u rsts
re le a si n g
v i ru se s.
h e a d
t a i l
sh e a th co n tra c ti le)
b a se p la te
t a i l fi b e r
Lytic life cycle
a tta c h m e n t
p e n e tra ti o n
V i ra l D N A i s i n je c te d
i n to th e b a c te ri u m ;
b a c te ri a l D N A i s
i n a c ti va te d .
V i ra l D N A
re p li ca ti o n
o cc u rs.
N e w p ro te i n co a ts a re
sy n th e si ze d ; n e w
v i ru se s a re a sse m b le d .
v i ru s
b a c te ri o p h a g e)
b a c te ri u m
h o st)
p ro te i n co a t
p h a g e D N A
b a c te ri a l ce ll wa ll
b a c te ri a l D N A
M AI NT ENANCE
Obligate parasites
G All virusesare obli gate parasi tes,
whi ch meansthey cannot reproduce
outsi de a li vi ng host.
Bacteriophages
G Bacteriophagesare a group of vi ruses
that i nfect and ki ll bacteri al cells.
G Bacteri ophagestypi cally have a head
to thei r body that contai nsa length of
nucleic acid. The head i sconnected
to a tai l consi sti ng of a sheath that can
contract and a base pi ece wi th fi bers
that can attach to bacteri al cell walls.
G Parti cular bacteri ophagesattack
speci fi c bacteri a.
Lytic life cycle
G Lysi si sthe rupture and destructi on of
a cell.
G A bacteri ophage attachesi tself to the
outsi de of a suscepti ble bacterium
wi th i tsbase plate. The tai l then
contractsand pi ercesthe surface of
the bacteri um.
G Nuclei c aci d from the bacteri ophage
passesi nto the bacteri um. Here i t
startsto repli cate whi le the normal
bacteri al DNA i sswi tched off.
G O ver a peri od of ti me, the bacteri al
cell i sfull of bacteri ophage DNA.
Protei n coatsfor the vi rusare then
manufactured by the bacteri um
followi ng i nstructi onsstored i n the
vi ral DNA.
G The vi ral DNA i si nserted i nto the vi ral
protei n coats, and the bacteri al cell
burststo release the completed
bacteri ophages.
bacteriophage
bacterium
nucleic acid
virus
Key words
146

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M AI NT ENANCE
Complete life cycle
G Butterfli esundergo a complete
metamorphosisduri ng the four stages
of thei r life cycle: egg, larva, pupa,
butterfly. The female layseggs, whi ch
fi rst develop i nto larva called
caterpi llars. Thi sjuveni le form hasno
wi ngsand usesi tsmandi ble to feed on
leaves. Asthe larva grows, i t molts
( shedsi tsexternal skeleton) multi ple
ti mes. When the larva reachesa
certai n mi ni mum wei ght, i t transforms
i nto a pupa. After i t emergesfrom the
pupal stage, i t i sa wi nged butterfly,
whi ch feedson nectar from flowers.
G Although the adult and larval stages
look very di fferent, they possessthe
same basi c body partscommon to all
i nsects: head, thorax, and abdomen.
Survival rates
G Adult butterfli eslay eggs. To i ncrease
the chancesof successful hatchi ng and
larval growth, the eggsare typi cally
lai d i n areaswhere food wi ll be
plenti ful, e.g., on the undersi de of
leaves.
G Larvae that survi ve the fi rst few days
have to eat large amountsof plant
food to amassenough energy for the
next stage of development. Many
larvae are lost to predatorsat thi s
stage.
G Pupae are also suscepti ble to selecti on
pressures. They rely on camouflage to
avoi d predators.
G The hatched butterfly i sa pri me
source of food to many i nsect-eati ng
bi rds. O nly a mi nori ty wi ll survi ve long
enough to produce eggsand start the
cycle agai n. For all of these reasons,
butterfli esproduce large numbersof
eggs.
Reproduction: butterfly
Butterfly life cycle
Adult
Dorsal view
co m p o u n d e ye
a n te n n a
Lateral view
e g g
Larval stages (caterpillar)
p u p a
e cd ysi s m o lti n g )
h e a d
th o ra x
a b d o m e n
fo re wi n g
h i n d wi n g
th o ra x a b d o m e n
m a n d i b le
h e a d
t ru e le g s
le g
p ro b o sc i s
abdomen
larva
life cycle
metamorphosis
predator
pupa
thorax
Key words
147

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Reproduction: frog
Adults mating
Eggs
o n e d a y o ld
th re e we e k s o ld
o n e m o n th o ld
two m o n th s o ld
th re e m o n th s o ld
Metamorphosis
from tadpole
to frog
Frog urino-genital systems
(right ovary removed)
Frog life cycle
Tadpoles
fa t b o d y
o v i d u c t
t e sti s
k i d n e y
u re te r
c lo a ca
se m i n a l
ve si c le
b la d d e r
fa t b o d y
o va ry
k i d n e y
u re te r
c lo a ca
o v i sa c
b la d d e r
zyg o te a n d yo lk
e xte rn a l g i lls
a n u s
e xte rn a l g i lls
e ye
m o u th
sp i ra c le o p e n i n g o f g i ll c h a m b e r)
h i n d li m b
fo re li m b
m o u th
wi d e n s
re m a i n s
o f ta i l
p ro te c ti ve je lly
m u co u s g la n d
M AI NT ENANCE
Complete life cycle
G Frogsundergo a complete
metamorphosisduri ng thei r life cycle.
Thei r juveni le form i sa tadpole that
hasno lungsor legsand li vesenti rely
i n water. The adult frog haslungsand
legsand can survi ve out of water for
extended peri ods.
G The change from tadpole to frog i sa
conti nuousprocess there i sno pupal
stage asthere i si n metamorphosi ng
i nsects.
G Tadpolesli ve for three to four months,
wi th the exact ti me dependi ng on
certai n envi ronmental condi ti ons.
Adult frogscan survi ve the wi nter and
li ve for many years, provi ded the
temperature doesnot drop too low.
Fertilization and
development
G Fertilization i n frogsi spri mari ly
i nternal wi th mati ng pai rsof frogs
exchangi ng gametesby bri ngi ng thei r
cloacasclose together. The cloaca i s
an openi ng that connectsthe bladder
and the reproducti ve systemswi th the
outsi de world.
G Mati ng frogsdo not just mate i n pai rs.
I f suffi ci ent numbersof compati ble
malesand femalesare avai lable i n an
area, they wi ll mate i n larger groups,
i mplyi ng that some ferti li zati on takes
place externally.
G The eggsare covered i n an outer shell
of protecti ve jelly, whi ch swellsi n
contact wi th water. The female laysher
eggsi n a sheltered pond or creek. The
eggshatch i nto tadpoles, whi ch
gradually develop i nto froglets
resembli ng adultsbut retai ni ng a
vesti gi al tai l and then mature frogs.
G Tadpole development i sstrongly
affected by temperature and oxygen
avai labi li ty. The presence of meat or a
source of i odi ne encouragesearly
change i nto a frog and producesvery
small adults.
cloaca
fertilization
gamete
life cycle
metamorphosis
Key words
148

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M AI NT ENANCE
149
Growth and development:
plants: monocotyledons
Monocotyledons
G Cotyledonsare swollen leavesthat act
asa source of energy whi le the seed i s
germi nati ng. Duri ng the fi rst stagesof
germination, photosynthesiscannot
occur, so only stored food i savai lable
to the plant for development.
G Monocotyledonsli ke corn have a
si ngle cotyledon ( unli ke the bean
fami ly and many other vegetables
whi ch are di cotyledonousand have
two) wi th a large supply of
endosperm speci ali zed storage ti ssue
that nouri shesthe embryo.
Germination
G Germi nati on i sa multi stage process
that mobi li zesthe stored food reserves
of the seed and preparesthe plant for
the acti ve producti on of food by
photosynthesi s.
G The root i sthe fi rst structure to
develop to allow the i ntake of water.
Thi sdevelopsfrom the radi cle, the
root of the embryo plant. The radi cle
i sprotected by a sheath called the
coleorhi za. Aswater i sabsorbed, the
coleopti le can develop.
G The coleopti le i sa photosyntheti cally
acti ve organ rather li ke a sheath
protecti ng the growi ng stem or
plumule. I t pushesabove the ground
and the stem growsout of i t.
Adventi ti ousrootsthen grow from
the stem.
G Prop rootsdevelop to support the
stem, and the fi rst true leavesare
then produced from the stem.
cotyledon
endosperm
germination
monocotyledon
photosynthesis
Key words
p o si ti o n o f co ty le d o n
p o si ti o n o f e m b ryo
p o i n t o f
a tta c h m e n t
Seed: external view Seed: longitudinal section
Germination
Fru i t wa ll
sp li ts;
ra d i c le
a p p e a rs.
P lu m u le g ro ws
i n co le o p ti le .
C o le o p ti le
a p p e a rs
a b o ve so i l;
a d ve n ti ti o u s
ro o ts d e ve lo p .
F i rst le a ve s
a p p e a r.
e n d o sp e rm
co ty le d o n
co le o p ti le p lu m u le sh e a th )
p lu m u le
p e ri ca rp fu se d
o va ry wa ll a n d te sta )
co le o rh i za ra d i c le sh e a th )
p o i n t o f a tta c h m e n t
ra d i c le
co le o rh i za
ra d i c le sh e a th )
ro o t h a i rs
co le o p ti le p lu m u le sh e a th )
ra d i c le
ra d i c le
a d ve n ti ti o u s ro o t
a d ve n ti ti o u s ro o t a d ve n ti ti o u s ro o t
co le o rh i za ra d i c le sh e a th )
Germination of the corn seed (monocotyledon)
le a f
sp li t
co le o p ti le
p ro p ro o t
co le o p ti le
p lu m u le sh e a th )

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M AI NT ENANCE
150
Dicotyledons
G Dicotyledonsare plantsthat have two
cotyledons, leaf-li ke partsof the
embryo that act asi sa food reservoi r
whi le the seed i sgerminating. Duri ng
the fi rst stagesof germi nati on,
photosynthesiscannot occur, so the
plant must use stored food for
development.
G Wi thi n each seed are the cotyledons,
the radi cle ( the root of the embryo) ,
and the plumule ( the embryoni c
leavesof the plant) . The complete
seed i scovered by the testa ( seed
coat) whi ch protectsthe seed agai nst
mechani cal damage.
Germination
G The radi cle i sthe fi rst structure to
develop to allow the i ntake of water.
The hypocotyls, the part of the
seedli ng stem below the cotyledons
and above the radi cle, emergesfrom
the testa and pushesi tsway up
through the soi l. I t i sbent i n an arch
asi t grows. O nce the hypocotyl arch
emergesfrom the soi l, i t strai ghtens
out i n response to li ght. The
cotyledonsspread apart, and the
epi cotyl formsa young stem.
G The germi nati on processdi ffers
among plants. Plantsli ke peas
experi ence hypogeal germi nati on the
cotyledonsremai n below ground as
the plumule develops. Plantsli ke
beansexperi ence epi geal
germi nati on the growth of the
hypocotyl rai sesthe cotyledonsabove
ground. The cotyledonsoften then
become photosyntheticallyacti ve and
form the fi rst leavesof the new plant.
cotyledon
dicotyledon
germination
photosynthesis
Key words
Germination of the bean seed (dicotyledon)
Seed: external view
te sta
p o si ti o n o f ra d i c le
Seed: longitudinal section
Germination (epigeal)
T e sta sp li ts;
ra d i c le
e m e rg e s.
H y p o co ty l
sta rts to
g ro w.
H y p o co ty l g ro ws
th ro u g h so i l
su rfa ce .
C o ty le d o n s
e m e rg e
fro m so i l.
H y p o co ty l
stra i g h te n s;
tru e le a v e s
a p p e a r.
te sta
p lu m u le
ra d i c le
co ty le d o n
o n e o f two )
co ty le d o n
o n e o f two )
e p i c o ty l
t ru e
le a f
h y p o co ty l
h y p o co ty l
co ty le d o n
o n e o f two )
h y p o co ty l
co ty le d o n
o n e o f two )
h y p o co ty l
t e sta
ro o t
h a i rs
ra d i c le
Growth and development:
plants: dicotyledons

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M AI NT ENANCE
Tropisms
G Tropismsare di recti onal growth
responsesto envi ronmental sti muli .
So hydrotropi sm i sdi recti onal growth
related to water. Phototropi sm i s
related to li ght.
G Rootsare posi ti vely hydrotropi c,
whi ch meansthey grow toward
sourcesof water. They are negati vely
phototropi c and grow away from
sourcesof li ght.
G Stemsare posi ti vely phototropi c and
negati vely hydrotropi c.
Mechanism of tropisms
G Tropi smsare growth responses. The
hormone auxin hasan effect on the
growth and development of cells. I n
the stem, an i ncrease i n the level of
auxi n i ncreasesgrowth of cellsby
allowi ng them to enlarge more easi ly.
G I n the root, auxi n i ncreaseslead to a
reducti on i n cell growth.
G Li ght tendsto i nhi bi t the producti on
of auxi n. So, i f a shoot i si llumi nated
from one si de, the si de i n the dark wi ll
grow more rapi dly, and the shoot wi ll
bend toward the li ght.
G Auxi n i sonly produced by the growi ng
ti p of the plant. I f thi si sremoved,
growth ceases. I f the ti p i scovered by
a li ght-proof cap, the stem doesnot
exhi bi t phototropi sm. The auxi n
di ffusesdownward through the stem
and can be collected i n an agar block.
The block then hasthe abi li ty to act as
a source of auxi n to a decapi tated
stem and so produce growth.
Growth and development:
plants: tropisms
co le o p ti le
Exposed to light from all directions
Growth responses to light (phototropism) of oat coleoptile
ro o t
se e d
T h e p la n t g ro ws to wa rd li g h t p o si ti v e p h o to tro p i sm ) .
Exposed to light from one direction
T h e ti p i s re m o ve d : n o g ro wth .
li g h tp ro o f
co lla r
T i p i s co ve re d b y li g h tp ro o f ca p : g ro ws u p wa rd . Z o n e o f e lo n g a ti o n co ve re d b y li g h tp ro o f
co lla r: g ro ws to wa rd li g h t.
T i p i s re m o ve d a n d p la ce d o n a g a r b lo c k . T h e b lo c k i s re p la ce d o n th e ri g h t si d e o f a n o th e r
d e ca p i ta te d co le o p ti le . A u xi n d i ffu se s i n to zo n e o f e lo n g a ti o n , ca u si n g g ro wth to th e le ft.
li g h t
li g h tp ro o f ca p
a g a r b lo c k
T h e p la n t g ro ws u p wa rd .
auxin
tropism
Key words
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Nutrition: digestive
system
Human digestive system
to n g u e
b u cca l ca v i ty m o u th )
b i le d u c t
g a ll b la d d e r
d i a p h ra g m
li ve r
d u o d e n u m
i le u m
sm a ll i n te sti n e )
ce c u m
a p p e n d i x
e so p h a g u s
sto m a c h
p y lo ri c sp h i n c te r
p a n c re a s
co lo n
la rg e i n te sti n e )
re c tu m
a n u s
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Digestion to assimilation
G Food parti clesneed to be broken
down i nto smaller moleculesbefore
they can passi nto the bloodstream.
Digestion i sthe processof breaki ng
large parti clesi nto smaller molecules.
I t i nvolvesboth mechani cal
mani pulati on and chemi cal acti on.
G Absorption i sthe processthat takes
food moleculesi nto the body. Thi s
takesplace i n the gut, mai nly i n the
small i ntesti ne.
G Assimilation i sthe processof usi ng
absorbed materi alsto bui ld new
ti ssues. Thi soccursthroughout the
body.
Mechanical digestion
G Mechani cal di gesti on i sthe breakdown
of large lumpsi nto smaller parti cles.
Thi sbegi nsi n the mouth.
G Teeth such asthe i nci sorstear off
lumpsof food, whi le molarscrush
these lumpsi nto smaller parti cles.
G Food leavi ng the mouth hasbeen
reduced to a small parti cle si ze to
i ncrease i tssurface area and so
i ncrease the rate of enzyme acti vi ty
lower i n the gut.
Chemical digestion
G Enzymesact on large, i nsoluble
moleculesto break them down i nto
smaller, soluble moleculesthat pass
through the gut wall i nto the
bloodstream.
G The gut producesa seri esof enzymes
to break down food molecules. The
hi gher part of the gut i saci di c, the
lower part i sneutral.
absorption
assimilation
digestion
gut
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Tooth types
G There are a number of di fferent types
of teeth. Each type hasa parti cular
functi on i n the mechani cal breakdown
of food.
G Incisorsat the front of the mouth cut
food i nto smaller lumps.
G Caninestear off lumpsof food. These
are not parti cularly well developed i n
humanscompared wi th other
carni voresli ke ti gersand dogs.
G Premolarsand molarsare large teeth
at the back of the mouth wi th
flattened top surfaces. These crush
food lumpsto reduce them to a fi ne
parti cles.
Tooth structure
G The porti on of the tooth below the
gumli ne i sthe root. The part that ri ses
above i scalled the crown.
G All teeth have the same i nternal
structure, wi th a layer of hard enamel
on the outsi de supported by softer
denti ne i nsi de, packed around a
central pulp cavi ty. Enamel i snon-
li vi ng materi al li ke hai r and nai ls,
denti ne i sli vi ng materi al.
G The pulp cavi ty contai nsa blood
supply and a nerve.
Nutrition: teeth
Human teeth
G F ro m th e a g e o f a b o u t 6 ye a rs, th e 2 0 d e c i d u o u s b a b y ) te e th o f a c h i ld a re g ra d u a lly
re p la ce d b y 3 2 p e rm a n e n t te e th .
G T h e th ird m o la rs, o r wisd o m te e th , a re u su a lly th e la st to a p p e a r, g e n e ra lly in e a rly a d u lth o o d .
G T h e c h i se l-sh a p e d i n c i so rs a re a d a p te d fo r b i ti n g a n d c u tti n g fo o d , wh i le th e b ro a d e r
p re m o la rs a n d m o la rs a re re sp o n si b le fo r g ri n d i n g a n d c h e wi n g .
G E a c h to o th h a s a c ro wn , co ve re d i n h a rd -we a ri n g e n a m e l to re si st a b ra si o n , a n d a ro o t th a t
i s h e ld i n i ts o wn so c ke t b y ce m e n t a n d a fi b ro u s li n i n g .
Skull
Side view
ca n i n e
I n c i so r
To p v i e ws
C a n i n e
S i d e v i e ws
P re m o la r M o la r
i n c i so rs
m a n d i b le
lo we r
ja w)
m a xi lla
u p p e r
ja w)
p re m o la rs
m o la rs
c ro wn
ro o t
e n a m e l
d e n ti n e
p u lp
ca v i ty
g u m
ce m e n t
fi b ro u s
li n i n g
Incisor
Vertical section
Molar
Vertical section
c
r
o
w
n
r
o
o
t
c
r
o
w
n
r
o
o
t
e n a m e l
d e n ti n e
p u lp
ca v i ty
g u m
ce m e n t
fi b ro u s
li n i n g
b lo o d
ve sse l
n e rve
canine
incisor
molar
premolar
Key words
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Nutrition: liver, stomach,
and pancreas
g a ll b la d d e r
m u c u s-se c re ti n g
ce lls
Liver, stomach, and pancreas
li ve r
b i le d u c t
p y lo ri c
sp h i n c te r
Section of stomach wall
Section of pancreas
g a stri c g la n d
se c ti o n o f p a n c re a s
b ra n c h o f
p a n c re a ti c d u c t
b lo o d ca p i lla ry
i sle t o f L a n g e rh a n s
se c re te s i n su li n )
zy m o g e n ce ll se c re te s
p a n c re a ti c e n zy m e s)
o xy n ti c ce lls
se c re te
h yd ro c h lo ri c
a c i d )
c h i e f zy m o g e n ce lls
se c re te p e p si n )
g a stri c g la n d o p e n i n g o f g a stri c g la n d
Gastric gland
th i n m u sc le la ye r
m u co sa
su b m u co sa
sm o o th m u sc le
la ye rs
o b li q u e m u sc le
c i rc u la r m u sc le
lo n g i tu d i n a l m u sc le
sto m a c h
e so p h a g u s
d u o d e n u m
p a n c re a s
p a n c re a ti c
d u c t
se c ti o n o f
sto m a c h wa ll
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Liver
G The liver i sa complex organ that
carri esout a range of metaboli c
functi ons, not all of them concerni ng
di gesti on. Blood from the gut drai ns
i nto the li ver through the hepatic
portal vein, and all di gested food
chemi calspassthrough the li ver for
sorti ng before they passon to the rest
of the body.
G The li ver also producesbile, whi ch i s
an alkali ne soluti on that helpswi th the
di gesti on of fat. I t i sstored i n the gall
bladder and expelled i nto the
duodenum when fatty food i spresent.
Stomach
G The stomach i sa large muscular sac
that actsasa storage vessel for food,
passi ng i t out through the pylori c
sphi ncter to the duodenum. The
musclescontract and relax to mi x the
food and stomach secreti onsi nto a
slurrycalled chyme.
G I t also startsprotei n di gesti on usi ng an
enzymecalled pepsi n. The stomach
contentsare strongly aci di c, whi ch
helpspepsi n to work and ki llsbacteri a
i n the food.
G The stomach protectsi tswall from the
aci d and enzymesby secreti ng a layer
of mucusthat coversthe i nner surface.
Pancreas
G The pancreasproducesa package of
di gesti ve enzymes. These passto the
gut i n pancreati c jui cesalong the
pancreati c duct.
G Cellsi n the pancreascalled i sletsof
Langerhansalso produce the hormone
i nsuli n, whi ch regulatesthe level of
sugar i n the blood.
bile
chyme
enzyme
gut
hepatic portal
vein
insulin
liver
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Morphology
G The small i ntesti ne, or i leum, i sa long
muscular tube runni ng from the
duodenum to the large i ntesti ne. I n
humansi t i sover 18 feet ( 6 m) i n
length.
G The i nner surface hasmany ri dgesthat
i ncrease the surface area. Thi si s
essenti al for the absorption of
di gested foods.
G The small i ntesti ne i swell-suppli ed
wi th blood vessels. These supply
oxygen to the cellsof the i ntesti ne,
whi ch are metaboli cally qui te acti ve,
produci ng a constant stream of
enzymesto di gest food i n the gut.
Blood i sdrai ned away from the small
i ntesti ne by the hepatic portal vein,
whi ch carri esthe food-ri ch blood to
the liver.
G Aswi th all of the gut, the i leum has
two layersof muscle i n i tswall: one set
runni ng around the i ntesti ne ( the
ci rcular muscles) and one set runni ng
the length of i t ( the longi tudi nal
muscles) .
Microscopic structure
G The i nner wall of the i leum i scovered
wi th small fi ngerli ke projecti onscalled
villi. These further massi vely i ncrease
the surface area avai lable for
absorpti on.
G A vi llushasa network of capi llari esi n
i t, and di ssolved food materi alspass
i nto thi sthrough the outer wall of the
vi llus. A central space called the lacteal
provi desa transport route for fatty
substancesthat do not di ssolve easi ly
i n blood. The lactealsare fi lled wi th a
fatty flui d and drai n i nto the lymphatic
system.
Nutrition: small intestine
ri d g e co ve re d
wi th v i lli
Ileum
th i n m u sc le la ye r
p a rt o f i le u m wa ll sh o wi n g v i lli
Part of ileum wall
showing villi
v i llu s
Villus (vertical section)
c i rc u la r
m u sc le
su b m u co sa
m u co sa
lo n g i tu d i n a l
m u sc le
ve n u le ca rry i n g a m i n o
a c i d s a n d m o n o sa cc h a ri d e s)
a rte ri o le
n e two rk o f
b lo o d ca p i lla ri e s
m u c u s-se c re ti n g ce ll
e p i th e li u m
la c te a l ca rry i n g fa tty
a c i d s a n d g lyce ro l)
th i n m u sc le la ye r
absorption
gut
hepatic portal
vein
lymphatic system
liver
villus
Key words
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Nutrition: digestion and
absorption
Sequence of digestion
1
a m y la se
2
3
p e p si n
4
3
try p si n
4
5
li p a se
6
1
a m y la se
2
4
p e p ti d a se
7
2
m a lta se
8
9
la c ta se
10
11
su c ra se
12
6
7
8
13
14
d i g e sti o n
a b so rp ti o n
1 S ta rc h
2 M a lto se
3 P ro te i n
4 L a rg e p e p ti d e s
5 Fa ts
6 Fa tty a c i d s a n d g lyce ro l
7 A m i n o a c i d s
8 G lu co se
9 L a c to se
10 G lu co se a n d g a la c to se
11 S u c ro se
12 G lu co se +fru c to se
13 Wa te r
14 S a lts
m o u th
sto m a c h
d u o d e n u m
i le u m
co lo n
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Sequence of processes
G Di gesti on i sthe breaki ng down of
large, i nsoluble moleculesi nto smaller,
soluble molecules.
G The fi rst part of di gesti on i sthe
breaki ng down of large lumpsof food
i nto smaller parti cles. Thi si scalled
mechani cal di gesti on and i sdone by
the teeth. The next stage i schemi cal
di gesti on of large moleculesby
enzymes.
Enzymes
G Enzymes, such asamylase and pepsi n,
are complex protei nsthat speed up
reacti onsi n li vi ng organi sms. They are
used i n di gesti ve processesto break
down large molecules.
G Enzymesare generally speci fi c they
can only speed up a si ngle reacti on,
and each step i n a chai n of reacti ons
may need i tsown parti cular enzyme.
G Di gesti ve enzymesare unusual i n that
they are often able to speed up a
number of reacti onsamong related
chemi cals. However, the range of
chemi calsa di gesti ve enzyme can
handle i ssti ll li mi ted, so the gut
producesa range of enzymesto cover
all of the chemi calsfound i n food.
Absorption
G Absorption i sthe passage of food
chemi calsi nto the body.
G Thi soccursmai nly i n the lower parts
of the gut and i si ncreased by the large
surface area of the i leum ( small
i ntesti ne) .
absorption
enzyme
gut
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
A closed circulation
G Blood passesaround the body i n a
closed ci rculatory system. Thi si s
di fferent from ci rculati on i n many
lower ani mals, where the cellsare
bathed i n blood di rectly.
G The advantage of a closed system i s
that i t can transport materi alsmuch
more rapi dly.
G The human ci rculatory system consi sts
of a central pump ( the heart) and
three typesof tubes( arteries,
capillaries, and veins) .
The heart
G The heart consi stsof two pumps. The
ri ght si de pumpsblood from the body
to the lungs. The left si de takesblood
from the lungsand pumpsi t around
the body. The left si de i ssli ghtly larger
and more muscular because i t hasa
greater di stance to push the blood.
G Thi ssystem, known asdouble
circulation, separatesoxygenated and
deoxygenated blood. Thi smeansthat
the blood must go through the lungs
for every si ngle ci rcui t of the body.
Blood vessels
G Arteri escarry blood away from the
heart under hi gh pressure.
G Blood from the arteri esflowsi nto
capi llari es, mi croscopi c blood vessels
that penetrate every organ i n the body.
G Blood flowsout of the capi llari esand
i nto vei nsto be carri ed back to the
heart under low pressure.
Transport: circulatory
system map
artery
capillary
double circulation
vein
Key words
157
ca ro ti d
li ve r
i li a c
p u lm o n a ry
h e a rt)
su b c la v i a n
h e p a ti c
m e se n te ri c
g u t)
re n a l
k i d n e y)
a o rta
ju g u la r
ce p h a li c
h e p a ti c
h e p a ti c
p o rta l
g u t)
k i d n e y)
re n a l
ve n a ca va
i li a c
Veins
Arteries
h e a rt)
li ve r
su b c la v i a n

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Transport: circulatory
system scheme
o xyg e n -ri c h b lo o d o xyg e n -p o o r b lo o d
14
6
15
16
17
18
19
20
5
7
8
9
4 13
12
11
10
2
1
3b
3a
R A L A
R V LV
A R M S
H E A R T
H E A D A N D N E C K
L U N G
L U N G
L I V E R
G U T
K I D N E YS
G O N A D S
L E G S
19Ve i n s
1 J u g u la r
2 S u b c la v i a n
3 Ve n a ca va
3a S u p e ri o r ve n a ca va
3b I n fe ri o r ve n a ca va
4 P u lm o n a ry
Direction of blood flow
1020 A rte ri e s
10 C a ro ti d
11 S u b c la v i a n
12 A o rta
13 P u lm o n a ry
14 H e p a ti c
15 G a stri c
5 H e p a ti c
6 H e p a ti c p o rta l
7 R e n a l
8 G e n i ta l
9 I li a c
16 A n te ri o r m e se n te ri c
17 P o ste ri o r m e se n te ri c
18 R e n a l
19 G e n i ta l
20 lli a c
Schematic representation of circulatory system
RA R i g h t a tri u m
LA L e ft a tri u m
RV R i g h t ve n tri c le
LV L e ft ve n tri c le
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Two circulations
G The pulmonary ci rculati on formsa
complete ci rcui t, taki ng deoxygenated
blood from the heart to the lungs
along the pulmonary arteryand then
returni ng oxygenated blood to the
heart along the pulmonary vein.
G The mai n ci rculati on i n the body takes
oxygenated blood from the heart,
travelli ng through the aorta, and
returnsdeoxygenated blood to the
heart through the vena cava.
System plan
G Tall arteri esari se ulti mately from the
aorta. The system i sa seri esof parallel
ci rcui tsso each organ hasi tsown
arterysupplyi ng oxygenated blood.
Each organ also hasa vei n leadi ng out
that carri esblood back to the heart.
G The one excepti on i sthe liver, whi ch
hastwo i nputs: the hepati c artery,
whi ch provi desoxygenated blood, and
the hepatic portal vein, whi ch carri es
blood to the li ver from the gut. Thi s
meansthat the chemi calsabsorbed
i nto the blood by the gut can be
sorted and, possi bly, changed before
they passon to the rest of the body. A
substance absorbed i n the gut thushas
to go through the li ver before i t can
reach any other cell i n the body.
G The hepati c vei n drai nsblood from
the li ver back to the heart.
G Arteri esand vei nsare named after the
organsthey serve.
aorta
artery
gut
hepatic portal
vein
liver
vein
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Two pumps
G The heart consi stsof two complete
and functi onally separate pumpsheld
wi thi n a si ngle muscle massi n the
thorax.
G The ri ght si de recei vesblood from the
body and pumpsi t to the lungs.
G The left si de, whi ch i ssli ghtly more
muscular, collectsblood from the
lungsand pumpsthi saround the
whole body.
Right side
G Blood entersthe ri ght atri um from the
vena cava at low pressure. The wallsof
the ri ght atri um are fai rly thi n i f i t
were too muscular, the blood would
not be able to push i nto the chamber.
G The atri um wallscontract, and blood
passesi nto the ri ght ventricle.
G The wallsof the ventri cle are much
more muscular and gi ve the blood a
push out along the pulmonary artery
to the lungs. The tri cuspi d valve
separati ng the atri um and ventri cle
preventsbackflow i nto the atri um
duri ng the power stroke. The
pulmonaryvalve at the entrance of the
pulmonary artery preventsbackflow
i nto the ventri cle when i t i srefi lli ng
wi th blood agai n from the atri um.
Left side
G The left si de undergoesexactly the
same sequence and hasbasi cally the
same structural adaptati ons.
G The musclesof the heart are suppli ed
wi th blood, and so oxygen, through
the coronary artery, reachesboth
si des.
Transport: heart structure
Heart
External view (ventral)
o xyg e n -ri c h b lo o d
o xyg e n -p o o r b lo o d
ri g h t p u lm o n a ry a rte ry
le ft p u lm o n a ry a rte ry
Simplified section showing direction of blood flow
i n n o m i n a te a rte ry
le ft co m m o n ca ro ti d a rte ry
le ft su b c la v i a n a rte ry
le ft a tri u m
ri g h t p u lm o n a ry
ve i n s
a o rti c a rc h
su p e ri o r ve n a ca va
ri g h t a tri u m
ri g h t co ro n a ry
a rte ry
ri g h t ve n tri c le
i n fe ri o r ve n a ca va
le ft p u lm o n a ry ve i n s
le ft co ro n a ry a rte ry
le ft ve n tri c le
Section
a o rta
ri g h t p u lm o n a ry a rte ry
i n n o m i n a te a rte ry
a o rti c a rc h
su p e ri o r ve n a ca va
ri g h t a tri u m
va lve te n d o n
i n fe ri o r ve n a ca va
ri g h t ve n tri c le
i n te rve n tri c u la r se p tu m a o rta
le ft ve n tri c le
le ft p u lm o n a ry ve i n s
m i tra l b i c u sp i d ) va lve
le ft a tri u m
le ft p u lm o n a ry a rte ry
le ft su b c la v i a n a rte ry
le ft co m m o n ca ro ti d a rte ry
p u lm o n a ry va lve
tri c u sp i d va lve
a o rti c va lve
thorax
ventricle
Key words
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Transport: heartbeat
A tri a fi ll; a tri o ve n tri c u la r
m i tra l a n d tri c u sp i d ) va lve s
a re c lo se d .
Diastole (relaxation of heart muscle) Systole (contraction of heart muscle)
A tri o ve n tri c u la r va lve s a re
p u sh e d o p e n b y ri si n g
a tri a l p re ssu re ;
ve n tri c le s sta rt
to fi ll.
Ve n tri c le s co n ti n u e to fi ll
b y su c ti o n fro m re la xe d
ve n tri c u la r wa lls
a n d a tri a l
co n tra c ti o n .
Ve n tri c le s b e co m e fu ll a n d
stre tc h e d ; a tri o ve n tri c u la r
va lve s c lo se .
Ve n tri c le s co n tra c t a n d
p re ssu re i n c re a se s; a o rti c
a n d p u lm o n a ry
va lve s re m a i n
c lo se d .
Ve n tri c le s co n ti n u e to co n tra c t;
ri si n g p re ssu re p u sh e s
o p e n th e a o rti c a n d
p u lm o n a ry va lve s.
Pumping action of the heart
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Diastole and systole
G The heartbeat i sa complex seri esof
eventsthat spli tsi nto two mai n
groups: diastole, where the heart
muscle i srelaxed, and systole, where
the muscle acti vely contracts.
Filling of atria
G Blood from the body entersthe heart
at low pressure through the vena cava.
The pressure i ssuffi ci ent to i nflate the
atri a, whi ch have relati vely thi n walls.
G Asthe atri a fi ll, the blood pushesi ts
way through the atri oventri cular valves
i n the ventricles.
G To complete the processthe muscles
i n the atri a contract, the passagesto
the vei nsare constri cted, and blood i s
acti vely pumped i nto the ventri cles. By
the end of di astole, the blood i s
present i n the ventri cles.
Emptying of the ventricles
G When the ventri clesare full of blood,
the atri oventri cular valvesclose. The
musclesi n the wall of the ventri cle
now contract, and blood i spushed
through the aorti c and pulmonary
valvesalong the arteri es. Tendons
attached to the atri oventri cular valves
keep the atri oventri cular valvesclosed
duri ng thi sprocess.
G The processbegi nsagai n asthe
ventri clesempty of blood and the
musclesrelax. Aorti c and pulmonary
valvesprevent the backflow of blood
from the arteri esi nto the ventri cles.
diastole
systole
ventricle
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Pacemaker region
G The musclesof the heart are uni que i n
the body i n that they can contract
wi thout di rect nervoussti mulati on.
Thi smeansthat transplanted hearts,
whi ch have no connecti on to the
pati ent scentral nervoussystem, can
sti ll beat.
G The organi zati on of the heartbeat
dependson the sinoatrial node,
called the pacemaker, located near the
top of the heart i n the ri ght atri um.
Creating a beat
G Si gnalsfrom the si noatri al node cause
the atri a to contract. Thi spushes
blood i nto the ventricles. By the ti me
the ventri cleshave fi lled wi th blood,
the i mpulse hasreached the
ventri cular walls. The i mpulse passes
along a bundle of speci ali zed muscle
fi bers, known asthe bundle of Hi s,
located between the two ventri cles.
Speci ali zed nerve cellscalled Purki nje
fi bersdi stri bute these si gnals.
G The ventri cle wallsnow contract to
push blood along the arteri es. At thi s
poi nt the atri al wallsare begi nni ng to
relax asthe si gnal haspassed on.
Regulating the heartbeat
G The si noatri al node producesregular
i mpulses.
G The number of these i mpulses( and
therefore heartbeats) per mi nute can
be changed by i mpulsesdeli vered
from the medulla oblongata by
nervesof the parasympathetic
( slowi ng down) and sympathetic
( speedi ng up) nervoussystems.
Transport: regulation of
heartbeat
Heartbeat regulation
se n so ry re ce p to r
ca rd i o -i n h i b i to r ce n te r
ca rd i o -a cce le ra to r ce n te r
se n so ry n e rve
p a ra sy m p a th e ti c i n h i b i to r n e rve
sy m p a th e ti c a cce le ra to r n e rve
si n o a tri a l n o d e
p a ce m a ke r
ca ro ti d si n u s
ri g h t ve n tri c le
P u rk i n je fi b e rs
ri g h t a tri u m
su p e ri o r ve n a ca va
i n te rve n tri c u la r
se p tu m
a tri o ve n tri c u la r
n o d e
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a rc h
le ft ve n tri c le
b u n d le o f H i s
sp i n a l
co rd
sy m p a th e ti c g a n g li o n
le ft a tri u m
ca ro ti d a rte ry
medulla
oblongata
parasympathetic
nervous system
sinoatrial node
sympathetic
nervous system
ventricle
Key words
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Transport: blood vessels
fi b ro u s co lla g e n )
la ye r tu n i ca e xte rn a )
Artery Vein Capillary
Cut open longitudinally
Transverse sections
Artery Vein Capillary
sm o o th m u sc le a n d
e la sti c fi b e r la ye r
tu n i ca m e d i a )
e n d o th e li a l la ye r
tu n i ca i n ti m a )
fi b ro u s co lla g e n )
la ye r tu n i ca e xte rn a )
e n d o th e li a l la ye r
tu n i ca i n ti m a )
e n d o th e li a l
ce ll
va lve fla p s
fi b ro u s co lla g e n ) la ye r
tu n i ca e xte rn a )
sm o o th m u sc le a n d
e la sti c fi b e r la ye r
tu n i ca m e d i a )
e n d o th e li a l la ye r
tu n i ca i n ti m a )
lu m e n
lu m e n
e n d o th e li a l
ce ll
sm o o th m u sc le a n d
e la sti c fi b e r la ye r
tu n i ca m e d i a )
lu m e n i n n e r sp a c e
th ro u g h wh i c h b lo o d flo ws)
fi b ro u s co lla g e n ) la ye r
tu n i ca e xte rn a )
sm o o th m u sc le a n d
e la sti c fi b e r la ye r
tu n i ca m e d i a )
e n d o th e li a l la ye r
tu n i ca i n ti m a )
Blood vessels
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Arteries
G Arteriescarry blood at hi gh pressure
away from the heart. They have the
thi ckest wallsof all blood vessels, wi th
a layer of smooth musclei n them. Thi s
muscle can contract to constri ct the
blood vessels, rai si ng the blood
pressure even further.
G The arteri esalso contai n elasti c ti ssue
that faci li tatesthe flow of blood by
stretchi ng duri ng diastoleand
contracti ng duri ng systole. The aorta
i sparti cularly well suppli ed wi th elasti c
ti ssue.
Capillaries
G Capillariesare mi croscopi c blood
vesselsthat penetrate all acti ve ti ssues.
Thei r wallsare one cell thi ck and allow
the rapi d exchange of materi als.
G White blood cellscan leave capi llari es
bysqueezi ng between cellsof the
endotheli um. Red blood corpuscles
cannot leave capi llari esunlessthe
wallshave been damaged. Thi sleads
to a brui se asthe blood leaksi nto the
ti ssues.
Veins
G Veinsare large blood vesselscarryi ng
blood at low pressure back toward the
heart. They have thi nner wallsthan
arteri es, wi th lessmuscle.
G Valvesprevent the backflow of blood
i n the vei ns.
aorta
artery
capillary
diastole
red blood
corpuscle
smooth muscle
systole
vein
white blood cell
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Size of capillaries
G Capillariesare mi croscopi c blood
vesselswi th an i nternal di ameter
typi cally large enough to let red blood
corpusclespassi n si ngle fi le.
G The total i nternal volume of the
capi llari esi n the body i svery large
because of the very large numbersof
capi llari esi n each organ. The total
volume i sup to ten ti meslarger than
the volume of blood i n the system.
Exchange
G Capi llary wallsare one cell thi ck and
allow rapi d exchange of materi als.
O xygen and food materi alspassto the
ti ssues, and wastespassback i nto the
blood.
G White blood cellscan leave capi llari es
by squeezi ng between cellsof the
endotheli um. Red blood corpuscles
cannot leave capi llari esunlessthe
wallshave been damaged.
Tissue fluid and lymph
G Blood enteri ng a capi llarybed i sat a
hi gher hydrostati c pressure than the
flui d surroundi ng the cellsof the
ti ssue. Thi scausesflui d to leak out of
the capi llari esand surround the cells.
Thi si scalled ti ssue flui d.
G At the venous( venule) end of the
capi llary bed, flui d passesthe other
way, but some i salwaysleft i n the
ti ssues. Thi sflui d i sdrai ned away by
lymph vesselsand i sreturned to the
bloodstream aslymph flui d i n other
partsof the system.
Transport: capillaries
and tissues
The capillary network
T h e n e two rk s o f ca p i lla ri e s li n k i n g a rte ri e s a n d ve i n s a re k n o wn a s ca p i lla ry b e d s.
E a c h ca p i lla ry b e d p ro v i d e s a li n k b e twe e n m a n y a rte ri o le s ti n y a rte ri e s) a n d ve n u le s
ti n y ve i n s) .
flo w o f ti ssu e flu i d ri c h i n wa ste
flo w o f ti ssu e flu i d ri c h i n o xyg e n a n d fo o d
b lo o d flo w
a rte ri o le
ti ssu e flu i d
ly m p h a ti c ve sse l
ti ssu e ce ll
re d b lo o d
c o rp u sc le
ve n u le
Relationship between capillaries, Iymphatic vessels,
and tissue cells
ca p i lla ry b e d
ve n u le s a rte ri o le s
e n d o th e li u m
capillary
lymph vessel
red blood
corpuscle
white blood cell
Key words
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Transport: lymphatic
system
ly m p h ve sse ls
le ft ly m p h a ti c d u c t
le ft su b c la v i a n ve i n
h e a rt
ly m p h n o d e
i le u m
ly m p h n o d e
ri g h t su b c la v i a n ve i n
ri g h t ly m p h a ti c d u c t
ly m p h n o d e
d i re c ti o n o f I y m p h flo w
th o ra c i c d u c t
ju g u la r v e i n
Lymphatic system
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Lymphatic fluid
G Lymphati c flui d i sderi ved from ti ssue
flui d that hasbeen drai ned away from
ti ssuesby lymph vessels.
G Lymphati c flui d contai nsa range of
chemi calsand white blood cells. I t
effecti vely washesthe cellsand can
carry pathogens, mi croorgani smsthat
cause di sease, from ti ssuestoward the
lymph nodes.
Vessels, nodes, and ducts
G Lymph vesselsare vesselsthat carry
lymphati c ti ssue toward lymph nodes
and then to the bloodstream. I n the
ti ssuesthese vesselsare mi croscopi c,
typi cally the si ze of capi llari es, but as
they joi n up they become larger, and
the largest of them are vi si ble to the
naked eye.
G A lymph node i sa knot of lymphati c
ti ssue that i sparti cularly well-suppli ed
wi th phagocyti c lymphocytes. These
are able to fi lter pathogensfrom the
lymph. Swollen lymph nodesare a
characteri sti c si gn of certai n i nfecti ons,
asthe lymphocytesmulti ply to combat
the i nvadi ng mi croorgani sms.
G The thoraci c duct, the largest
lymphati c vessel, collectsmost of the
lymph i n the body ( except that from
the ri ght arm and the ri ght si de of the
chest, neck, and head, whi ch i s
collected by the ri ght lymphati c duct)
and drai nsi t i nto the blood stream at
the juncti on of the left subclavi ci an
vei n and left jugular vei n.
G The lymphati c system also transports
fatsfrom the i leum ( small i ntesti ne) to
the blood.
lymph vessel
pathogen
white blood cell
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Cellular components
G Roughly 45 percent of the volume of
whole blood i smade of cells, red and
whi te.
G Red blood corpusclesare bi concave
di sks, packed wi th hemoglobin, that
transport oxygen from the lungsto the
ti ssuesof the body. They have no
nucleuswhen mature and last about
120 days. They are made i n the red
bone marrow of large bonesand are
destroyed at the end of thei r li vesby
cellsi n the spleen and liver.
G White blood cellsi nclude a number of
di fferent types, but all are i nvolved i n
defense agai nst di sease. They are
made i n yellow bone marrow and
lymph nodes. Whi te blood cellsare
much lesscommon than red blood
corpuscles( typi cally 1 percent) ,
though thei r numbersi ncrease duri ng
i nfecti on.
G Plateletsare subcellular components
that ci rculate i n the blood and are
i nvolved i n clotti ng. They are
manufactured i n the bone marrow.
Plasma
G The li qui d component of blood i s
called plasma. I t contai nsa wi de
vari ety of chemi calsi n soluti on or
suspensi on.
G Much of the carbon di oxi de
transported around the body i scarri ed
i n soluti on i n the plasma, although red
blood corpusclesare i nvolved i n
helpi ng the gasto di ssolve.
Transport: blood
composition
hemoglobin
liver
plasma
platelet
red blood
corpuscle
spleen
white blood cell
Key words
165
Functions of plasma
G Tra n sp o rts n u tri e n ts a n d wa ste p ro d u c ts.
G Tra n sp o rts h o rm o n e s a n d o th e r si g n a l
su b sta n ce s.
G C o n ta in s p la sm a p ro te in s, wh ich a re im p o rta n t
i n b lo o d c lo tti n g a n d i m m u n i ty.
G R e g u la te s wa te r a n d i o n i c co n te n t o f ce lls a n d
d a m p e n s b u ffe rs) ch a n g e s i n p H to m a i n ta i n
a co n sta n t e n v i ro n m e n t fo r ti ssu e fu n c ti o n .
G R e g u la te s b o d y te m p e ra tu re .
Functions of blood cells
T h e va st m a jo ri ty o f th e ce lls a re e ry th ro c y te s
re d b lo o d c o rp u sc le s, wh i c h a re re sp o n si b le
fo r tra n sp o rti n g o xyg e n a n d ca rb o n d i o xi d e .
T h e re a re se ve ra l ty p e s o f le u ko c y te s wh i te
b lo o d ce lls) , wh i c h h e lp to d e fe n d th e b o d y
a g a i n st d i se a se :
G g ra n u lo c y te s h a ve a g ra n u la r c y to p la sm a n d
e n g u lf b a c te ri a o r a tta c k p a ra si te s;
G ly m p h o cy te s p ro d u ce a n ti b o d i e s a n d re g u la te
th e i m m u n e re sp o n se s;
G m o n o c y te s ca n le a ve th e b lo o d to b e co m e
tissu e m a cro p h a g e s: ce lls ca p a b le o f in g e stin g
b a c te ri a , ce ll d e b ri s, a n d ca n ce r ce lls.
P la te le ts a re b o d ies fo rm e d b y th e fra g m e n ta tio n
o f la rg e r ce lls. T h e y a re v i ta l fo r b lo o d c lo tti n g
a t si te s o f i n ju ry.
ce ll m e m b ra n e
g ra n u le s
Blood components separated
by centrifugation
Blood cells
wa te r
o rg a n i c
a c i d s
p ro te i n s
sa lts
le u ko c y te s
wh i te
b lo o d c e lls)
a n d
p la te le ts
e ry th ro c y te s
re d b lo o d
c o rp u sc le s)
p
l
a
s
m
a

5
5
%
)
b
l
o
o
d
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e
l
l
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4
5
%
)
Leukocytes:
c y to p la sm
n u c le u s
Lymphocyte
ce ll m e m b ra n e
c y to p la sm
n u c le u s
Granulocyte
Monocyte
ce ll m e m b ra n e
c y to p la sm
n u c le u s
Platelets
ce ll m e m b ra n e
c y to p la sm
Red blood corpuscle
(erythrocyte)
ce ll
m e m b ra n e
Surface view Section
c y to p la sm
ce ll
m e m b ra n e

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Transport: blood types
AB
AB
AB
AB
AB
AB
AB
B
B
B
B
B
B
a
a
a
a
b
b
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
b
b
a
a
a
b
b
O
A
B
AB
a
b
Antibody/ antigen composition of different blood types
Reactions that occur when different blood groups are mixed
O i s u n i ve rsa l d o n o r
A B i s u n i ve rsa l re c i p i e n t
A g g lu ti n a ti o n o cc u rs i f th e re c i p i e n t's b lo o d co n ta i n s a n ti b o d i e s to th e d o n o r s a n ti g e n s
= re d b lo o d c o rp u sc le
wi th n o a n ti g e n s
= re d b lo o d c o rp u sc le
wi th A a n ti g e n
= re d b lo o d c o rp u sc le
wi th B a n ti g e n
= re d b lo o d c o rp u sc le
wi th A a n d B a n ti g e n s
= a n ti -A a n ti b o d y
i n p la sm a
= a n ti -B a n ti b o d y
i n p la sm a
= a g g lu ti n a ti o n
o cc u rs
= a g g lu ti n a ti o n d o e s
n o t o cc u r
Recipient
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O A B AB
Blood
types
O
A
B
AB
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Blood types
G There are many waysto classi fy blood,
and a complete typology i nvolves
more than 20 di fferent cri teri a.
G The fi rst and most commonly ci ted
blood group dependson the ABO
system, whi ch can place everyone i nto
one of four groups: A, B, AB, and O.
Antigens and antibodies
G Red blood corpuscleshave protei nson
thei r cell surface called antigens.
There are two types: A and B. Blood
group A hasanti gen A on i tscell
surface, B hasB, AB hasboth, and O
hasnei ther.
G Blood plasma contai nsantibodies,
protei nsthe i mmune system usesto
neutrali ze forei gn objects, that react
wi th these anti gens. Blood group A
hasanti -B, B hasanti -A, O hasboth
anti -A and anti -B, whi le AB hasnei ther.
Agglutination
G When anti gen A reactswi th anti -A, red
blood cellsclump together to form a
clot. Thi sreacti on i scalled
aggluti nati on. For thi sreason, i f
reci pi entshave anti -A i n thei r plasma,
they cannot recei ve blood from
group A
G The anti bodi esi n the donor can be
i gnored duri ng transfusi ons only the
anti bodi esi n the reci pi ent are
si gni fi cant. Thi smeansAB ( whi ch has
no anti bodi es) can recei ve blood from
any group and i scalled the uni versal
reci pi ent. Blood group O i sthe
uni versal donor because i t hasno
anti bodi es.
antibody
antigen
plasma
red blood
corpuscle
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Respiration and breathing
G The termsrespi rati on and breathi ng
are often used to mean the same
thi ng the movi ng of ai r i nto and out
of lungs.
G However, respi rati on can also mean
the chemi cal reacti onsgoi ng on i n all
cellsthat transfer energy from food
and oxygen to dri ve cell processes.
System components
G The respi ratory system consi stsof the
nose, nasal cavi ty, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, smaller conducti ng
passageways( bronchi and
bronchioles) , and alveoli.
G The lungsare found i n the thoraci c
regi on and are protected by the ri bs.
I mmedi ately below the lungsi sa sheet
of muscle called the diaphragmthat
separatesthe lungsfrom the gut and
li ver.
G Musclesbetween the ri bs the
intercostals contract and relax to
move ai r i nto and out of the lungs.
G The lungsare not attached to the ri bs.
They are separated by the pleural
membrane, whi ch producesa flui d to
allow them to sli de over the movi ng
ri bsduri ng breathi ng.
G Hai rsand mucusi n the nose clean the
ai r before i t passesi nto the nasal
cavi ty. Ai r travelsdown through the
pharynx and i spassed to the trachea.
G The trachea i sa pi pe strengthened
wi th ri ngsof carti lage to prevent i t
from collapsi ng. I t di vi desi nto two
bronchi , one for each lung. At the
poi nt where the trachea joi nsthe
esophagusi sthe epi glotti s. Thi ssmall
flap of ti ssue closesthe entrance to
the lungswhen food i sswallowed.
G I nsi de the lungs, the bronchi di vi de to
form smaller and smaller bronchi oles,
whi ch eventually termi nate i n swollen
ai r sacscalled alveoli .
Respiration: respiratory
system
n a sa l ca v i ty
e so p h a g u s
p h a ry n x
e p i g lo tti s
la ry n x
tra c h e a
ri b
i n te rco sta l
m u sc le
b ro n c h i o le
p le u ra l
m e m b ra n e s
ri g h t lu n g
p le u ra l
ca v i ty
d i a p h ra g m
ca rti la g e
b ro n c h u s
le ft lu n g h e a rt
Section of head and thorax
Left lung: surface view Right lung: section
alveolus
bronchiole
diaphragm
intercostal
muscle
lung
Key words
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Respiration: lungs HUM AN BI O LO GY
Macrostructure
G The lungsare large ai r-fi lled spacesi n
the thorax. They are protected by the
ri b cage and connect to the outsi de
world through the wi ndpi pe, or
trachea.
G The lungsare connected to the
trachea by the bronchi . The bronchi
enter the lungsand branch out to
form bronchi al trees. The bronchi
di vi de i nto smaller bronchioles, whi ch
termi nate i nto alveoli.
Microstructure
G The alveoli are swollen sacsof ti ssue
that have verythi n wallsand a very
good blood supply. A branch of the
pulmonaryarterysuppli es
deoxygenated blood to the network of
capi llari escoveri ng the outsi de of the
alveolus. A branch of the pulmonary
vei n drai nsoxygenated blood from
these capi llari esand returnsi t to the
heart.
G Gaseous exchangeoccursbetween the
ai r i n the alveolusand the blood i n the
capi llari es. O xygen passesi nto the
blood, whi le carbon di oxi de passes
from the blood to the alveolar ai r.
G Muscular movementsi n the ri bsand
the di aphragm mai ntai n a constant
supply of fresh ai r to the alveoli .
alveolus
bronchiole
gaseous
exchange
lung
thorax
Key words
168
Respiratory system
Bronchiole and air sacs
b ro n c h i o le
a n d a i r sa c s
b ro n c h i o le
a lve o lu s
re sp i ra to ry
b ro n c h i o le
a lve o li
a i r sa c
b ra n c h o f p u lm o n a ry ve i n
ca p i lla ry
n e two rk
a
l
v
e
o
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u
s
d i re c ti o n o f b lo o d flo w
Alveoli
re sp i ra to ry b ro n c h i o le
b ra n c h o f
p u lm o n a ry
a rte ry
e xh a le d a i r
p o o r i n o xyg e n )
d i ffu si o n o f o xyg e n
i n to b lo o d
d i ffu si o n o f ca rb o n
d i o xi d e fro m b lo o d
i n h a le d a i r
ri c h i n o xyg e n )
b lo o d flo w
Section of alveolus
b ra n c h o f
p u lm o n a ry
a rte ry
re d b lo o d ce ll
b lo o d p la sm a
e p i th e li u m
o f a lve o lu s
fi lm o f
m o i stu re
b ra n c h o f
p u lm o n a ry
ve i n
ca p i lla ry
wa ll

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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Muscles involved
G For gentle breathi ng, the diaphragm,
whi ch separatesthe lungsfrom the
abdomen, contractsand relaxes.
G Duri ng heavi er breathi ng, muscles
between the ri bs the intercostals
are also i nvolved, and si gni fi cantly
i ncrease the ai rflow.
Inhaling
G Duri ng gentle i nhalati on, the
di aphragm contractsand fallsaway
from the lungs. The lungsare pulled
down, and ai r i sdrawn i nto them by
sucti on. The di aphragm i snot
physi cally connected to the lungs a
vacuum between the surface of the
lungsand the i nsi de of the ri bspulls
the lungsdown whi le allowi ng them to
move around.
G To i ncrease i nhalati on, the external
i ntercostalsmusclescontract. These
pull the ri bsupward and outward to
i ncrease the volume of the chest. Thi s
pullsai r i nto the lungs.
Exhalation
G When musclesi n the body wall
contract, the li ver and stomach push
agai nst the di aphragm. The relaxed
di aphragm then pushesup i nto the
chest space and squeezesai r out of
the lungs.
G To i ncrease exhalati on, the i nternal
i ntercostalscontract and pull the ri bs
downward and i nward to push on the
lungs.
Respiration: breathing
m o ve m e n t o f a i r m o ve m e n t o f ri b s m o ve m e n t o f d i a p h ra g m
Breathing in (inhalation) Breathing out (exhalation)
Thorax section
(front view)
Thorax section
(side view)
ri b
i n te rco sta l
m u sc le s
re la xe d
ste rn u m
b a c k b o n e
ri b
i n te rco sta l m u sc le s
co n tra c te d
ri b
i n te rco sta l
m u sc le s
lu n g
d i a p h ra g m
m u sc le s
co n tra c te d
d i a p h ra g m m u sc le s
re la xe d
d i a p h ra g m m u sc le s
co n tra c te d
d i a p h ra g m
m u sc le s
re la xe d
i n te rco sta l m u sc le s
re la xe d
tra c h e a
lu n g
Breathing
abdomen
diaphragm
intercostal
lung
Key words
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Excretion: excretory
systems
lu n g
k i d n e y
i n te sti n e
wa te r a n d ca rb o n d i o xi d e fro m lu n g s
wa te r, sa lts, a n d u re a fro m sk i n
u re a , wa te r, a n d sa lts fro m k i d n e y
b i le p i g m e n ts fro m li ve r v i a
la rg e i n te sti n e
sk i n
Excretory systems
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Excretion
G Excreti on i sthe removal of waste and
breakdown productsof metabolism
from the body.
G Si nce the roughage that formsmost
feceshasnever been i nsi de the body
( the gut space i sregarded asoutsi de
of the body) , most of i t i snot an
excretory product.
Excretory products
G Carbon di oxi de and water made by
respi rati on.
G Urea made by the li ver from excess
ami no aci dsor broken down protei n
molecules.
G Excesssaltsthat were absorbed
through the gut.
G Bilesaltsmade by the spleen from old
red blood cells.
G Assorted chemi calsabsorbed by the
body or toxi nsthat have been broken
down by the li ver.
Routes out of the body
G Carbon di oxi de and a small amount of
water leave i n exhaled ai r.
G Urea passesout i n soluti on asuri ne
made by the ki dneys. Uri ne also
contai nswaste salts, other assorted
waste products, and water.
G Sweat contai nswater, some salts, and
urea, but i snot a major route out of
the body for these substancesi n
normal ci rcumstances.
G Bi le pi gmentsare passed i nto the gut
and passout i n feces.
bile
feces
gut
metabolism
spleen
urea
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Excretion and
osmoregulation
G Excreti on i sthe removal of the break-
down productsof metabolismand
other waste from the body.
G Osmoregulation i sthe control of the
water potenti al of flui dswi thi n the
body.
G The kidneysare i nvolved i n both
cruci al processes.
The kidneys
G Human bei ngshave two ki dneys
attached to the back of the abdomi nal
cavi ty. Bony extensi onsof the spi ne
protect these vi tal organs.
G Uretersconnect the ki dneysto the
bladder. There are no valvesi n the
ureters, so flui d drai nsdownward by
gravi ty. Backflow of uri ne to the
ki dneysi sprevented by the constant
producti on of flui d by the ki dneys.
G Blood supply to the ki dneysi sthrough
the renal artery, a branch of the aorta.
Thi sblood i sat hi gh pressure, whi ch i s
essenti al for effi ci ent ki dney functi on.
The renal vei n, whi ch opensi nto the
vena cava, drai nsblood from the
ki dneysat low pressure.
Bladder and ureters
G The bladder actsasa storage organ,
holdi ng uri ne unti l i t i sconveni ent to
release i t to the outsi de world.
G The uri ne then flowsalong the
urethra. A valve i n the urethra
preventsbackflow of uri ne i nto the
bladder.
Excretion: urinary system
Urinary system
ri g h t k i d n e y
i n fe ri o r
ve n a ca va
le ft k i d n e y
a o rta
re n a l
a rte ry
u re te r
b la d d e r
u re th ra
re n a l ve i n
kidney
metabolism
osmoregulation
ureter
Key words
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Excretion: kidney
structure
b lo o d flo w
Kidney
Longitudinal section
b ra n c h o f
re n a l a rte ry
re n a l ve i n
re n a l a rte ry
u re te r
re n a l p e lv i s
g lo m e ru li
co rte x
co rte x
Kidney
Longitudinal section
m e d u lla
re n a l
p e lv i s
Nephron
n e p h ro n
g lo m e ru lu s
B o wm a n s ca p su le
b ra n c h o f
re n a l a rte ry
b ra n c h o f re n a l ve i n
ca p i lla ri e s
lo o p o f H e n le
d i sta l
co n vo lu te d
tu b u le
c
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p ro xi m a l
co n vo lu te d
tu b u le
co lle c ti n g d u c t
m e d u lla
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Gross anatomy
G The human kidneyi ssuppli ed wi th
blood by a branch of the aorta called
the renal artery and i sdrai ned of
blood by a branch from the vena cava
called the renal vei n.
G Uri ne produced by the ki dney i s
conducted by the ureter to the
bladder for storage.
Cortex and medulla
G The outer part of the ki dney i scalled
the cortex. I t surroundsthe medulla,
whi ch i ncludesi n the mi ddle a space
connected to the ureter.
G The renal artery branchesrepeatedly
i n the ki dney, deli veri ng blood to the
cortex.
Nephrons
G Nephronsare long tubulesthat start i n
the cortex wi th a small knot of
capi llari escalled a glomerulus. The
glomerulusi ssurrounded by a cup-
shaped structure called the Bowman's
capsule, whi ch servesasa fi lter to
remove organi c wastes, excess
i norgani c salts, and water. Flui dsfrom
blood i n the glomerulus are collected
i n the Bowman scapsule and further
processed along the nephron to form
uri ne.
G A proxi mal convoluted tubule recei ves
the flui dsfrom the renal corpuscle.
The proxi mal tubule leadsto a long
tubular loop called the loop of Henle,
whi ch i sconcerned wi th absorbi ng
water from the uri ne before i t i s
released. The ascendi ng li mb of the
loop of Henle returnsthe uri ne to the
corti cal regi on of the ki dney where i t
entersthe di stal convoluted tubule.
Thi stubule carri esthe uri ne to the
collecti ng duct, whi ch empti esi nto the
renal pelvi sand then i nto the ureter
and bladder.
aorta
Bowmans
capsule
glomerulus
kidney
nephron
ureter
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Ultrafiltration
G The human kidneyi ssuppli ed wi th
blood by a branch of the aorta called
the renal artery. Thi sentersthe ki dney
at hi gh pressure, and plasma i sforced
out of the capi llari esi n the
glomerulus. Thi sprocessi scalled
ultrafiltration.
G The glomerular fi ltrate that collectsi n
the space of the Bowmans capsule
contai nsa wi de range of useful
materi als( salts, sugar, etc.) aswell as
waste productsli ke urea.
G I f thi sli qui d were passed out asuri ne,
the body would be losi ng valuable
materi alsand a huge amount of water
every day.
Selective reabsorption
G Asthe flui d passesalong the nephron
toward the collecti ng duct that wi ll
take i t to the uretersand then to the
bladder, useful materi alsare
reabsorbed.
G Glucose and many saltsare reabsorbed
i n the fi rst part of the nephron called
the proxi mal convoluted tubule.
Glucose i sacti vely reabsorbed. Many
other substancesdi ffuse back i nto the
blood along a concentration gradient.
G The loop of Henle i si mportant for
reabsorbi ng water. Sodi um i onsare
pumped i nto and out of the loop i n a
parti cular pattern to cause water to
follow them by osmosi s. Thi sprocess
can create a hi ghly concentrated uri ne
that can conserve water i n ti mesof
stress. When water i splenti ful, thi s
processi smodi fi ed, and mammals
produce large volumesof di lute uri ne.
Excretion: kidney
function
Bowmans
capsule
concentration
gradient
glomerulus
kidney
nephron
selective
reabsorption
ultrafiltration
urea
ureter
Key words
173
URINE
d i sta l
co n vo lu te d
tu b u le
lo o p o f H e n le
Nephron function
co lle c ti n g
d u c t
ca p i lla ry
p ro xi m a l
co n vo lu te d tu b u le
B o wm a n s ca p su le
g lo m e ru lu s
B o wm a n s
ca p su le
g lo m e ru lu s
ca p i lla ry
p ro xi m a l
co n vo lu te d
tu b u le
b lo o d flo w
fi ltra te flo w
fi ltra ti o n
re a b so rp ti o n o f g lu co se ,
a m i n o a c i d s, wa te r, sa lts
First part of nephron: scheme

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Excretion: skin structure
n e rve
e n d i n g
p a i n )
Skin
n e rve e n d i n g
to u c h )
n e rve e n d i n g p re ssu re)
ca p i lla ry lo o p
h a i r fo lli c le
se b a ce o u s g la n d
h a i r e re c to r m u sc le
swe a t p o re
swe a t g la n d wi th ca p i lla ri e s
swe a t d u c t
co rn i fi e d la ye r
e p i d e rm i s
g ra n u la r la ye r
M a lp i g h i a n la ye r
d e rm i s
su b c u ta n e o u s fa t
n e rve
e n d i n g
to u c h )
h a i r
Vertical section
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Skin layers
G The ski n i smade up of three di sti nct
layers: the epidermis, the dermi s, and
a layer of fat called subcutaneousfat.
Epidermis
G The epi dermi si sthe outer layer of the
ski n and i ncludeseverythi ng from the
Malpighian layer outward.
G Mature epi dermal cellsare dead and
are constantly lost from the surface.
The Malpi ghi an layer replacesthese
cellsat the base of the epi dermi sso
that there i sa constant mi grati on of
cellsfrom i nsi de to outsi de. Duri ng
thi smi grati on, the cellsare fi lled wi th
keratin, whi ch helpsto waterproof the
ski n.
G Melanocytesi n the ski n produce the
pi gment melani n i n response to UV
li ght. Thi sdarkensthe ski n and
protectsthe deli cate dermi sfrom
radi ati on.
Dermis
G The dermi si smuch thi cker than the
epi dermi sand contai nsa much wi der
range of structures.
G Sweat glandsi n the dermi sproduce
sweat, whi ch i sreleased most acti vely
when the temperature ri ses. I t cools
the ski n by absorbi ng energy to
evaporate.
G Hai r folli clesare embedded i n the
dermi s. Sebaceousglands, found
where the hai r exi tsthe ski n, produce
a fatty secreti on called sebum. Bacteri a
li vi ng on the ski n surface di gest thi sto
create aci dsthat i nhi bi t the growth of
certai n pathogeni c organi sms.
G The dermi salso contai nsa wi de range
of sensory nerve endi ngs.
G Blood vesselsi n the dermi scan
expand and contract to regulate heat
lossfrom the ski n.
Subcutaneous fat
G Subcutaneousfat gi vesthe ski n a
plump, padded look.
epidermis
keratin
Malpighian layer
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
CNS and PNS
G The human nervoussystem di vi des
i nto two mai n parts: the central
nervous system( CNS) and the
peripheral nervous system( PNS) .
G The CNS i ncludesthe brai n and spi nal
cord. The PNS i ncludeseverythi ng else
and consi stsof pai red nervesthat ari se
from the spinal cord. A si ngle nerve i s
a bundle of elongated cellscalled
neurons.
Neurons
G Neuronsare the cellsof the nervous
system that carry nerve i mpulses.
There are three basi c types:
G Sensoryneuronsconvey messages
from the sense organsi nto the CNS.
G Motor neurons carrymessagesfrom
the CNS out to musclesor glands.
G Association neuronscarry messages
around i nsi de the CNS. They are
di fferent from sensoryand motor
neuronsi n that they do not possess
myeli n sheaths, the i nsulati ng
envelopesthat surround the core of a
nerve fi ber and faci li tate the
transmi ssi on of nerve i mpulses.
G Neuronspassmessagesbetween
themselvesacrosssynapses. A synapse
formswhere two nerve cellsare i n
close contact. Messagespassacross
the small gap assecreti onsof
chemi calscalled neurotransmitters.
G I mpulsespassi ng along neuronsare
wavesof electri cal acti vi ty created by
the movement of sodi um i onsi nto
and out of the nerve fi ber.
Coordination: nervous
system
Nervous system
p
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sp i n a l n e rve s
c
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sp i n a l co rd
b ra i n
association
neuron
central nervous
system
motor neuron
neuron
neurotransmitter
peripheral
nervous system
sensory neuron
spinal cord
synapse
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Coordination: nerve
impulse
a re a wh e re c h a rg e a c ro ss
m e m b ra n e h a s b e e n re sto re d
a re a o f
d e p o la ri za ti o n
n e rve
fi b e r
n e u ro n )
n e rve
fi b e r
n e u ro n )
n e rve
fi b e r
n e u ro n )
a re a o f d e p o la ri za ti o n
Schematic longitudinal section of nerve fiber to show
passage of an impulse along the membrane
Resting state (inside negative, outside positive)
Initiation
of nerve
impulse
Propagation
of impulse
so d i u m i o n
p o ta ssi u m i o n
i n flo w o f so d i u m i o n s
o u tflo w o f p o ta ssi u m i o n s
d i re c ti o n o f i m p u lse
m e m b ra n e
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Electrical balance
G A nerve fi ber i slong and tubular i n
shape. I t i snormally impermeableto
sodi um i ons, and these are pumped to
the outsi de of the cell so that an
electri cal potenti al exi stsacrossthe
cell membrane.
G Thi smeansthat the outsi de i smore
posi ti ve, wi th a hi gher concentrati on
of sodi um i onsthan the i nsi de.
Depolarization
G When a neuron i ssti mulated, the
membrane i schanged to allow i onsto
pass, and sodi um i onsrush i n to
equali ze the potenti al di fference. Thi s
i scalled depolari zati on. A number of
other i onsi nsi de also move,
parti cularly potassi um i ons, whi ch flow
out of the neuron.
G The i nsi de of the neuron i snow
neutral or sli ghtly negati ve. Thi slasts
for a very short ti me, and soon the
acti ve pumpi ng of sodi um i onsand
reversi on of the membrane back to
i mpermeabi li ty reassertsthe posi ti ve
charge outsi de the cell.
A wave of depolarization
G A nerve i mpulse i sa wave of
depolari zati on that movesalong the
neuron.
G Depolari zati on i n one part sti mulates
the next part of the neuron to
depolari ze. Thi smovesthe i mpulse
forward. Behi nd the depolari zati on,
the cell i srepolari zi ng the membrane
agai n to leave i t ready to recei ve the
next stimulus.
impermeable
neuron
stimulus
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Links between cells
G Nerve cellsdo not exi st i n i solati on.
They must passmessagesbetween
themselvesi n order to functi on.
G The poi nt at whi ch neuronsmeet i s
called a synapse. The cellsdo not
actually joi n; there i salwaysa small
gap between them.
G The endsof neuronsare often
speci ali zed to encourage the passi ng
of messages; for example, they can
have an i ncreased surface area, or have
a number of shorter processescalled
dendritesthat li nk i nto the cells
around them.
Chemical messengers
G Each i mpulse travelsdown the axon
of the neuron to i tsend, whi ch i s
swollen to form a synapti c knob.
G The synapti c knob ( see bottom
di agram) i sfi lled wi th vesiclescalled
synapti c sacs, whi ch contai n chemi cals
called neurotransmitters.
G When an i mpulse arri vesat the
synapti c knob, chemi calstri gger the
ejecti on of neurotransmi ttersfrom
some of the vesi cles, and thei r
neurotransmi tter i sreleased i nto the
synapti c cleft.
G The neurotransmi tter moleculesbi nd
to receptorson the postsynapti c
membrane.
G Some neurotransmi tterssti mulate an
i mpulse i n the next neuron. Some
i nhi bi t the neuron, stoppi ng the
i mpulse or blocki ng a pathway.
G Neurotransmi tter moleculesare
broken down after a short ti me, so
that the synapse becomesopen for
new i mpulsesagai n.
G Certai n typesof poi sons( e.g., curare)
affect these chemi calsand the
enzymesthat regulate them. These
poi sonski ll the body by effecti vely
destroyi ng the functi onali ty of the
nervoussystem.
Coordination: synapse
a sso c i a ti o n
n e u ro n
Connections between association neuron and motor neuron
sy n a p ti c k n o b
ce ll b o d y o f m o to r n e u ro n
a xo n o f m o to r n e u ro n
sy n a p ti c sa c
tra n sm i tte r m o le c u le s
p re sy n a p ti c m e m b ra n e
s
y
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l
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d i re c ti o n o f i m p u lse
Transmission across a synapse: schematic representation
sc h e m a ti c re p re se n ta ti o n o f
tra n sm i ssi o n a c ro ss a sy n a p se
p o stsy n a p ti c
m e m b ra n e
n e u ro tra n sm i tte r re c e p to r
d e n d ri te
axon
dendrite
neuron
neurotransmitter
synapse
vesicle
Key words
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Coordination: autonomic
nervous system
Sympathetic Parasympathetic
B ra i n
c e rv i c a l
g a n g li a
v a g u s
n e rv e
c h a i n g a n g li a
sp i n a l c o rd
I ri s
d i la te s p u p i l
c o n stri c ts
p u p i l
S a li v a ry g la n d
i n h i b i ts sa li v a ti o n
H e a rt
a c c e le ra te s h e a rt
ra te
B ro n c h i
d i la te s b ro n c h i
S to m a c h / p a n c re a s
i n h i b i ts a c ti v i ty
I n te sti n e
i n h i b i ts p e ri sta lsi s
L i v e r
g ly c o g e n c o n v e rsi o n
to g lu c o se
B la d d e r
re la xe s b la d d e r
A d re n a l
g la n d
sti m u la te s
re le a se o f
e p i n e p h ri n e
a n d
n o re p i n e p h ri n e
sti m u la te s sa li v a ti o n
d e c re a se s h e a rt ra te
c o n stri c ts b ro n c h i
sti m u la te s a c ti v i ty
g lu c o se c o n v e rsi o n to
g ly c o g e n
i n h i b i ts re le a se o f
e p i n e p h ri n e a n d
n o re p i n e p h ri n e
sti m u la te s p e ri sta lsi s
c o n tra c ts b la d d e r
HUM AN BI O LO GY
No conscious control
G The autonomic nervous system
consi stsof two systemsthat control
many of the automati c responsesi n
the body.
G They are not normally under
consci ouscontrol and mai nly deal wi th
the control of glandsand the i nternal
body condi ti on.
Sympathetic system
G The sympathetic nervous system
preparesthe body for acti vi ty and has
effectsthat are si mi lar to the effectsof
the hormone adrenalin. Thi si sthe
fi ght or fli ght response.
G The sympatheti c system ari sesfrom
the spinal cord but wi th a gangli on
( lump) of nervousti ssue found near
the root of the nerves.
Parasympathetic system
G The parasympathetic nervous system
relaxesthe body. I tseffectsare
antagoni sti c to the sympatheti c
system.
G Parasympatheti c nervesari se di rectly
from the spi nal cord wi thout any
gangli a. The most i mportant
parasympatheti c nerve i n the body i s
the vagusnerve, whi ch connectsto a
wi de range of organsi n the chest and
abdomi nal areas.
adrenalin
autonomic
nervous system
parasympathetic
nervous system
spinal cord
sympathetic
nervous system
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Brain structure
G The brai n i sactually a tubular
structure that can be i nterpreted asa
swelli ng of the end of the spi nal cord.
The central canal of the spi nal cord i s
conti nuouswi th spacesat the center
of the brai n. However, because the
tube i sfolded and expanded, thi s
structure can be obscured.
G Starti ng from the top of the
spinal cord, the fi rst swelli ng i s
the medulla oblongata. Growi ng
out from thi stoward the back of
the head i sthe cerebellum.
G Further along the structure are the
two largest swelli ngs the cerebral
hemispheres. The cord hasalso bent
through a ri ght angle so that the
hemi spheresseem to si t on top of
the cord.
G Neurologi stsnormally subdi vi de the
cerebral cortex i nto four lobes: the
frontal lobe, the pari etal lobe, the
occi pi tal lobe, and the temporal lobe.
Key areas
G Di fferent partsof the brai n have
di fferent functi ons. Broadly speaki ng,
the further down the tube, the more
unconsci ousor automati c the acti vi ty.
G The medulla oblongata coordi nates
i nvoluntaryacti vi ti es. The cerebellum
coordi natescomplex muscle
movementsand i si nvolved i n
mai ntai ni ng balance.
G Thi nki ng and voluntary acti on
seem to be coordi nated by the
cerebral hemi spheres.
G The cerebral hemi sphereshave
been extensi vely mapped to
i denti fyareasconcerned wi th
sensesand movement ( see
bottom di agram) . Locati ng the
area that i sconcerned wi th
consci ousthought hasbeen
much more di ffi cult.
Coordination: brain
structure
cerebellum
cerebral
hemispheres
medulla
oblongata
spinal cord
Key words
179
Brain
fro n ta l lo b e p a ri e ta l lo b e
te m p o ra l
lo b e
m e d u lla o b lo n g a ta
sp i n a l co rd
ce re b e llu m
o cc i p i ta l
lo b e
p re m o to r a re a
m o to r sp e e c h
a re a
a u d i to ry a re a
m o to r a re a se n so ry a re a
v i su a l a re a
Brain from left side showing location of areas
Brain from left side
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Coordination: brain
function
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Brain stem
G Thi si sreally an extensi on of the
spinal cord and i sa swollen area that
dealswi th many automati c and
mai ntenance functi ons.
G Control of breathi ng, heartbeat,
di lati on of pupi ls, vomi ti ng, and
coughi ng are organi zed i n thi sregi on.
Lack of acti vi ty of the brai n stem i s
taken asa conclusi ve si gn of death
wi thout these automati c functi ons, the
body cannot survi ve.
Cerebellum
G The cerebellumconsi stsof
two pai red hemi spheres
growi ng out of the back of
the brai n stem.
G The deci si on to move
a muscle i staken i n
the hi gher centers
of the cerebral
hemi spheres, but
the cerebellum
coordi natesthe
fi ri ng of the
thousandsof
nerve cellsand
contracti on of
i ndi vi dual muscle fi bers
to achi eve thi smovement.
Thalamus
G The thalamus( not vi si ble i n the
di agram) i slocated i n the center of
the brai n beneath the central
hemi spheres. I t connectsthe mi dbrai n
to the hi gher centersi n the cerebral
hemi spheres. I t hasa more acti ve role
i n emoti ons, arousal, and some
reflexesthan the automati c systems
of the brai n stem.
Hypothalamus
G The hypothalamus( not vi si ble i n the
di agram) li esbeneath the thalamus
and coordi natesli nksbetween the
hormone and nervoussystems.
cerebellum
cerebral
hemisphere
hypothalamus
spinal cord
thalamus
Key words
180
Brain functions
G C e rta i n b ra i n fu n c ti o n s ca n b e m a p p e d to
p a rti c u la r a re a s o f th e ce re b ra l co rte x.
G Fo r e xa m p le , a fo ld o f th e co rte x
i m m e d i a te ly b e h i n d th e fro n ta l lo b e, ca lle d
th e p ri m a ry m o to r a re a , co n tro ls m u sc le
a c ti v i ty i n va ri o u s p a rts o f th e b o d y.
H e n ce, m u scle a cti vi ty i n , sa y, th e h a n d o r
to n g u e , ca n b e p i n p o i n te d to a sp e c i fi c
lo ca ti o n i n th i s a re a o f co rte x.
G S i m i la rly, th e p ri m a ry se n so ry a re a , ly i n g
ju st b e h in d th e m o to r a rea , re ce ives se n so ry
i n fo rm a ti o n fro m sp e ci fi c p a rts o f th e b o d y
re sp o n si b le fo r th e se n sa ti o n s o f to u c h ,
p re ssu re , te m p e ra tu re , a n d b o d y p o si ti o n .
H e a ri n g , si g h t, ta ste , a n d sm e ll, wh i c h
in vo lve m o re co m p lex sig n a lin g , a re m a p p ed
to se p a ra te a re a s o f th e co rte x.
G T h e ce re b ra l co rte x i s a lso re sp o n si b le fo r
co n scio u sn ess a n d e m o tio n s, a n d fo r m e n ta l
a c ti v i ti e s su c h a s la n g u a g e , le a rn i n g , a n d
m e m o ry fu n c ti o n s th a t re q u i re th e
i n te g ra ti o n o f si g n a ls fro m va ri o u s p a rts o f
th e b ra i n .
G S e ve ra l a re a s o f th e co rte x h a ve b e e n
m a p p e d a s sp e e c h ce n te rs. T h e se a re
co n fi n e d to th e le ft h e m i sp h e re i n a b o u t 9
o u t o f 1 0 p e rso n s.
18M o to r a re a fu n c ti o n s
1 A b d o m e n
2 T h o ra x
3 A rm
4 H a n d
5 F i n g e r
6 T h u m b
7 N e c k
8 To n g u e
916 S e n so ry a re a fu n c ti o n s
9 A b d o m e n
10 T h o ra x
11 A rm
12 H a n d
13 F i n g e r
14 T h u m b
15 N e c k
16 To n g u e
17 L i m b m o ve m e n ts
18 S p e e c h co n tro l
19 H e a ri n g
20 Ta ste a n d sm e ll
21 S p e e c h u n d e rsta n d i n g
22 V i si o n
Brain from left side showing functions of areas
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
b ra i n ste m
c e re b e llu m

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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Tongue structure
G The tongue i sa muscular organ that
helpsto mi x the food and sali va i n the
mouth. The top surface i scovered
wi th speci ali zed epi theli al cells, called
papillae, whi ch hold the taste buds.
G The taste budsare collecti onsof nerve
cellsthat respond to a range of
chemi cals. They li ne the papi llae i n the
gapsbetween them.
The four tastes
G The tongue respondsto four basi c
tastes: bi tter, sweet, sour, and salty.
G The di fferent areasof the tongue
respond parti cularly well to one of
these tastes. The ti p can detect both
sweet and salty flavors.
G There appearsto be li mi ted structural
di fferencesbetween the taste budsi n
these di fferent areasof the tongue,
although the sensorynervesthat ari se
from them run to sli ghtly di fferent
areasof the spi nal cord.
G Sweet tastesare the most di ffi cult to
detect, wi th bi tter tastesa thousand
ti mesmore di lute easi ly detected.
Coordination: taste
Taste areas
p a p i lla
ve rti ca l se c ti o n
e p i th e li u m
se n so ry ce lls
se n so ry fi b e r
Vertical section
Taste bud
ta ste b u d
b i tte r
swe e t
swe e t
a n d
sa lt
so u r so u r
Tongue
epithelium
papilla
Key words
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Coordination: smell
se n so ry fi b e r
n a sa l ca v i ty
Smell sensory cells
se n so ry fi b e r
se n so ry
ce ll
su p p o rti n g
ce ll
se n so ry h a i r
sm e ll se n so ry ce lls
fi lm o f
m o i stu re
a i r c u rre n ts
Nose
Section through head to show nasal cavity
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Site of detection
G The sensory cellsresponsi ble for smell
are found i n the cavi ti esbehi nd the
nose.
G Smell i sa chemi cal sense, and the
relevant chemi calsmust di ssolve i n the
layer of mucusli ni ng the nasal cavi ti es
before they can be detected.
G I f the nose i sblocked, for example by
mucussecreted duri ng coldsand flu,
the sense of smell i sdegraded. Si nce
smell hasa strong i nfluence on taste,
the sense of taste i salso
compromi sed.
Sensory cells
G Chemi calsthat have di ssolved i n the
mucusli ni ng the nasal cavi ti esreact
wi th olfactoryneurons. These send
i mpulsesalong to the olfactory bulb
near the base of the brai n.
G Smellshave never been sorted i nto
four categori esastasteshave been,
and all olfactoryneuronsseem to be
structurally i denti cal.
G O lfactory neuronshave a short li fe
span ( typi cally 12 months) and,
uni quely for nerve cells, can be
regenerated throughout li fe.
G Smellsappear to be able to evoke
associ ati onsmuch more readi ly than
tastes. A number of reflexi ve acti ons
are also medi ated by smells, from
sneezi ng to feeli ng hungry when food
i ssmelled.
olfactory neuron
Key words
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
The outer ear
G The outer ear consi stsof the pi nna,
whi ch projectsbeyond the bone of
the skull. I t gatherssound waves
and funnelsthem toward the ear
canal, whi ch endsi n the eardrum.
G Soundsmake the thi n membrane
of the eardrum vi brate.
The middle ear
G The mi ddle ear consi stsof an ai r-fi lled
cavi ty i nsi de the eardrum. I t li nksto
the back of the throat through the
eustachian tube, whi ch allowsai r
pressure to be balanced on both si des
of the drum.
G Crossi ng the space of the mi ddle
ear are the auditoryossicles: the
hammer, anvi l, and sti rrup. These
passvi brati onsacrossthe mi ddle
ear and i nto the i nner ear vi a the
oval wi ndow. The audi tory ossi cles
act asa mechani cal ampli fi er and
i ncrease the ampli tude of the sound
wavesasthey pass.
The inner ear
G The i nner ear i scompletely
encased i n the bone of the skull
and i sa flui d-fi lled cavi ty
contai ni ng the cochlea and the
semicircular canals.
G Vi brati onsenter the i nner ear through
the oval wi ndow and are converted
i nto pressure wavesthat passalong
the coi led tube of the cochlea and
leave through the round wi ndow. The
cochlea can i nterpret these pressure
wavesassounds.
G The vesti bular apparatus consi sti ng
of the semi ci rcular canals, utri le,
saccule, and vesti bule i sthe organ of
balance.
Coordination: ear
structure
auditory ossicle
cochlea
eardrum
eustachian tube
semi-circular
canal
Key words
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p i n n a
e a r ca n a l
m a lle u s h a m m e r)
i n c u s a n v i l)
sta p e s sti rru p )
o ssi c le s:
u tri c le
sa cc u le
se m i c i rc u la r ca n a ls
a u d i to ry
n e rve
o u te r e a r
ty m p a n u m e a rd ru m )
o va l wi n d o w
ro u n d wi n d o w
v e sti b u le
e u sta c h i a n tu b e
m i d d le e a r i n n e r e a r
co c h le a
Ear
Section of the head to show internal structure of the ear
Coordination: hearing
and balance
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Path of vibrations
G Sound enteri ng the outer ear
passesalong the ear canal to the
eardrum. Here i t i sconverted to
movement and passesalong the
auditory ossicles.
G The stapespassesthese
movementsi nto the cochlea,
where flui dscall peri lymph
and endolymph create
pressure waves. The frequency
of the pressure wavesmatches
the frequency of the ori gi nal
sound enteri ng the ear.
Hearing
G The pressure wavessti mulate the
hai r cellsof the organ of Corti , a
membrane lyi ng between the
basi lar and tectori al membranes. I t
i sthe movement of these hai r cells
that convertsthe vi brati onsi nto
nerve i mpulses.
G The audi tory cortex i n the brai n
recei vesthese i mpulsesand
i nterpretsthem assounds.
Balance
G The semicircular canalsare
concerned wi th balance.
G When the head moves, endolymph i n
the canalsmovesdue to momentum.
The movement of the flui d di sturbs
the otoliths, whi ch are suspended on
sensory hai r cells.
G The brai n can use i nformati on from
these sensory cellsto detect body
movements, even when other sources
of i nformati on ( e.g., vi sual) are
unavai lable.
G Normally, balance i sassessed usi ng
i nformati on from both eyesand ears.
auditory ossicle
cochlea
otolith
semicircular
canal
Key words
184
a u d i to ry n e rve
Hearing
Passage of sound waves through the ear
Side view of cochlea
Cross section of cochlea
d i re c ti o n o f so u n d wa ve s
co c h le a
c ro ss se c ti o n
o f co c h le a
b ra n c h o f
a u d i to ry
n e rve p e ri ly m p h
b a si la r m e m b ra n e
se n so ry h a i r ce ll
e n d o ly m p h
p e ri ly m p h
te c to ri a l
m e m b ra n e
e a r ca n a l
m a lle u s h a m m e r)
i n c u s a n v i l)
sta p e s sti rru p )
o ssi c le s:
ty m p a n u m e a rd ru m )
u tri c le
sa cc u le
se m i c i rc u la r ca n a ls
o va l wi n d o w
c o c h le a
o rg a n o f C o rti

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HUM AN BI O LO GY
External structure
G The eye i sa li ght-proof ball fi lled wi th
a clear jelly-li ke substance. The tough
outer layer i scalled the sclera ( see
bottom di agram) and i stransparent at
the front to let li ght i n.
G Musclesare attached to the sclera to
turn the eye i n i tssocket. A si ngle
optic nervecomesout of the back of
the eye and connectsdi rectly to the
optic cortex at the back of the brai n.
Internal structure
G The eyeball i sfi lled wi th a clear, jelly-
li ke substance called the vitreous
humor. Thi skeepsthe eyeball fully
i nflated i f i t were to deflate i t would
not be able to focuscorrectly.
G The choroi d i sa layer found i nsi de the
sclera. I t i sblack i n color to help
reduce i nternal reflecti ons.
G Blood vesselsi n the choroi d supply
the reti na wi th food and oxygen, and
take away waste products.
G Li ght enteri ng the eye passesthrough
the cornea, the transparent layer at the
front of the eye covered by the
conjuncti va. I t refractsli ght to ai d
focusi ng.
G The i ri s, behi nd the cornea, i sa
colored ri ng of muscular ti ssue. By
alteri ng the si ze of the pupi l, i ts
central openi ng, i t controlsthe
amount of li ght enteri ng the eye.
G The aqueoushumor connectsthe
cornea wi th the lensand helps
mai ntai n the convex shape of the
cornea necessary for the convergence
of li ght at the lens.
G The transparent lensfocusesli ght on
to the reti na.
G The reti na contai nsthe li ght-sensi ti ve
cellscalled rodsand cones. Rods
respond to li ght level alone and enable
black and whi te vi si on i n di m li ght.
The brai n combi nesi nformati on from
these three cell typesto produce a full
color i mage. Conesneed a hi gher li ght
i ntensi ty to functi on than rodsdo.
Coordination: eye
structure
optic cortex
optic nerve
vitreous humor
Key words
185
Sight
Partial section of eye to show orbit and extrinsic muscles
o p ti c n e rve
Vertical section
v i tre o u s h u m o r
e ye li d te a r g la n d
i ri s
p u p i l
e ye b a ll
co n ju n c ti va e ye li d b o n e o f o rb i t
e xtri n si c m u sc le
o p ti c
n e rve
re ti n a
c h o ro i d
sc le ra
e xtri n si c m u sc le
le n s
a q u e o u s h u m o r
p u p i l
su sp e n so ry li g a m e n ts
i ri s
co n ju n c ti va
co rn e a

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Coordination: light
sensitivity
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Retina
G There are two typesof li ght-sensi ti ve
cellsi n the reti na: rods, whi ch are
most numerousand provi de vi si on i n
di m li ght; and cones, whi ch work i n
bri ght li ght and provi de color vi si on.
Conesexi st i n three di fferent forms,
wi th each one respondi ng to a sli ghtly
di fferent color of li ght ( broadly red,
green, and blue) .
G The cellscontai n vi sual pi gments.
When li ght stri kesthe cell, i t i s
temporari ly bleached, produci ng an
electri cal si gnal. These si gnalsare
conveyed to the brai n asnerve
i mpulsesvi a connecti ng neuronsand
sensory nerve fi bers.
neuron
Key words
186
Retina
Vertical section of eye
re ti n a l stru c tu re
re ti n a
c h o ro i d
sc le ra
se n so ry
fi b e rs
Retinal structure
sy n a p se
a sso c i a ti o n n e u ro n
ro d
co n e
p i g m e n t
la ye r
re ti n a
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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Endocrine glands
G Endocrine glands, someti mescalled
ductlessglands, produce secreti ons
that passdi rectly i nto the blood.
G Endocri ne secreti onsare called
hormonesand change the functi oni ng
of a di stant organ i n the body. So, the
hormone adrenalin, produced by the
adrenal gland, i ncreasesthe heart rate.
G The organ affected by a parti cular
hormone i scalled the target organ.
Hormonal coordination
G Hormonal coordi nati on i sused by the
body to control many long-term
changes, e.g., growth and
development.
G The most i mportant endocri ne gland
i n the body i sthe pituitarygland,
whi ch secreteshormonesthat regulate
other endocri ne glands.
Key endocrine glands
G The adrenal glandssecrete adrenali n,
whi ch sti mulatesthe body to produce
a fi ght or fli ght response to stress.
G Testesand ovari essecrete a range of
hormonesto control sexual
development.
G The thyroi d gland secretesa hormone
that controlsthe basal metabolic rate.
G The pancreascontai nscellsthat
secrete insulin, whi ch reducesthe
level of sugar i n the blood.
G Parathyroi d glandsproduce hormones
that regulate the amount of calci um
and phosphorusi n the body.
G The pi neal gland secretesmelatoni n,
whi ch playsa role i n sleep, agi ng, and
reproducti on.
G The thymusand the pi tui taryand
hypothalamusi n the brai n also have
endocri ne functi ons.
G The thymusgland i salso i nvolved i n
the producti on of T-lymphocytes,
essenti al componentsof the i mmune
system.
Coordination: endocrine
system
adrenalin
basal metabolic
rate
endocrine gland
hormone
insulin
pituitary gland
Key words
187
h y p o th a la m u s
Endocrine glands
Male
h y p o th a la m u s
p i n e a l g la n d
p i tu i ta ry g la n d
th y ro i d g la n d
p a ra th y ro i d
g la n d s
th y m u s
p a n c re a s
a d re n a l
g la n d s
te ste s
Female
p a n c re a s
o va ri e s
a d re n a l
g la n d s
th y ro i d g la n d
p i n e a l g la n d
p i tu i ta ry g la n d
p a ra th y ro i d
g la n d s
th y m u s

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Coordination: pituitary
gland
h y p o th a la m u s
1 O xy to c i n : co n tra c ti o n o f
sm o o th m u sc le o f u te ru s.
2 Va so p re ssi n : a n ti -d i u re ti c
h o rm o n e , re d u ce s vo lu m e
o f u ri n e p ro d u ce d b y k i d n e y.
3 T h y ro i d sti m u la ti n g
h o rm o n e : sti m u la te s th y ro i d
to p ro d u ce th y ro xi n e .
4 P ro la c ti n : sti m u la te s
m a m m a ry g la n d s to
se c re te m i lk .
5 A d re n o co rti co tro p h i c
h o rm o n e : sti m u la te s
a d re n a l co rte x to se c re te
a d re n o co rti co i d h o rm o n e s.
6 G o n a d o tro p h i c h o rm o n e :
sti m u la te s o va ri e s o r te ste s
to se c re te se x h o rm o n e s.
7 G ro wth h o rm o n e :
re g u la te s g ro wth i n b o d y.
Hormones produced by the pituitary gland
p i tu i ta ry
a n te ri o r lo b e p o ste ri o r lo b e
3
4
5
6
7
2
1
HUM AN BI O LO GY
The master gland
G The pituitary gland i scalled the
master gland because i t secretes
hormonesthat control the acti vi ty of a
range of other endocrine glands.
G The pi tui tary gland consi stsof two
typesof ti ssue: endocri ne at the
anteri or, and nervousat the posteri or.
Development i n the embryo clearly
showsthe two sourcesof ti ssuesthat
make up thi shybri d organ.
G The posteri or lobe i sconnected to the
brai n through the hypothalamus.
These connecti onsli nk the two
coordi nati on systemsi n the body: the
nervoussystem and the endocri ne
system.
The anterior lobe
G The anteri or lobe secreteshormones
that i nfluence the acti vi ty of glands
li ke the adrenal, thyroi d, and gonads.
G Growth hormone regulatesthe growth
of long bones.
G Prolacti n sti mulatesthe mammary
glandsto secrete mi lk.
The posterior lobe
G Hormonessecreted by the posteri or
lobe tend to produce more rapi d
short-li ved responsesthan hormones
from the anteri or lobe.
G Vasopressi n ( an anti -di ureti c
hormone) i ncreaseswater
reabsorpti on by the ki dney to produce
more concentrated uri ne.
G O xytoci n sti mulatesthe contracti on of
uteri ne musclesduri ng chi ldbi rth.
endocrine gland
hormone
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
Key words
188

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HUM AN BI O LO GY
Bones
G The adult human skeleton contai ns
206 bones, though some are so closely
fused together ( e.g., the platesof the
skull) that they effecti vely form a
si ngle bone.
G The largest bonesi n the body are the
femursof the legs. The smallest are
the audi tory ossi clesi n the mi ddle ear.
G The skeleton provi desplacesto attach
muscles, actsasa mi neral store,
protectskey body organs, and
manufacturerscertai n typesof blood
cells.
The axial skeleton
G The axial skeleton consi stsof the
head, spi ne, and associ ated structures
li ke the ri bsand shoulder blades.
G The axi al skeleton protectskey body
organs( the brai n, spi nal cord, heart,
and lungs) .
The pentadactyl limbs
G The li mbsi n humansfollow the
standard pentadactyl pattern.
G A si ngle bone at the top of the li mb
li nksto two bonesbelow.
G A set of fi ve bonesform the next
secti on leadi ng i n turn to fi ve di gi ts
termi nati ng i n fi ve phalanges.
G The presence of the pentadactyl limb
i n many ani malsi sevi dence for
descent from a common ancestor
a key feature of evoluti onary theory.
Locomotion: skeleton
c ra n i u m
ste rn u m
m a n d i b le lo we r ja w)
c la v i c le
sca p u la
sh o u ld e r b la d e )
h u m e ru s
ra d i u s
u ln a
ca rp a ls
m e ta ca rp a ls
p h a la n g e s
ta rsa l
m e ta ta rsa ls
p h a la n g e s
ri b
ve rte b ra
p e lv i s
sa c ru m
fe m u r
ti b i a
fi b u la
p a te lla
Skeleton
axial skeleton
pentadactyl limb
Key words
189

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Locomotion: joints
Skeleton
h i p jo i n t
b a ll a n d
so c ke t
jo i n t)
k n e e jo i n t
h i n g e jo i n t)
p e lv i s
ca p su le
li g a m e n t
Ball and socket joint: hip joint
sy n o v i a l
flu i d
fe m u r
li g a m e n t
ca rti la g e
ca p su le
sy n o v i a l
m e m b ra n e
Hinge joint: knee joint m u sc le fe m u r
ca p su le
sy n o v i a l flu i d
sy n o v i a l
m e m b ra n e
ti b i a
ca rti la g e
p a te lla
k n e e c a p )
te n d o n
J oints
HUM AN BI O LO GY
Types of joint
G A joi nt i sformed where two or more
bonesli nk together. There are three
basi c typesof joi nt.
G Fi xed joi ntsi n the crani um of the skull
allow no movement at all. The bones
are fused together.
G Cartilaginous jointshave a carti lage
connecti on between bonesand allow
some movement. The joi nt between
the two halvesof the pelvi si sa
carti lagi nousjoi nt. I n pregnancy thi s
carti lage i ssoftened by hormone
acti on so that duri ng chi ldbi rth the
pelvi shasenough flexi bi li ty to
faci li tate passage of the baby shead.
G Synovial jointsallow a much wi der
range of movement and can be further
classi fi ed i nto ball and socket joi nts,
hi nge joi nts, and othersbased on thei r
arc of movement.
Synovial joints
G Ball and socket joi ntsallow movement
i n two planes.
G The hi p joi nt i sa ball and socket joi nt.
The ball at the head of the femur fi ts
i nto a boney socket i n the pelvi s.
Li gamentshold the bonestogether.
A synovi al membrane li nesthe i nsi de
of the joi nt and secretesa lubri cati ng
flui d called synovi al flui d. The partsof
the bone that move agai nst each other
are covered wi th a smooth tough form
of carti lage. The loose fi brouscapsule
permi tsthe hi p joi nt to have a large
range of movement.
G The knee joi nt i san example of a
hi nge joi nt. The bonesare shaped to
allow movement i n only one plane.
G The knee i smade up of the lower end
of the femur, whi ch rotateson the
upper end of the ti bi a, and the patella,
whi ch sli desi n a groove on the end of
the femur. The joi nt i sbathed i n a
vi scousflui d that i scontai ned i nsi de
the synovi al membrane. Carti lage
servesto cushi on the knee and helps
i t absorb shock duri ng moti on.
cartilaginous
joint
synovial joint
Key words
190

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ECOLOGY
Biomes
G A biome is a large community of living
organisms that are adapted to a
particular climate and soil conditions.
Biomes are characterized by their
dominant vegetation, for example,
grasses or tropical trees. Biomes may
stretch across entire continents and
gradually merge with adjoining
biomes.
G The dominant factor controlling
establishment of a biome type appears
to be incoming sunlight, as biomes are
broadly parallel bands aligned with the
equator.
Biome types
G Rainforest depends on
high solar radiation and
rainfall. It is a complex
system with many
species.
G Desert has similar
sunlight input but has
very low rainfall: below
10 inches (25 cm) per
year. This leads to a
very impoverished
vegetation cover.
G Grasslands predominate
further away from the
equator.
G Still further away are
forests, initially the
deciduous forest, with
trees that lose their
leaves in the winter.
Nearer the poles are
coniferous forests, with
trees that can survive in ground that is
frozen solid for at least part of the
year. These forests form the taiga. The
most extreme biome is tundra. This
has very limited vegetation cover, no
trees, and is sometimes referred to as
a cold desert.
Terrestrial biomes
biome
Key words
191

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Distribution of biomes
Key
Biomes
Rain forest
This biome is found in tropical regions with
high rainfall close to the equator. It consists
chiefly of tall trees that form a dense canopy
high above the ground. Shrubs and smaller
plants live on trunks and branches in the
canopy, while the forest floor supports
mainly fungi and invertebrates that live off
decomposing vegetation.
Desert
Desert is found in regions where rainfall is
below 10 inches (25 cm) per year. Perennial
plants such as cacti, yuccas, and agaves
are resistant to drought, while quick-growing
annuals appear and disappear with the
rains.
Grassland
This biome is typical of continental interiors
and is dominated by grasses, which survive
the dry season by means of underground
stems (rhizomes). Herbivorous animals,
such as antelope, zebra, and cattle, are
common here.
Deciduous forest
Deciduous forest is found in temperate
regions with evenly distributed rainfall, and
is dominated by deciduous hardwood trees
such as oak, beech, and maple. The forest
floor often supports shrubs and ground
plants.
Taiga
Taiga is typical of cool regions in high
latitudes and mountains with a short growing
season. It consists almost entirely of
evergreen coniferous forest, with sparse
herbs and shrubs.
Tundra
Tundra is found especially encircling the
North Pole, and also on high mountains
(alpine tundra), where temperatures are low
and the growing season is short. In Arctic
regions the ground is permanently frozen
(permafrost) below the surface layer. Hardy
plants such as mosses, sedges, and lichens
form the sparse vegetation.
rain forest
desert
grassland
deciduous forest
taiga
tundra
Carbon cycle ECOLOGY
Carbon cycle
G Carbon, the fourth most abundant
element in the Universe, is the
building block of life. It is the element
central to all organic substances, from
fossil fuels to DNA.
G The total amount of carbon on planet
Earth is fixed. The same carbon atoms
in the atmosphere and in your body
have been used in countless other
molecules since the Earth began. The
Carbon cycle is the complex set of
processes through which all carbon
atoms rotate.
G Carbon exists in Earth's
atmosphere primarily
as the gas carbon
dioxide (1). Through
photosynthesis plants
fix carbon dioxide
from the atmosphere
into sugars, which they
need to grow (2).
G Animals eat the plants
and use the carbon for
their own maintenance
and growth (3).
Animals return carbon
dioxide into the air
through respiration
(4) and when they die
(7), since carbon is
returned to the soil
during decomposition.
G Plants and animals decay and, over
the course of millions of years, create
fossil fuelscoal, oil, natural gas (5).
G Burning fossil fuels returns the carbon
in these fuels to the atmosphere (6).
carbon cycle
photosynthesis
respiration
Key words
192
Carbon cycle
Global warming
G In recent times, humans have been burning large quantities of fossil fuels, which has led
to a rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
G This is intensifying the greenhouse effect, whereby carbon dioxide and other gases in the
Earths atmosphere act like the glass in a greenhouse, trapping heat near the Earths surface.
G Consequently the average temperature at the Earths surface is gradually risingthe
phenomenon called global warmingwith potentially disastrous consequences. These may
include rising sea levels, disrupted weather patterns, devastation of farming and natural
ecosystems, and mass extinction of organisms.
1
2 6
4
7 5
3
1 Atmospheric pool of carbon dioxide
2 Plants take up carbon dioxide for
photosynthesis
3 Animals eat plants
4 Carbon dioxide released by respiration
5 Fossil fuels
6 Carbon dioxide released by combustion
7 Death of organisms and decay by bacteria

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ECOLOGY
Importance of nitrogen
G All living things need nitrogen to
build protein. However, most
organisms cannot use nitrogen gas
and nitrates (the dominant form of
the element in the soil) are
poisonous to animals.
G Four processes cycle nitrogen
through the biosphere: nitrogen
fixation, decay, nitrification, and
denitrification.
Nitrogen fixation
G Plants must secure their
nitrogen in fixed form, as
soluble nitrates. Nitrogen can
be fixed in three ways.
G Lightening helps oxygen and nitrogen
to react to form nitrogen oxides,
which dissolve in rainwater to
become nitrates in the soil (1,
12)
G Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the
root nodules of legumes and
in the soil can convert
nitrogen into usable
compounds (2, 4).
G Fertilizers can contribute useable
nitrogen compounds to the soil (3).
G Plants take in soluable nitrates
through their roots and use them to
build proteins that can be taken in by
animals (5, 6).
Decay
G Nitrogen leaves plants and animals
when they rot, and decomposers break
down dead organic matter (7, 8).
Nitrification
G Nitrifying bacteria convert the
ammonia produced by decay into
nitrates (9, 10) used by plants.
Denitrification
G Bacteria that use nitrates as an
alternative to oxygen in respiration
reduce nitrates to nitrogen gas, thus
replenishing the atmosphere (11).
Nitrogen cycle
decomposer
nitrogen cycle
Key words
193
Nitrogen cycle
1
11
5
10 4
6 7 8
9
2 3
12
1 Atmospheric pool of nitrogen
2 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes
3 Fertilizers
4 SoiI nitrate
5 Nitrate taken up by plant roots
6 Plant and animal proteins
7 Dead organisms
8 Decomposers
9 Nitrite bacteria
10 Nitrate bacteria
11 Denitrifying bacteria
12 Lightning

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Water cycle ECOLOGY
One cycletwo
components
G Earths water is always moving in a
cycle called the hydrologic or water
cycle.
G The water cycle is of paramount
importance to living things, but most
of the cycle actually takes place
outside living organisms.
Non-living cycle
G The cycle begins when
water evaporates from the
surface of the oceans (1).
G As the moist air rises, it
cools and condenses
into water vapor,
which forms clouds
(2).
G Water then falls to
the Earth as
precipitation (3).
Once on the
ground, some of this
water is absorbed
into the soil (4).
G Plants and animals
take up this ground
water and discharge
it into the
atmosphere during
transpiration and
respiration (57)
G Some of the
precipitation does
not penetrate Earths surface. Instead,
this runoff empties into lakes, rivers,
and streams and is carried back to the
oceans, where the cycle begins again.
G Some precipitation evaporates directly
back into the atmosphere.
Living cycle
G This is globally insignificant but can be
locally important. Trees and vegetation
give out water by transpiration. This
affects the areas adjacent to the
vegetation, creating pockets of
humidity that affect the growth of a
range of organisms. Animals have
minimal effect on the water cycle.
respiration
transpiration
water cycle
Key words
194

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5
6
2
7 3 1
1 Evaporation
2 Water in clouds
3 Rain and snow
4 Water drains into river and soil
5 Water taken up by plants and animals
6 Water loss by transpiration
7 Water loss by respiration
Water cycle
4
ECOLOGY
Incoming
G All energy in living systems is
ultimately derived from sunlight.
G Photosynthetic plants capture energy
in sunlight and use it to make sugar.
This sugar provides energy for all
other processes in the organism and
results in the creation of organic
matter.
Transfer
G Animals cannot carry out
photosynthesis and so get their energy
from the organic matter stored by
plants.
G Herbivores eat the plants directly.
Carnivores eat herbivores or other
carnivores that willultimately in this
food chainhave eaten herbivores.
Energy loss
G Some energy is lost during transfer
between organisms. Roughly 25
percent of the food input for an
animal is wasted as feces. Another 25
percent is used to keep the animal
alive, which leaves only about 50
percent that contributes to the
production of new organic material.
G These losses are repeated at every
transfer. This explains why food chains
can only be about four links longif
they were any longer, too much
energy would be lost in each transfer
to make the chain sustainable.
G The energy is given out as heat and is
radiated from Earth into space.
Energy flow
carnivore
feces
herbivore
photosynthesis
organic matter
Key words
195
Energy transfer and loss
energy lost from the living system as heat
energy flowing through the living system
sunlight
energy
sunlight
energy
captured
by plants
(producers)
producer
primary
consumer
secondary
consumer
tertiary
consumer

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Pyramid of biomass ECOLOGY
Energy input
G All energy in living systems is
ultimately derived from sunlight.
G Energy absorbed by green plants in
photosynthesis is used to build new
cells. These cells increase the size of
the plants. The mass of material is
called the biomass, and it is the
biomass that provides the energy
input for the next trophic level.
Trophic levels
G Photosynthetic plants are called
Trophic level 1. The animals that eat
them exist at Trophic level 2, and so
on.
G The biomass of all organisms at each
trophic level is significantly lower than
the biomass of the organisms in the
level below. When plotted on a graph,
this shows itself as a pyramid
a pyramid of biomass.
photosynthesis
trophic level
Key words
196
G The mass of organisms (biomass) that can
exist at any given stage in a food chain is
much smaller than that in the preceding
stage.
G This can be shown as a pyramid of
biomass, in which different levels of the
pyramid represent the biomass in
successive stages of the food chain.
G The base of the pyramid is the biomass of
primary producers, and the peak depicts
the biomass of the top consumer.
G The base represents the algae and the
peak is the amount of human biomass
contributed by fish (i.e., bass) harvested
and fed to humans.
G In this case, 10,000 kg of algae are
required to produce 1 kg of human biomass,
a huge difference that reflects the large
energy losses at each stage of the food
chain.
Biomass
Trophic level 1
Trophic level 2
Trophic level 3
Trophic level 4
Trophic level 5
bass (10 kg)
minnows (100 kg)
animal plankton (1,000 kg)
algae (10,000 kg)
human (1 kg)

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ECOLOGY
Feeding relationships
G The relationship between an animal
and its prey can be shown with an
arrow. The arrow always points to the
consumer.
Food chains
G Starting with a single plant, it is
possible to plot a chain of
relationships showing an animal eating
the plant, the producer, and then the
same animal, the primary consumer,
being eaten by another animal, the
secondary consumer, and so on.
G Food chains typically have about four
or five links.
Food webs
G The feeding relationships in an area
are typically much more complex than
a simple food chain.
G A food web shows the ways that the
food chains in an area interact. Many
organisms will exist in more than one
chain.
Decomposers
G Decomposers are not usually shown in
food webs, but all living organisms
eventually die and are broken down by
decomposer organisms.
G Since all organisms in the web would
be connected to this decomposer
level, it would make a very complex
diagram that would be difficult to
interpret. For this reason, these links
are often omitted from more complex
food webs.
Food web
S
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u
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s
snake
mountain lion
owl
rabbits mice
deer
trees
crops
grass
P
r
i
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y
c
o
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s
u
m
e
r
s
P
r
o
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u
c
e
r
s
D
e
c
o
m
p
o
s
e
r
s
Typical food web
consumed by decomposed
consumer
decomposer
food chain
food web
producer
Key words
197

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KEY WORDS
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Key words
abdomen (1) The area below the rib cage and above the
legs. (2) In arthropods, the hind region of the body.
absorption The taking of dissolved substances into cells.
active process A process that requires an energy input
from the organism.
active site The part of the enzyme to which the
substrate binds. It is where catalysis occurs.
active transport The use of energy to transport
substances across cell membranes against a
concentration gradient.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A chemical in cells that
produces the energy that drives biological processes.
ATP becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when it
releases its energy.
adrenaline A hormone the body releases in situations of
stress.
aerobic respiration Respiration requiring oxygen.
allele Variants of the same gene.
alveolus The sac-like end of an airway in the lungs.
amino acid An organic compound that forms the basic
structural unit of proteins and peptides.
amnion The fluid-filled sac that encloses the embryo.
anaphase The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the
chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell.
anaphase II The second anaphase stage in meiosis.
antagonistic pair A pair of muscles that pull in opposite
directions.
anther In flowers, the part of the stamen that produces
pollen.
antibody A chemical produced by B lymphocytes that
attacks invading microorganisms.
anticodon Set of three tRNA nucleotides that binds with
its complementary codon in an mRNA molecule.
antigen A chemical found in cell membranes and cell
walls that triggers the production of antibodies.
aorta The artery that carries high-pressure blood away
from the left ventricle of the heart.
artery A blood vessel carrying blood away from the
heart under high pressure.
asexual reproduction Reproduction in which offspring
arise from a single parent. It does not involve the union
of gametes. The offspring are identical to the parent.
assimilation The use of absorbed materials to produce
new cells in an organism.
association neuron A neuron in the brain or spinal
column that forms the connecting link between sensory
and motor neurons.
ATP See adenosine triphosphate
auditory ossicle A bone in the middle ear that transmits
acoustic vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.
autonomic nervous system The collection of nerves
that regulate the unconscious or automatic processes in
the body.
auxin Hormones that regulate plant growth.
axial skeleton The skull, spine, rib cage, and pelvis.
axon A long extension from the body of a nerve cell
along which impulses are conducted away from the cell.
bacteriophage A virus that attacks bacteria.
bacterium A microscopic single-celled organism that has
no nucleus.
basal metabolic rate The energy expended by the body
at rest to maintain vital functions.
bilateral symmetry The property of being symmetrical
on a vertical plane.
bile Secretions made in the liver from the breakdown of
red blood corpuscles.
biome A major ecological region with characteristic
climate and organisms.
bond The chemical connection between atoms in a
molecule.
Bowmans capsule A cup-shaped structure in the
kidney where blood is first filtered.
bronchiole One of two tubes in the lungs connecting
the bronchi to the alveoli.
buccal cavity The cavity at the anterior end of the
alimentary canal.
calcification The deposition calcium in cartilage.
cambium A layer of actively dividing cells between the
phloem and xylem in flowering plants.
canine tooth A long, pointed tooth used to tear food.
capillary The smallest blood vessel in the body.
carbon cycle The cycling of carbon through the living
world by photosynthesis and respiration.
carnivore A flesh eating animal.
carpel The female reproductive organ of flowering
plants, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
cartilaginous joint A joint in which bones are attached
by cartilage, e.g., the joint between the two halves of
the pelvis. The joint allows only slight movement.
cell The basic structural and functional unit of an
organism.
cellulose A polysaccharide molecule used to strengthen
cell walls in plants.
central nervous system The brain and spinal cord.
centriole The organelle in animal cells that controls the
formation of the spindle during mitosis.
centromere The center of a chromosome, where the
chromatids are attached. It has no genes.
cerebellum A part of the brain at the back of the head
that coordinates voluntary movement and balance.
cerebral hemisphere One of two parts of the brain at
the top of the skull. The cerebral hemispheres are the
seat of conscious thought and voluntary movements.
cervix The entrance to the uterus.
chiasma The point at which nonsister chromatids of
homologous chromosomes cross-over each other.
chlorophyll A green pigment found in most plants that
absorbs light energy during photosynthesis.
chloroplast In green plants, an organelle in which
photosynthesis takes place.

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chromatid One of the two chromosome strands that
become visible during cell division. The strands are
joined at the centromere.
chromosome A threadlike structure in cells that
contains genetic material.
chyme The partially digested contents of the stomach
before it passes into the duodenum.
cilium A tiny hair found on the surface of cells and
some microorganisms.
cloaca An opening through which the intestinal, urinary,
and reproductive tracts empty in birds, reptiles,
amphibians, and many fish.
clone A genetically identical organism.
cochlea The organ in the inner ear that converts sound
into nerve impulses.
codon The triplet of bases held on the DNA that codes
for a particular amino acid.
coenzyme Chemicals that are required by enzymes to
complete a reaction.
collagen The structural protein in connective tissue.
colonial polyp A coelenterate that is attached to a
substrate and lives in giant colonies.
concentration gradient A difference in the
concentration of a substance from one area to another.
condensation reaction A reaction that binds two
chemicals together and releases water.
consumer An organism that consumes organic matter.
continental drift The movement of large plates of the
Earths crust.
continuous variation Variation that shows a complete
spectrum of values, e.g., height or weight.
contractile vacuole An organelle in many single-celled
organisms that expands and contracts to expel water
from the cell.
cotyledon The leaf-like part of the plant embryo that is
the food reservoir.
crista A fold of membrane projecting into the matrix of
mitochondrion.
cyst A reproductive structure often strengthened by
external walls to survive periods in inhospitable or
dangerous conditions.
cytoplasm The material that maintains a cells shape
and consistency. It stores chemical substances needed
for life and is the site of important metabolic reactions.
decomposer An organism that breaks down dead
organic material.
dehiscence The process of splitting open to release
reproductive structures.
dendrite The branched filament of a nerve cell that
receives impulses from other nerve cells and passes
them on to the cell body.
dentine The calcified tissue that makes up the bulk of a
tooth.
deoxyribosenucleic acid (DNA) The molecule that
holds the genetic code.
diaphragm A sheet of muscle lying over the liver and
stomach and under the lungs.
diastole The phase of the heartbeat when the heart
muscle relaxes and the heart fills with blood.
dicotyledons Plants with two seed leaves (cotyledons) in
the embryo.
diffusion The spreading of gases or liquids caused by
random movement of their molecules.
digestion The mechanical and chemical breakdown of
foods into nutrients an animal can absorb.
diploid The number of chromosomes of a normal cell.
discontinuous variation Variation that does not have a
spectrum of types, e.g., being able to roll your tongue
or not.
DNA See deoxyribosenucleic acid.
dominant In genetics, the allele that masks another
allele.
double circulation A circulatory system where the blood
passes through the heart twiceonce for the body and
once for the lungs.
Down syndrome A genetic condition in which an extra
chromosome causes a number of significant mental and
physical problems. It is caused by an extra copy of all or
part of chromosome 21.
eardrum The thin membrane at the junction of the
middle and outer ear.
ectoplasm The gel-like outer cytoplasm of the cell
found close to the plasma membrane.
egg The female gamete.
electron transfer chain A series of enzymes that can
transfer energy from excited electrons into ATP.
embryo The early stages that develop from the fertilized
egg.
embryo sac The structure in the ovule of a flowering
plant containing the female nuclei that will fuse with
nuclei from the pollen grain to form the zygote.
endocrine gland A gland that secretes hormones
directly into the blood.
endocytosis The engulfing of materials by a cell.
endodermis In plants, the innermost layer of cells that
separates the cortex of the root from the pericycle.
endoplasmic reticulum The network of plasma
membranes running throughout the cytoplasm. It is
involved in the synthesis, storage, and transport of cell
products.
endosperm The food storage tissue found in the seeds
of flowering plants.
enzyme A protein found in living organisms that speeds
up the rate of a chemical reaction.
enzyme-coenzyme complex The giant molecule formed
by an enzyme and coenzyme.
epidermis The outer, protective layer of cells in animals
and plants.
epididymis The part of the testis that stores sperm.
epithelium A sheet of tissue that covers the internal
surfaces of the body.
eustachian tube A tube connecting the middle ear and
the back of the throat to equalize pressure on both
sides of the eardrum.

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exocytosis The release of intracellular materials to the
outside of the cell via vacuoles or vesicles.
exoskeleton The hard skeleton on the outside of the
body.
factor VIII A blood protein required for clotting that is
missing in people suffering from hemophilia.
fallopian tube The tube leading from the ovaries to the
uterus.
fatty acid An acid with long hydrocarbon chain (roughly
3040 carbon atoms) that is the major component of
natural fats and oils.
feces The waste and indigestible food that passes out of
the gut through the anus.
fertilization The fusion of gametes from two sexes to
produce the zygote.
fetus The developing young in the uterus before birth.
fission Splitting of a cell or organism into two or more
daughters.
food chain A simple diagram showing feeding
relationships between some plants and animals.
food web A diagram showing how all of the food chains
in an area link together.
fossil record The evidence from studies of the fossils
for a particular line of evolution.
fruit A structure developed from the swollen wall of the
ovary that helps the dispersal and survival of seeds.
gamete A mature male or female reproductive cell. It
contains half the number of chromosomes of normal
body cells. At fertilization, male and female gametes
fuse to form a zygote.
gametophyte In plants, the generation that produces
gametes.
gaseous exchange The movement of gasesusually
carbon dioxide and oxygenacross an exchange
membrane.
gastrodermis The inner body layer in Cnidaria.
gene A length of DNA that determines inherited
characteristics.
generative nucleus The nucleus in the pollen grain that
eventually fuses with the egg nucleus in the ovule.
genotype The genetic composition of an organism.
germ cell A cell involved in sexual reproduction. Also
called a gamete.
germination In plants, the first stages of growth of a
seed or spore.
gill The respiratory organ of most aquatic animals that
breathe water to obtain oxygen.
glomerulus A mass of capillaries at the entry of a kidney
tubule. Blood plasma is filtered out of the blood in the
glomerulus into the tubule.
glucose The most widely distributed six-carbon sugar in
animals and plants. It is the energy source in
respiration.
glycerol A small alcohol with three OH groups. It
combines with fatty acids to form fats and oils.
glycogen A polysaccharide used in animals to store
energy.
glycolysis The breakdown of six-carbon sugars to three-
carbon sugars in the cytoplasm.
glycosidic bond A bond formed between
monosaccharides by a condensation reaction.
Golgi body An organelle involved in assembling and
storing metabolic substances.
granum A chlorophyll-rich membrane structure present
in chloroplasts.
guard cell A cell that changes shape to open or close a
stoma in a leaf.
gut The long tube that starts at the mouth and leads to
the anus. It includes the large and small intestine and is
sometimes called the digestive tract.
haploid Having half the number of chromosomes
normally found in the cells of an organism.
hemoglobin A protein found in red blood cells in
mammals. It reacts reversibly with oxygen.
hepatic portal vein The vein carrying blood from the
gut to the liver.
herbivore An animal that only eats plants.
hermaphrodite An organism with both male and female
sexual organs.
heterozygous An organism having two different alleles
for an inherited trait.
homologous chromosome Chromosomes that pair up
during meiosis. They have the same genes but may have
different alleles so are not identical.
homozygous An organism having two identical alleles
for an inherited trait.
host The organism that supports the parasite.
hypothalamus A small organ at the base of the brain
that coordinates visceral functions.
impermeable Material that it is not easily penetrated.
incisor A chisel-shaped tooth at the front of the mouth
used for cutting and biting.
inhibitor A chemical that slows down the speed of a
chemical reaction.
insertion In genetics, the process by which a base is
added to a sequence of DNA.
insulin The hormone secreted by the pancreas that
controls the blood glucose level.
intercostal muscle A muscle between the ribs.
interphase The period between cell divisions.
intestine The region of the alimentary canal between
the stomach and anus or cloaca where nutrients are
digested and absorbed and feces produced.
invertebrate An animal without a backbone.
karyotype The number and types of chromosomes
characteristic of a species.
keratin A structural protein found in hair and nails.
kidney The organ responsible for filtering and excreting
liquid wastes and maintaining the composition of the
blood.
Krebs cycle Sometimes called the tricarboxylic acid
cycle, it occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and
involves the break down of three-carbon sugars into
carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.

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larva An immature form of an animal that has a
different structure and way of life from the adult.
lateral line A pressure-sensitive sense organ running
along the sides of a fish or larval amphibian.
lenticel A small raised pore in the epidermis of the stem
or bark of a plant with gaps between cells that permit
gaseous exchange.
life cycle The successive stages organisms go through
from birth to death.
light-dependent reaction The first stage in
photosynthesis that converts light energy into chemical
energy.
light-independent reaction The reduction of carbon
dioxide to glucose in photosynthesis using energy
captured during the light-dependent reaction.
lignin A complex polymer in the cell wall of plants that
gives them strength and rigidity.
lipid An organic molecule, insoluble in water, that is
formed by the reaction of a fatty acid with glycerol. It is
the chief component of fats, oils, and phospholipids in
the body.
liver The large gland opening into the gut that has
multiple functions and plays an important role in
metabolism.
lung The respiratory organ of air-breathing vertebrates
across which carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse.
lymph vessel A vessel that transports lymph fluid.
lymphatic system The complete system of lymph
vessels and nodes that conduct lymph from tissues to
the circulatory system.
lysosome A membrane-bound organelle containing a
mixture of powerful enzymes that are capable of
breaking down many substances.
Malpighian layer The layer of cells at the base of the
epidermis. The epidermal cells all originate from cell
division in the Malpighian layer.
mammary gland A milk producing gland in female
mammals.
matrix (1) The material in which another substance is
embedded. (2) The central space of the mitochondrion.
maxilliped One of a pair of appendages in crustaceans
and centipedes that manipulate food prior to ingestion.
medulla oblongata The part of the brain near the
junction with the spinal cord that controls involuntary
body functions such as breathing.
meiosis A specialized form of cell division that produces
cells carrying half the usual number of chromosomes.
These cells, called gametes, are used in sexual
reproduction.
mesoglea The layer between the outer and inner layer
in cnidarian bodies.
mesosome The infolding of the plasma membrane into
the main body of the cell in some bacteria.
messenger RNA (mRNA) The RNA molecule that
transfers the genetic code for a protein from the DNA in
the nucleus to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, where it
serves as the template for the synthesis of that protein.
metabolism The range of living processes within an
organism that provides for its needs.
metamorphosis A large change in the shape of the body
during growth.
metaphase A stage in mitosis when the nuclear
membrane breaks down and the spindle begins to form.
metaphase II The second metaphase in meiosis.
micropyle In plants, the pore in the ovule through
which the pollen tube enters before fertilization.
mitochondrion A membrane organelle, sometimes called
the powerhouse of the cell, that produces the cells
energy in the form of ATP.
mitosis The process of cell division that gives rise to
cells genetically identical to the parent cells.
molar A large tooth at the back of the mouth used to
crush food.
molecule The smallest naturally occurring unit of an
element.
molting The loss of the outer body surface (feathers,
fur, skin, exoskeleton) and its replacement by a new
one.
monocotyledon A plant with a single seed leaf
(cotyledon).
monosaccharide A simple sugar with only one ring unit
in its molecule, e.g., glucose. It cannot be further
decomposed by hydrolysis.
motor neuron A neuron that carries impulses from the
central nervous system to muscles or glands.
muscle Tissue the contraction of which causes
movement.
mutation A variation caused by a change to an
organisms genetic material.
mycelium The body of a fungus made up of many
thousands of branching connected hyphae.
NAD See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate.
NADP See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate.
nematode Any of a group of mainly parasitic worms.
nephron The functional unit of the kidney. Nephrons
are long microscopic tubules that produce urine from
blood.
neuron A nerve cell.
neurotransmitter A chemical that carries information
across the small gap at a synapse.
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide A coenzyme that
functions as a hydrogen carrier in a wide range of redox
reactions.
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate A
coenzyme, functioning as a hydrogen carrier, important
in the creation of ATP. NADH is the reduced form.
nitrogen cycle The cycling of nitrogen through living
systems as proteins, nitrates, and nitrites, etc.
nucleic acid An organic substance found in cells that is
involved in the storage of inherited information. It is
the collective name for DNA and RNA.

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nucleotide A molecule formed from a sugar, a
phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. It is the basic
building block of DNA and RNA.
nucleus The control center of a cell. It contains the
genetic material.
objective lens The lens near the specimen in a light
microscope.
ocular lens The eyepiece lens in a light microscope.
olfactory neuron A nerve cell that detects chemicals in
the nasal cavity and so provides the sense of smell.
oogonium A cell that divides by mitosis to produce
primary oocytes.
operon The collection of structural genes that work
together with associated repressor and operator genes
to control the production of a particular characteristic.
optic cortex The part of the brain concerned with the
interpretation of nerve impulses from the eyes.
optic nerve The nerve taking information from the eyes
to the optic cortex in the brain.
organelle A specialized structure in the cell that carries
out a particular function, e.g., the nucleus,
mitochondria, or chloroplasts.
organic matter Material produced by living organisms.
osculum In Porifera, a large pore that lets water out of
the body.
osmoregulation Regulation of salt and water balance.
osmosis The passage of a solvent (usually water)
through a semipermeable membrane. The movement is
from a higher concentrated solution to a lower
concentrated solution until the concentrations of both
solutions reach equilibrium.
otolith A particle of calcium carbonate in the inner ear
that when displaced signals position and movement of
the head.
ovary The female organ that produces the egg.
ovule The structure in plants in which the female
gamete is fertilized. It will develop into a seed.
ovum The mature female gamete or egg cell prior to
fertilization.
papilla A small lump or knob arising from a surface,
such as that on the surface of the tongue.
parasite An organism that gets its food from a host but
does not kill the host in the process.
parasympathetic nervous system Part of the autonomic
nervous system that regulates the routine functions of
the body such as digestion, elimination, and heartbeat.
passive transport Movement of chemicals down a
concentration gradient. Passive transport does not
require an energy input from an organism.
pathogen A microorganism that causes disease.
pedipalp A pair of specialized legs at the front of a
spider used to manipulate food and clean the body.
pentadactyl limb A limb based on a pattern of one bone
leading to two bones and on to hands or feet ending in
five digits.
peptide Two or more amino acids linked by a peptide
bond.
peptide bond A link between two peptides in a protein
molecule. It is formed between the carboxyl group of
one amino acid and the amino group of another.
peripheral nervous system The nerves outside the brain
and spinal cord.
permeability The ability of a compound to diffuse
across a membrane.
phagocytosis The engulfing and ingestion of materials
by a cell.
phenotype The external features of an organism. The
phenotype depends on the genotype of the organism
and the action of the environment.
phloem In plants, specialized transporting cells that
form tubules to carry sugars and organic materials from
the leaves to all other parts of the organism.
photosynthesis In green plants, the production of sugar
and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water using light
as an external energy source.
pistil (1) Another name for carpel, the female
reproductive organ of flowering plants consisting of the
stigma, style, and ovary. (2) The part of the flower made
up of one or more carpels.
pituitary gland A small pea-sized gland hanging from
the base of the brain that produces a range of
hormones to control other endocrine glands.
placenta The vascular organ that allows materials to be
exchanged between a mother and a fetus in the uterus.
plasma The clear, fluid portion of the blood in which
platelets and blood cells are suspended.
plasma membrane The membrane surrounding all
living cells that is composed of lipid and protein
molecules.
plasmid A circular molecule of DNA found in some
bacteria.
platelet A small, sub-cellular component in the blood
concerned with clotting.
pollen In flowering plants, the microspores containing
the male gamete.
polypeptide A molecule formed by a long string of
amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Proteins are
composed of polypeptides.
polypeptide chain A chain of amino acids joined by
peptide bonds.
polyribosomes A series of ribosomes arranged along a
piece of endoplasmic reticulum to form a chain of
ribosomes.
polysaccharide An insoluble, long-chained carbohydrate
usually used for storage or cell structure, e.g., cellulose,
starch, and glycogen.
predator An animal that hunts and kills other animals.
premolar A crushing tooth located in front of the
molars and behind each cuspid.
primary oocyte A cell formed while the female was an
embryo that divides by meiosis to produce ova.
producer An organism that makes organic material.
prophase The first stage of cell division in which the
chromosomes become visible in the nucleus.

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protein An organic molecule composed of one or more
chains of amino acids. Proteins have fundamental
structural and metabolic roles in cells and tissues.
pseudopodium An extension of the cell in an ameba.
pupa In insects, a phase between larva and adult in
which the organism undergoes major tissue
reorganization.
pyrenoid Small structures in the chloroplast concerned
with the formation of starch.
radial symmetry A body that can be divided along the
same axis through several planes to form two halves
that are near mirror images of each other.
recessive In genetics, the feature that does not appear
when a gene contains two different alleles.
red blood corpuscle A disc-shaped cell without a
nucleus, filled with hemoglobin, and found only in the
blood.
respiration The chemical process by which organisms
make energy from food.
restriction enzyme An enzyme that recognizes specific,
short nucleotide sequences and can cut DNA molecules
into shorter portions.
ribosome An organelle involved in the manufacture of
protein.
root hair In plants, an extension of a cell in the root
epidermis. Root hairs massively increase the surface
area of the root available for the uptake of water and
mineral salts.
rough endoplasmic reticulum A complex network of
sacs and tubes in cells. It contains ribosomes involved in
the synthesis of proteins.
secondary thickening Extra strengthening in stems laid
down as they age to allow taller stems.
secondary oocyte On oocyte after first meiotic division.
It eventually matures into an ovum and a polar body.
seed In plants, the structure formed from a fertilized
ovule. The seed is the dormant phase of the plant life
cycle and is used to spread new plants.
segment One of several or many similar body
compartments. Insects show segmented bodies.
selective reabsorption Reabsorption of particular
substances, and not others, by cells lining the nephrons
in the kidney.
semen The fluid, manufactured in the male urinogenital
system, that contains sperm.
semicircular canal One of the three fluid-filled canals in
the inner ear that are concerned with the sense of
balance and movement detection.
seminiferous tubule A tube in the testis that produces
spermatozoa.
semipermeable membrane A membrane that allows the
passage of small but not large molecules.
sensory neuron A neuron that carries impulses from
sense organs to the central nervous system.
sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves two
sexes producing gametes that join together to produce
the next generation.
sinoatrial node An area of the left atrium of the heart
that is the source of the signal that controls contraction
of muscles in the walls of the heart.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum A complex network of
sacs and tubes in cells involved in lipid synthesis.
smooth muscle Muscle, such as that found in the blood
vessels or intestine, that performs automatic tasks via
contraction.
solute A substance that is dissolved in another
substance.
species A taxonomic group whose members can
interbreed.
specimen (1) An individual used as a representative to
study the properties of a whole. (2) The sample studied
under a microscope.
spermatids A cell produced by meiosis that matures
into a spermatozoon.
spermatogonium A cell that divides repeatedly to
produce a line of spermatids and hence spermatozoa.
spermatozoon The male gamete in many higher
animals, including humans.
spinal cord The collection of nerve tissue in the spinal
canal. It is part of the central nervous system.
spiracle In insects and some arachnids, the external
opening of the tracheal system.
spleen An organ in the abdominal cavity concerned with
destruction of old red blood corpuscles.
spore In primitive plants, a reproductive cell, formed
without the union of sexual cells, that gives rise to a
new organism.
sporophyte The generation that produces spores
without sexual reproduction.
stamen In flowering plants, the male reproductive
organ that produces pollen. It is composed of an anther
and a filament.
starch A large carbohydrate molecule made up of small
sugar molecules joined together in a chain.
stigma In flowering plants, the sticky part of the carpel
that receives pollen.
stimulus That which produces a response in an
organism.
stoma In plants, an opening in the epidermis of a leaf
that allows for the exchange of gases.
stroma The chlorophyll-free matrix between the grana
in chlorplasts. It is involved in the light independent
reaction.
style The narrow elongated part of the carpel between
the ovary and the stigma.
suberin A waxy substance used to waterproof certain
cell walls in the endodermis.
substitution In genetics, a mutation in which a single
base is changed for another one.
substrate (1) The surface on which a plant or animal
grows or is attached. (2) The chemical an enzyme works
on to produce the product.
sugar A soluble carbohydrate composed of one or a few
monosaccharide units.

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sympathetic nervous system Part of the autonomic
nervous system that prepares the body for dealing with
demanding or dangerous situations.
synapse The place where two nerve cells meet. The
cells do not touch, but the gap between them is very
small.
synovial joint A joint between two bones that allows
considerable movement.
systole The phase of the heartbeat when the muscle is
contracting.
telophase The final phase of cell division in which the
two daughter cells separate.
telophase II The second telophase in meiosis during
which the visible chromosomes disappear and the
nuclear membrane reappears.
tentacle In invertebrates, a long slender extension of
the body, often containing sense organs, used for
feeding, grasping, and swimming.
testis The male sex organ that produces sperm.
thalamus The portion of the brain that transmits
sensory information to the cerebrum.
thorax (1) The chest region between the head and the
abdomen. (2) In insects, the segment of the body that
bears the legs.
thylakoid A flattened photosynthetic membrane present
in chloroplasts.
tracheole A thin tube carrying air throughout the body
of an insect.
transcription The manufacture of an RNA molecule
from information contained in DNA.
transformation The genetic alteration of a cell or
organism by the incorporation of exogeneous DNA.
transfer RNA (tRNA) A type of RNA with an amino acid
at one end of a molecule and three exposed bases at
the other.
translation The manufacture of a protein based on
information contained in an RNA molecule.
translocation A mutation in which a part of one
chromosome is transferred to, or exchanged for,
another part of a different chromosome.
transpiration Evaporation of water from a plant.
trophic level The level at which an organism gets its
food. Primary producers are level one, primary
consumers are level two, etc.
tropism A directional growth in a plant in response to
an outside stimulus.
tuber A swollen underground stem or root used for
storage.
ultrafiltration Filtration of the blood in the Bowmans
capsule of the nephrons.
umbilical cord The cord that connects the fetus to the
placenta.
urea A white soluble crystalline substance made in the
liver from waste amino acids and passed out of the
body in solution as urine.
ureter The tube leading from the kidney to the bladder.
uterus The organ in female mammals in which the fetus
develops during pregnancy.
vacuole A membrane-bound sac in a cell usually
containing nutrients and water.
vascular bundle A strand of vascular tissue composed
of xylem and phloem that conducts fluids in higher
plants.
vas deferens The tube that carries sperm from the
testes.
vein (1) In animals, a blood vessel carrying low-pressure
blood toward the heart. (2) In plants, the vascular
bundle and supporting tissue in a leaf.
ventricle The chamber of the heart that receives blood
from the atrium and pumps it into the arteries.
vertebrate An animal that has a bony or cartilaginous
backbone, skeleton, and skull containing a brain.
villus A small projection on the inner surface of the gut
that increases the surface area and so speeds up
absorption.
virus An infectious agent composed of nucleic acid
wrapped in protein that replicates only within a living
host cell. Some viruses cause very serious diseases.
vitreous humor The clear, jelly-like material between the
lens and the retina of the eye.
water cycle The continuous process of recycling water
between Earth and the atmosphere.
white blood cell A blood cell, made in lymph nodes and
the bone marrow, that fights infection.
xylem The tissue that carries water and dissolved
mineral salts in plants.
zygote The cell produced by the fusion of gametes. The
fertilized ovum before cell division.

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INTERNET RESOURCES
205
Internet resources
There is a lot of useful information on the internet.
Information on a particular topic may be available
through a search engine such as Google
(http://www.google.com). Some of the sites that are
found in this way may be very useful, others not.
Below is a selection of Web sites related to the
material covered by this book.
The publisher takes no responsibility for the
information contained within these Web sites.
All the sites were accessible in March 2006.
Access Excellence
A resource for teachers and students of health and
bioscience provided by the National Health Museum.
http://www.accessexcellence.org
American Association for the Advancement
of Science
Information on scientific developments and education
programs for all ages.
http://www.aaas.org
Anatomy of the Human Body
Online version of Grays Anatomyover 13,000
entries and 1,200 images.
http://www.bartleby.com/107
Animal Diversity Web
Database of natural history, distribution, classification,
and conservation biology.
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu
Animal Physiology
Clear, concise presentation of animal classification and
physiology.
http://www.teachnet.ie/farmnet/Animal_physiology.htm
Arkive
Film, photographs, and audio of endangered species.
http://www.arkive.org
Ask a Biologist
An educational resource for students K12, their
teachers and parents.
http://askabiologist.asu.edu
BBC Nature-Wildfacts
Facts about and images of thousands of species.
http://www.bbc.co.uk
The Biology Project
Resources in biochemistry, cell biology, human biology,
genetics, and molecular biology.
http://www.biology.arizona.edu
BioNews
The latest news and discoveries from the worldwide
biology community.
http://www.bionews.in/biologynews.htm
Biotech Life Science Dictionary
Over 8,000 terms dealing with biochemistry,
biotechnology, botany, cell biology, and genetics.
http://biotech.icmb.utexas.edu
Brains Rule!
Information, interactive games, and lesson plans on
the human brain; includes Ask the Brain Expert and
Meet a Neuroscientist features.
http://www.brainsrule.com
Cells Alive
Animations, movie clips, and interactive diagrams of
cells and cell processes.
http://www.cellsalive.com
Curriculum Center: Discoveryschool.com
Classroom activities supporting core curriculum
topics.
http://school.discovery.com/curriculumcenter
DNA-Interactive
A comprehensive overview of the science of DNA.
http://www.dnai.org
Dr. Sauls Biology in Motion
Interactive biology learning featuring animations of
basic biological processes.
http://biologyinmotion.com
The Electronic Naturalist
Features catagorized units with illustrations,
experiments, and other activities aimed at the young
naturalist.
http://www.enaturalist.org
EverythingBio
The all encompassing biology resource. Includes a
vast links section.
http://www.everythingbio.com

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INTERNET RESOURCES
206
Exploratorium
Experiments, exhibits, and sound and video files
exploring hundreds of different topics.
http://www.exploratorium.edu
The Franklin Institute Online: BioPoint
Hotlist
Links to hundreds of excellent sites on a wide variety
of biology topics.
http://sln.fi.edu/qa97/biology/biolist.html
Froguts.com
Virtual frog dissection using photos of frogs recycled
from schools.
http://www.froguts.com
The Geee! In Genome
An overview of the science of genetics from the
Canadian Museum of Nature.
http://nature.ca
Genetic Science Learning Center
Activities and information on topics in genetics,
genetic disorders, and genetics in society.
http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu
HHMIs Biointeractive
Virtual labs, activities, and interactive demonstrations
on many subjects related to the human body and
health.
http://www.biointeractive.org
Human Anatomy On Line
Over 100 descriptions, animations, and anatomy
images detailing body systems and organs.
http://www.innerbody.com
Kimballs Biology Pages
Online biology encyclopedia.
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages
MicrobeWorld
Provides information about all aspects of microbiology
and includes a dedicated section for kids and
educators.
http://www.microbeworld.org
NASA Astrobiology Institute
The study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and
future of life in the universe.
http://nai.arc.nasa.gov
National Biological Information
Infrastructure: Botany
A large resource of links to all areas of botany
including extensive kids and teachers sections.
http://www.nbii.gov
National Wildlife Federation
Web site of the organization dedicated to the
preservation of Americas wildlife since 1936.
http://www.nwf.org
Red Gold: The Epic Story of Blood
Describes blood production and function; discusses
facts and myths about blood and its impact on
everything from religion to commerce and popular
culture.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/about/index.html
The Tree of Life
Presents an overview of the evolutionary tree that
unites all organisms on Earth.
http://tolweb.org
The Virtual Cell Web Page
Interactive, animated exploration of the cell with
virtual textbook.
http://www.ibiblio.org/virtualcell
The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell
Biology
Advanced papers and articles on all aspects of
biochemistry and cell biology.
http://www.biochemweb.org
World Biodiversity Database
Taxonomic database and information system
documenting and disseminating information on all
known species.
http://www.eti.uva.nl/tools/wbd-php

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INDEX
207
Index
Index of subject headings.
absorption of nutrition 156
adaptive radiation 91
aerobic respiration 33
amino acids 11
amniocentesis 83
amoeba 95
amphibia 123
anaerobic respiration 37
angiospermae 1034
animalia 10526
annelida 113
arachnida 119
asexual reproduction 512
ATP structure 35
autonomic nervous system 178
aves 125
bacteria 94
base pairing 40
biomes 191
birth 74
blood composition 165
blood types 84, 166
blood vessels 162
brain structure and function
17980
breathing 169
bryophyta 100
butterflies 147
capillaries 163
carbohydrates 89
carbon cycle 192
cells 1923
chilopoda 118
chloroplast structure 31
chondrichthyes 121
chromosomes 38, 80, 856
circulatory system 15758
classification of living organisms
93, 99, 105
coelenterata 107
coenzymes 15
continental drift 92
contraception 70
crosses, monohybrid and dihybrid
767
crossing over 55
crustacea 117
dicotyledons 149
digestion 152, 156
dihybrid crosses 77
diplopoda 118
DNA 413
dominance, incomplete 78
ear structure and function
18384
earthworms 144
echinodermata 120
electron microscopes 20
electron transfer chain 36
endocrine system 187
endocytosis 27
energy flow 195
enzymes 14
evolution, evidence for 902
excretion 143, 17074
exocytosis 27
eye structure 185
fatty acids 17
fertilization
human 69
of plants 60
fetal development 72
fish, respiration in 140
fission 51
flower structure 56
food in plants 135
food webs 197
frogs 136, 141, 148
fungi 98
gas exchange across body surfaces
138
gastropoda 115
gene control 47
gene mutation 879
genetic engineering 49
genetic variation 55
glycerol 17
grasshoppers 145
guinea pigs 77
gymnospermae 102
heartbeat 16061
heart structure 159
hemophilia 82
human fertilization 69
human reproduction 623
inheritance of blood groups 84
inhibitors 16
insecta 116
joints 190
karyotype preparation 79
kidneys 17273
leaf structure 129
light sensitivity 186
liver flukes 110
liver function 154
living organisms, classification of
93, 99, 105
locomotion 14445, 18990
lungs 168
lymphatic system 164
lysosomes 29
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INDEX
208
mammalia 126
meiosis 534
meiotic division 66
messenger RNA 46
microscopes 1822
minerals in plants 134
mitochondrian structure 34
mitosis 50
mollusca 11415
monera 94
monocotyledons 150
monohybrid crosses 76
mutation
of chromosomes 856
of genes 879
nematoda 11112
nerve impulses 176
nervous systems 142, 17578
nitrogen cycle 193
nutrition 12730, 15256
oogenesis 667
osmoregulation 143
osmosis 25
osteichthyes 122
ovarian cycle 67
pancreas 154
paramecium 96
peas 76
photosynthesis 302
pituitary gland 188
placenta 73
plantae 99104
plant fertilization 60
plant growth and development
14951
plant respiration 137
plasma membrane 248
platyhelminthes 10810
pollen and pollination 589
polysaccharides 10
porifera 106
protein synthesis 39
proteins 1213
protista 957, 128, 143
pteridophyta 101
pyramid biomass 196
reproduction 14648
asexual 512
human 623
reptilia 124
respiration 13741, 16769
rhizopus 98
RNA 456
root structure 133
rough endoplasmic reticulum 44
seed development 61
sex inheritance, human 81
sex linkage 82
sexual intercourse 68
sickle-cell anemia 89
skeletal structure 189
skin 174
small intestine 155
smell 182
sperm and spermatogenesis
645
spirogyra 97
stamens 57
stem transport 13132
stomach 154
stomata 130
synapses 177
syndromes 86
tapeworms 109
taste 181
teeth 153
terrestrial biomes 191
testis 64
tissues 163
transfer RNA 45
transformation 48
transport 13136, 15766
tropisms 151
twins 71
urinary system 171
variation, biological 75
vegetative propagation 51
viruses 146
water cycle 194
water in plants 134
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