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ENV 375
Solid Waste System Manaement
!" Int#od$%tion
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal,
managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials
produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their
effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice
from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural
resources. The management of wastes treats all materials as a single class, either solid,
liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, and tried to reduce the harmful environmental
impacts of each through different methods.
Solid waste can be defined as refuse arising from human and animal activities
that normally solid and unwanted. There are four main categories of solid waste which
are unicipal solid Waste that comprises household waste, institutional waste and
commercial waste. !t is heterogeneous and their composition depends on a few factors
such as living standards, geographical locations, cultural habits of individuals, type of
housing and seasons.
Solid waste is one of the three ma"or environmental problems in alaysia.
#owadays, there are more than $%,&&& tonnes of waste produce each day in alaysia
but this waste is e'pected to rise to more than %&,&&& tonnes by year $&$&. !t will
continue rising because of increasing in population and development. Among the
thousands of tonnes of waste generates only () from the waste is being process.
!n *entong, there is a local sub+contractor company hired by *entong unicipal
,ouncil who manage the solid waste that is known as Alam Flora. This company will
manage the system of solid waste from collection until disposal of waste. -ere, Alam
Flora are practicing .erbside collection where the house owner will leave their bins
/given by Alam Flora0 by the road side and when the bins had been emptied the house
owner will take back in. Waste sorting is house owner responsibility.
&" Gene#al O'(e%ti)e
• To know the management and disposal of solid waste system within *entong
unicipal ,ouncil.
3" S*e%i+i% O'(e%ti)e
• To carry out a time+motion study on the method of collection adopted by the
• To understand the flow process on how solid waste is managed in *entong.
• To identify any environmental impact due to this method of solid waste
," -a%.#o$nd on -enton M$ni%i*al /o$n%il
unicipal administration at *entong 1istrict began with the establishment of the *entong
1istrict ,ouncil on ay (
23(( with the force of law and ga4etted by the 5ahang State
6overnment 6a4ette #o. 278. 9stablishment of *entong 1istrict ,ouncil in 2
:uly 23;2
is based on <ocal 6overnment Act /Act 2820. !t=s an upgrade from the >rban 1istrict
,ouncil to a fusion of *entong unicipal ,ouncil with ( local council and several other
areas, namely?
+ *entong unicipal ,ouncil
+ .arak <ocal ,ouncil
+ Sungai 1ua <ocal ,ouncil
+ Telemong <ocal ,ouncil
+ anchis <ocal ,ouncil
+ *ukit Tinggi <ocal ,ouncil
+ .ampong Shafie
+ .ampung Simpang 5elangai
+ .ampung *aru Sungai 6apoi
+ .ampung :ambu @ias
+ .ampung *enus
+ 6enting Sempah
+ .ampung :anda *aik
+ .ampung *aru Sungai 5en"uring
The e'tent of the *entong 1istrict ,ouncil during its establishment is 7$ square miles in
which %&.33 square miles is in full operation /ta'able0 and 2&.&&7( square miles is the
area of development control.
The operational area covers an area of *entong Town, 6enting -ighlands, .arak,
Telemong, anchis, Sungai 1ua and *ukit Tinggi. The control area consists of Sungai
6apoi, Simpang 5elangai, .ampung Shafie, :ambu @ias, :anda *aik and Sungai
From :anuary 2
$&&2, after $& years of its inception, the *entong 1istrict ,ouncil was
increased to 2 2&( square kilometres /7$A (7$ square miles0. The new operation is
;A8.A3 square kilometres /%%(.&$ square miles0. The estimated population of more than
2&7 &&& people in its administration and revenue of @ 2%.$( million for $&&%.
Bn the #ovember 23
$&&%, the state authority by the 9'ecutive ,ouncil has agreed to
support the proposed upgrading *entong 1istrict ,ouncil to *entong unicipal ,ouncil.
Bn :uly 2A
$&&(, *entong 1istrict ,ouncil officially declared a *9#TB#6 >#!,!5A<
There are 8 departments in Tapah 1istrict ,ouncil which playing their own roles and
responsibility. 9very department have one head of department according to the level so
that the administrative activity will run smoothly.
5" O#ani0ation /1a#t o+ -enton M$ni%i*al /o$n%il
2" -a%.#o$nd on Alam 3lo#a Sdn -1d
!ncorporated in 233(, Alam Flora Sdn *hd is one of the leading environmental
management companies in alaysia that is dedicated to serving communities to
manage and reduce waste with minimal environmental impact. Alam Flora is a
wholly+owned subsidiary of 1@*+-icom *erhad, one of alaysia=s leading
companies listed on the main market of *ursa alaysia Securities *erhad, playing
an integral role in supporting alaysia=s transformation into a competitive,
knowledge+based and high income nation.
*eing one of the largest concession holders of alaysia=s national solid waste
management and public cleansing privati4ation pro"ect, Alam Flora provides
comprehensive waste management services to several concession areas in certain
regions of 5eninsular alaysia, the Federal Territory of .uala <umpur and 5utra"aya,
and 5ahang.
Alam Flora collaborates closely with 2% <ocal Authorities /<A0 to provide public
cleansing and waste management for %% schemes 4ones.
Annually, Alam Flora amasses an average of 2.&2 million tonnes of waste. A
substantial percentage of this waste originates from public cleansing where covered
and open drains, beaches, highways, main roads, side and back lanes are manually
and mechanically cleansed. While solid waste management is the primary business
driver, Alam Flora takes on a holistic approach to waste management by constantly
striving to enrich the communities and the environment by increasing the quality of
life. Alam Flora has achieved local and international recognition? + !SB 3&&2 and !SB
27&&2 certification.
7" Met1ods o+ 4aste %olle%tion %a##ied o$t in -enton M$ni%i*al /o$n%il 'y Alam
2. Around 8.&& am every workers were gathered at the depot of Alam Flora.
$. Workers were divided into their groups.
%. 9very compactor has % workers including one driver.
7. ,ollecting time was started at 8.%& am.
(. 9very group had their own timetable collection prepared by r .hairudin *in Abu
A. The driver was given a form to complete for time motion study purpose.
8. The collection will begin from far from landfills to the closest to the landfills. -ere
they collect started from Tapah 5rison living quarters, Taman .enari and lastly
Taman Sri 6emilang before going back to depot.
;. The compactor was collecting the wastes from house to house until the
compactor full. !t is called .erbside collection.
3. When the compactor was full it was unloaded at the landfill and continues
5" 3lo4 o+ Solid Waste Manaement
According to the principle of solid waste management wastes are started at
home where generation of waste was control so that the waste that is really unwanted
was thrown. Then, the wastes will be stored in the dustbin for collection by the lorry
compactor. #e't, the wastes will undergo transfer and transport at the transfer station
where the wastes from the compactor will be unloaded into a cylo and compacted by
using compacting machine. Then, it will undergo processing where any wastes that can
be process or recycle will be separate and finally the wastes will dispose to landfill
according to the best principle of public health, economics, engineering, conservation,
aesthetics and environmental consideration.
6" Time Motion St$dy
;.2 !ntroduction of Time otion Study Activity
Time and motion study is a method for establishing employee productivity
standards in which a comple' task is broken into small, simple steps, the sequence of
movements taken by the employee in performing those steps is carefully observed to
detect and eliminate redundant or wasteful motion and precise time taken for each
correct movement is measured. From these measurements production and delivery
times and prices can be computed and incentive schemes can be devised. !n collecting
garbage this will be use to make the collection works efficient.
;.$ Administrative 1ata of Time otion Study Activity
Activity ? Time motion study
5erson !ncharge ?
Staff !nvolved ? Cul
>iT student ? #ur -anis *t :auhari, #ur -idayah *t Sharuddin
,ompactor @eg. #o ? WD@ A$;8
,apacity ? ; tonnes /;&&& kg0
Total Waste ,ollected? ; tonnes /;&&& kg0
Type of waste ? unicipal waste
Total -ouse ,ollected ? 7&&
Weather status ? 6ood
Bperation period ? ( hours
;.% Bb"ective of Time otion Study Activity
• To identify the routes use by compactor driver to collect the garbage
according to schedule.
• To identify the flow of routes use to save cost, time and workload.
• To make the collection of garbage efficient.
;.7 9quipment for Time otion Study
• Stopwatch
• 5en
• #otebook
;.( ethodology for Time otion Study
2. All equipment needed for this study was prepared.
$. *riefing was given by r .hairudin *in Abu Sani, Supervisor of *entong
@egion of Alam Flora Sdn *hd.
%. Bnce the lorry move from the depot the stopwatch was started.
7. When the lorry reaches at the collection place, the stopwatch was stop
and the timing was written in the notebook.
(. Then, the stopwatch was reset and when the collection started the
stopwatch also started.
A. After the collection finish the stopwatch was stop and the timing was
written in the notebook.
8. Step $ until 7 was repeated for other collection area.
;.A @esult for Time otion Study
Type of 5remise ,ollected
• -ospital
• @esidential area
Time Taken for 9very :ourney of Waste ,ollection for Trip 2
7o$#ney Time ta.en
Total 1ustbin ,ollected
No Ty*e o+ d$st'in at t1e %olle%tion a#ea Total
2 Standard $&&
$ 5lastic dustbin 8&
% 1o not has lid 2&&
7 Bnly used plastic rather than bin $&
( >sed bucket 2&
Formula of ,alculation
Average Workload E Total weight of solid waste
#umber of Workers
Average Workload = Total weight of solid waste
Number of Workers
Average Working time = Average workload
Total time working
Time of collection = Total time working
Number of house
Average wastes every house = Total waste collected
Number of house
E ;&&&
E $&&& kgFworkers
Average Working time E Average workload
Total time working
E $&&&
E 3.%( kgFminFworkers
Time of collection E Total time working
#umber of house
E $27
E &.(7 minutesFhouse
Average wastes every house E Total waste collected
#umber of house
E ;&&&
E $& kgFhouse
*ased on the calculation that been done, the average workload that need to be
done for every worker is about $&&& kg of wastes and an average of 3.%( kg of wastes
was carried by each worker during lifting the wastes into the compactor. 1uring
collection of wastes they took about &.(7 minutes or equivalent to %$ seconds for each
house in each residential area. This is due to the condition of the compactor itself was in
bad condition. This compactor had been use since 23;&=s. eanwhile, each house
produces an average $& kg of wastes every two days because collection will be done in
each locality every two days interval.
!8" /on%l$sion
3.2 5roblem of Solid Waste anagement in *entong unicipal ,ouncil
,ompared to solid waste management done by Alam Flora Sdn *hd, there is no
control of wastes where all types of waste was thrown into the dustbin including
recyclable materials. Sometimes the storage containers also are not in good condition.
Some of them have no lid that covers the wastes until wild dogs and cats are messed up
the wastes from the dustbin.
Bne more problem is inefficiency in waste collection where for one residential
area collection activity took so much time because here they are practicing .erbside
collection where wastes are collected from house to house. The house owner will leave
their bins on the road side and after the collection the empty dustbin will be taken back
by the owner. The sorting is done by the house owner.
!n *entong, there is no transfer station because there is not much of residential
area and the population is not high as in big city. Furthermore, construction of transfer
station needs a lot of money. oreover, the landfill was close to the residential area
where it takes within %& minutes from *entong town.
The *entong landfill was situated in Sertik and it takes only %& minutes to reach
there. According to the observation, this landfill was not well managed and the wastes
was not been covered everyday. This landfill also not implements the sanitary landfill
system because this system needs a lot of budget. There is no security guard guarding
the landfill, scavengers entering the landfill, smelly, leachate leaks into groundwater and
infestation of animals and rodents. oreover, the leachate treatment pond also was not
function because there was no aerator. The leachate was stagnant in the pond and
when raining it will overflow into the river without treatment.
3.$ Bther 5roblems !dentified
Figure 2? <andfill situated in Sertik
From the picture above, all collected wastes were dumped without covered with
soil. This allows the scavengers to enter and messed up this place. Furthermore, it will
endanger the scavengers himself due to sharp ob"ects. This situation also can attracts
vermin and can create adverse effect to the environmental impacts such as wind+blown
Figure $? Bld compactor
!n figure $, we can see clearly that the wastes cannot be compacted into the
compactor due to problem with its hydraulic system. This is the vehicle that had been
used since 23;&=s. We also can see a lot of leachate under the compactor due to
leakage of leachate tank and leakage of the compactor body itself. This condition causes
public nuisance to the surrounding such as bad smell and flies. Furthermore, this will
give bad reputation to our country in front of our foreign tourist.
As a conclusion, if compared to with developed country our solid waste system is
still inefficient and outdated. anagement of solid waste need substantial financial
resource. 9veryday people produce more wastes and this will increase cost of handling
these wastes while our local council have limited budget and can not afford to support
this increment. As a result, they take for granted on environmental impacts and public
health issues. That is why there are a lot of complaints and problems with this system.
!8" 9e%ommendation
i. All wastes should be covered everyday to avoid any environmental impacts
such as vermin.
ii. @efurbishment of the landfill also should be done so that the landfill will not
pollute the environment.
iii. The leachate treatment pond also should be upgraded so that the leachate
can be treat e'tensively.
iv. 1o more campaign in every school so that we can educate our future
generation to recycle and to reduce production of waste.
v. 6overnment should play their role to handle this solid waste such as by
giving fund to the solid waste company.
vi. 6overnment should draft a law that allows solid waste company to charge the
wastes produce by the residents to reduce the production of waste.
!!" A**endi:
Garbage house Tapah Local Council
!"!" lorry
5en"ara tapah
<andfill in *idor
Location of collection