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INTELLIGENCE: It is the capability of reasoning and taking decisions.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE:

Artificial Intelligence broadly defined as concerned with the Intelligent behavior
in artifacts.
Artificial Intelligence have always been surrounded by controversy Question of
interest raised here is,

“CAN MACHINES THINK?”
Somewhat supporting and hope raising answer is that, “A virus can be called as a
Machine One made of proteins”.
Finally it’s got modified to, ”The study of how to make computers do things which at
the Moment , people do better”.

EXPERT:
An expert is a person who, because of training and experience ,is able to do things
The rest of us cannot. Experts are not only proficient but also smooth and efficient in the
actions they take.

EXPERT SYSTEMS:
An expert system is a computer program using expert knowledge to attain high levels
of performance in a narrow problem area. They are the capable programs that contained the
knowledge requirements to mimic expert human performance at several tasks, including
diagnosis, design and analysis.

EXPERT Vs EXPERT SYSTEMS:
This topic is explained by dividing the differences into various headings.

1. LIFETIME: The human expertise is Perishable.
The Artificial expertise is Permanent.

2. PORTABILITY: Human expertise is difficult to transfer.
Artificial expertise is easy to transfer.

3. DOCUMENTATION: Human expertise is difficult to document.
Artificial expertise is easy to document.

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EXPERT PROGRAMS Vs CONVENTIONAL PROGRAMS:
• The basic difference is that expert systems manipulate KNOWLEDGE while
conventional programs manipulate DATA.
• The expert systems use heuristic techniques where conventional programs use
algorithms.

FEATURES OF EXPERT SYSTEMS:

1.CORPUS OF KNOWLEDGE: The heart of expert system is the powerful corpus of
knowledge. The accumulation and codification of
knowledge is one of the most important aspects of an
ES.

2.HIGH LEVEL EXPERTISE: This feature is provided to aid in problem solving. The
expertise can represent the best thinking of the top
expert in the field, leading to problem solutions that are
imaginative, accurate and efficient

3.PREDICTIVE MODELLING: The system can act as an information processing theory
or model of problem solving in the given domain,
providing the desired answers for a given problem
situation and showing how they would change for new
situations.

4.TRAINING FACILITY: This feature is provided for key personnel and
important staff members. Expert systems can be
designed to provide such training, since they already
contain the necessary knowledge and the ability to
explain their reasoning processes.

PLAYERS IN EXPERT SYSTEM GAME:-
The main players in the expert system game are the:

Expert System: An expert system is a computer program using expert
knowledge to attain high levels performance in a narrow
problem area.

Domain Expert- He is an articulate, knowledgeable person with a reputation
for producing good solutions to problems in a particular
field.

Knowledge Engineer- He is a human, usually with a background in computer
Science and AI ,who knows how to build expert systems.

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Expert System Building Tool- It is the programming language used by the
Knowledge engineer or programmer to build the
Expert system.

The user-He is the human who uses the expert system once it is developed.

Domain Extends
Toolbuilder
expert and test

Builds
Interviews

EXPERT
SYSTEM Knowledge EXPERT End-user
BUILDING
Uses Engineer SYSTEM Uses
TOOL Builds,
refines,
and tests Adds
data

Clerical
Staff

FRAMEWORK-The Organisation:
Knowledge, mean the information a computer program needs before it can behave
Intelligently .This knowledge should undergo two phases .They are:

Organising Knowledge:-
Many of the rules in expert systems are heuristics-rules of thumb or simplifications
that effectively limit the search for solutions. Expert systems use heuristics because the tasks
these systems undertake, such as finding new mineral deposits or settling a lawsuit, are
typically difficult and poorly understood. An algorithmic method guarantees to produce the
correct or optimal solution to a problem, while a heuristic method produces an acceptable
solution to most of them.

The Knowledge Base in an expert system contain,
->Facts
->Rules
The “Inference Engine” contains an interpreter that decides how to apply the rules to
infer new knowledge.

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REPRESENTING KNOWLEDGE:
The three most widely used representations used in current expert systems
are, ->Rules
->Semantic Nets
->Frames

1. RULE: A formal way of specifying a recommendation, directive, expressed as,
“IF premise THEN conclusion”.
Rule based knowledge representation centers on the use of IF condition THEN action
statements.
Eg:-if the patient was an insulator before 1965,
Then the patient directly handeled asbestos.

This sort of matching is what are called “Inference Chains”.

2. FRAME :It is a knowledge representation method that associated features with nodes
Representing concepts or objects.
Frame based knowledge representation uses a network of nodes connected by
relations and organized into a hierarchy. Each node represents a concept that may be
described attributes and values associated with the node. Nodes low in the hierarchy
automatically inherits the properties of higher-level nodes.

3.SEMANTICNET: The part of the representation method consisting of a network of
nodes standing for concepts or objects, connected by arcs describing the relations between the
nodes.

LANGUAGES FOR EXPERT SYSTEM APPLICATIONS:
The programming languages used for expert system applications and generally either
Problem-oriented languages ,such as FORTRAN and PASCAL, or symbolic-manipulation
languages, such as LISP and PROLOG ..

KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING LANGUAGES: A knowledge engineering
language is a sophisticated tool for developing expert systems. Knowledge engineering
languages can be categorized as either Skeltel Systems or General purpose systems.
Ex: The prospector has been stripped into KAS , a skeletal system.

SUPPORT FACILITIES: The support facilities consist of tools for helping with
programming, such as debugging aids and knowledge base editors, and tools that enhance the
capabilities of the finished system, such as built-in input/output and explanation mechanisms.

DEBUGGING AIDS: Most programming languages contain tracing facilities and
break packages.

IO FACILITIES: Different tools deal with input/output in different ways. Some
provide Run time Knowledge acquisition.
Ex. EMYCIN programs ask the user for needed information whenever they cant find it
in the knowledge base

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EXPLANATION FACILITIES: Almost all expert systems can explain to users how
they reach particular conclusions, but not all provide the same degree of software support
explanation.
EX:MYCIN, have a complete explanation mechanism built into the tool itself, so that
any expert system written in that language can automatically access the mechanism.

The most common type of explanation mechanism deals with Retrospective
reasoning; it explains how the system reached a particular state. They also handle
Hypothetical Reasoning, where the system explains what would have happened differently if
a particular fact or rule had been different, and counter factual reasoning why an expected
conclusion was not reached.

STAGES IN THE DEVOLOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM
TOOLS
EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS: Created for a specific task; the devoloper seldom
supports this.

RESEARCH SYSTEMS: They may be extensively tested and may be supported by
developer. But slow and inefficient.

COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS: They polished,streamlined,well_supportive and fast.

REAL TIME EXAMPLE: EMYCIN

TOOL: EMYCIN
TYPE: Skeletal system
FEATURES: Rule-based, Back-ward chaining, Certainty handling, Explanation
IMPLEMENTATION LANGUAGE: INTERLISLP
DEVELOPER: Stanford University

RULE: IF the material composing the substructure is one of metals and
The analysis error that is tolerable is between 5 and 30, and
The non dimensional stress of the substructure is greater than 90
THEN
It is definite that fatigue is one of the stress behavior in substructure

ACTUAL EMYCIN RULE:

PREMISE: ($AND (SAME CNTXT MATERIAL (LIST OF METALS))
(BETWEEN * CNTXT ERROR 5 30)
(GREATERP * CNTXT NO-STRESS 0.9)
(BETWEEN* CNTXT CYCLE 1000 1000 ))
ACTION:(CONCLUDE CNTXT SS-STRESS FATIGUE TALLY 1.0)

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ELIGIBILITIES FOR AN EXPERT SYSTEM:
o Task does not require common sense
o Task require only congnitive skills
o Experts can articulate their methods
o Genuine experts exist
o Experts agree on solutions
o Task is not too difficult
o Task is not properly understood

STEPS IN BUILDING AN EXPERT SYSTEM
IDENTIFICATION: How con important aspects in task be recognized?
CONCEPTUALIZATION: What concepts need to produce a solution?
FORMALISATION: How can the knowledge be formally represented?
IMPLEMENTATION: What rules will embody the knowledge?
TESTING: How can the rules be validated?

EXPERT SYSTEM SHELLS:
In general the systems were constructed as a set of declarative representations (rules)
Combined with an interpreter for those rules, it was possible to separate the interpreter
From the domain-specific knowledge and thus to create a system that could be used to
Construct new expert systems by adding new knowledge to the new problem domain.
The resulting interpreters are called as “Shells”.

Ex:- EMYCIN is the SHELL for the famous expert system described
Above - THE MYCIN.

DETAILED EXPLANATION OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM-
“PROSPECTOR”:-

Application Area:- GEOLOGY

Categories Covered Under ES Applications:- INTERPRETATION
DIAGNOSIS
DEBUGGING

History:-Expert system work in Geology started with Prospector, a system
developed by Stanford Research Centre in 1970.Prospector was designed to help
Geologists locate ore deposits and accurately predict the existence of a Multi million
dollar molybdenum deposit in 1980.

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Effort Taken:-

-> Prospector was implemented directly in INTERLISP, a powerful but relatively
low-level language as far as expert-system building tools go.
-> A sophisticated support package was developed for PROSPECTOR that
included both explanation and knowledge acquisition facilities.
-> The system needed extensive domain knowledge.

PROSPECTOR AT WORK:

Let’s discuss this with an example.
Ex:- -> An exploration geologist starts by telling the program the Characteristics of a
particular prospect of interest-the geological setting, structural controls, and
kinds of rocks, minerals and alteration products present or suspected.
-> The program compares these observations with models of various kinds of ore
deposits, noting the similarities, differences, and missing information.
-> The program then engages the geologist in a dialog to obtain additional relevant
information and uses that information to make an assessment of the mineral
potential of the prospect.
-> Our goal is to provide the geologist with a service comparable to giving him
telephone access to authorities on many kinds of ore deposits.

Rules Involved In The Above Example:-

IF: magnetite or pyrite in disseminated or veinlet form is present
THEN: (2,-4) there is favourable mineralisation and texture for the
Propylitic stage.

Indications: ‘2’- ‘2’ indicate that the presence of evidence is mildly encouraging.
‘-4’-> ‘-4’ indicate that the absence of evidence is strongly discouraging.

EXPLANATION OF EXPERT SYSTEM :- XCON
Application Area:COMMERCIAL BASIS

History: In 1980 it was developed to configure the computer systems. It takes
up the Job of previously performed by technical editors, people who
examine a Customer’s purchase order and determine what computer
components need to be substituted to make order consistent.

XCON AT WORK:
-> It configures the systems at a very detailed level. For each order it determines
necessary modifications, produces diagrams showing spatial and logical
relationships between the hundreds of components that compromise a
complete system.
-> XCON performs at a level similar to that of an experienced technical editor,
but it operates much faster.
-> For example, although it takes the editor as long as 20 minutes to configure a
system order, XCON can typically do it in less than a minute.

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SOME
ADVANCED EXPERT SYSTEMS:
CONDITION MONITORING: The basic idea being to provide the process
operators and shift engineers with a tool that on a 24-hour by 365 day basis performs health-
checks on the plant in order to:
• Identify any inability of the plant to perform at the optimum efficiency level
• Present and inform about the extent of the inability
• Describe the reason for such an inability

Thus, the Condition Monitoring System performs a task impossible for any human
being. CMS is currently being developed for Nuclear Power Plants and is under configuration
for many other plants.

GEOMET - A LEADER IN FORMULATING SOLUTIONS TO
GLOBAL INTIATIVES.

GEOMET’ s meteorology staff, in conjunction with our artificial intelligence group,
has designed and developed several pc _based expert systems to aid weather forecasters and
planning personnel. GEOMET was an early leader in AI, developing one of the first expert
system decision aids for forecasting. GEOMET has reasearched AI applications in all areas of
environmental sciences, water management and flood control, hazardous waste
investigations, and neural networking applications.

CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION:

Special Project’ s division supports the monitoring operations, and safety issues
associated with chemical demilitarization, and the operation of demilitarization equipment
and systems required to handle, store, destroy, transport, or dispose of recovered non-
stockpile CWM and other toxic, hazardous or lethal substances. Their services include:
• Materiological and air pollution modeling and monitoring
• Personnel protective equipment selection, design, and development
• Environmental health and safety support
• RCRA/ hazwaste analysis

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:

Personal protective equipment experts provide a full range of services to help define
the specific level of protection required in any hazardous situation, then support client
requirements form initial concept through final product development and delivery.

PPE ensures performance through stringent testing, heat stress evaluation human
comfort engineering, reliability qualification, environmental limits, and respiratory
protection.

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EXPERT SYSTEMS WORK AT UNIVERSITIES:
• The main fields of interest for expert systems in universities are human
problem solving, developing and applying information processing techniques to model
human cognition and memory.

• Each rule would say, “If I recognize some situation S in short-memory,
Then I take some action A”.

• The process of rule-evocation and memory modification to model human
problem solving and called the resulting system a “Production System”.

EXPERT SYSTEMS WORK AT RESEARCH
ORGANISATIONS:
• The research organizations engaged in expert system work come in a variety
of types ranging from experienced leaders in AI to bold newcomers.

• Some are large corporations with an AI division or group. Others are small
companies devoted almost exclusively to AI and expert system applications.

EXAMPLES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE EXPERT
SYSTEMS:
IN RESEARCH FIELD:-

• The SYNCHEM2 expert system synthesizes complex organic molecules
without assistance or guidance from a chemist. The system uses knowledge about
chemical reactions to generate a plan for creating the target molecule from basic building
block molecules.

• The DENDRAL expert system infers the molecular structure of unknown
compounds from mass spectral and nuclear magnetic response data.

• The MACSYMA expert system performs symbolic manipulation of algebraic
expressions, assisting the user with problems involving limit calculations, symbolic
integration, solution of equations, canonical simplification, and pattern matching.

IN BUSINESS:-

• YES/MVS, developed by IBM ,helps the computer operator monitor and
control the MVS.
• DELTA was developed to help maintaining personnel diagonise and repair
malfunctions in diesel electric locomotives.

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• ACE provides troubleshooting and dioagonistic reports for telephone cable
analysis.

WHAT’S NEXT FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS?
Advances in computer hardware have contributed significantly to the expansion of
expert systems.

EXPERT SYSTEMS……………………….. INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS:

Computer hardware advances have made possible “integrated expert
Systems”, that is, expert systems embedded in microprocessor chips to form an
Integrated hardware/software package.

These integrated experts systems can be embedded in a piece of Equipment,
such as complex electronic gear, to form what we will call an “intelligent System”.

HIERARCHIAL INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS:
The intelligent system configuration will be particularly useful when the
equipment to be monitored forms a hierarchy of physical units arranged in some
Network structure.

• An intelligent system has already been developed and put into commercial
use.
• The SPE expert system runs on a microprocessor .
• This expert system interpretes waveforms from destinometer to determine
which of several diseases a patient might have.

UPCOMING APPLICATION AREA:
EXPERT SYSTEM FOR ‘ THE LAW’:
Expert systems are beginning to be noticed by the legal profession. 4 important types
of applications for expert systems in law exists. They are:

1. Document Generation : Produces legal documents such as wills, contracts,
draft legislation by selecting or composing
appropriate pieces of text and organizing them
into document form.

2. Interpretation and Prediction : Interprets the law in the context of a particular
Question or problem, anticipates the legal
consequences of proposed actions and predicts the
effects of changes in legislation.

3. Scheduling and Monitoring : Schedules attorneys activities and periodically
inspects legal data bases and knowledge bases for
changes in the law that could affect clients and
active cases.

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4. Case Management : Organizes case information, estimates case value,
and suggests for negotiation and case disposition.

COMMON PITFALLS IN EXPERT SYSTEM
IMPLEMENTATION:
PITFALL1 : The expert system development effort is addressing a problem so
difficult that it can’t be solved within the constraints set by the
available resources.

PITFALL2 : The problem that the expert system is designed to solve will not
significantly alleviate the difficulty that motivated the development
effort.

PITFALL3 : The problem that the expert system addresses is so general or
complex that an excessive number of rules and data base objects
are needed to describe the expertise adequately.

LIMITATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS:-
• Expert systems are not good at representing Temporal Knowledge.
• Expert systems are not good at representing Spatial Knowledge
• Expert systems are not good at performing commonsense.
• Expert systems are not good at recognizing their ability.
• Expert systems are not good at handling the inconsistent knowledge.

CONCLUSION :
Human brain undergoes an everlasting search for something innovative and so is the
case……… ES are the invention that was fuelled by the idea of making machines intelligent.
There are 2 basic motivations that lie behind all scientific and Technological inventions……
The man’s inherent desire to function with least effort and of strong desire to be the Master.
Undoubtedly we can expect a lot from these in future to say truly there’s no limit for what it
can do. Even the fictious thought of replacing the entire political infrastructure of a nation by
ES can be made possible by adding to it all the human elements such as humanity, future
awareness etc.. , thereby getting rid of the political Evils such as corruption, conspiracies by
not entering them into its knowledge base.

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